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Art  &  Artist

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Maar-Martini Martins-Master Matisse-Molinier Martins-Master



Momoyama. A period in Japanese history (1573—1614) named after the castle-palace near Kyoto, of Toyotomi Hideyoshi (d. 1598), who with Tokugawa Ieyasu (d. 1616) dominated the period. Japanese art swung decisively from the restrained elegance of *Muromachi art. The castle-palaces of the feudal lords (daimyo) had flaring roof lines of wooden stones on massive stone plinths. The interiors were luxuriously decorated with huge screens and sliding panels painted in strong, thick colours, against a ground of gold leaf, notably by *Kano Eitoku and Kano Sanraku (1559-1035), his adopted son.

Momper Joos de (1 564—1635). Flemish painter. He painted Alpine landscapes (he travelled in Italy and Switzerland) and also scenes around Antwerp. The Miraculous Deliverance of the Emperor Maximilian is at Antwerp.

Monaco Lorenzo, i.e. 'Lorenzo the Monk', Piero di Giovanni called (c 1370/72-c. 1425). Italian painter and illuminator of the Florentine school. He moved from Siena to Florence, where he entered the monastery of S. Maria degli Angeli, a famous centre of ms. illumination. His style of painting as seen in (Animation of the Virgin, derived from the tradition of Giotto and the Sienese school; however, a late painting. Adoration of the Magi, is one of the earliest examples of the international Gothic style in Florence.

Mondrian Piet (1872—1944). Dutch painter; he studied at the Amsterdam Academy. His earliest works, sombre-coloured landscapes, are patently in the Dutch tradition. During the years 1907—10 the landscape became more heavily stylized and expressively brilliant in colour, with echoes of Munch as well as Matisse, e.g. the series of Church Tower paintings (c. 1909). In 1909 he moved to Paris and the experience of *Cubism was the turning-point in his evolution. His colouristic Expressionist tendencies were suppressed and he submitted his formalizations to a rigorous linear discipline. In a series such as the Still-life with dinger-pot paintings (1912) the motif is analysed in terms of linear and planear relationships which became, progressively, more important than the motif itself. The debt to Cubism is emphasized by the shallow space illusion and by the familiar blue/grey or ochre monochromatic palette. He returned to Holland in 1914 and by 1917 realized that the perfect expressive harmony that he sought was hindered by starting from a given motif— 'The emotion of beauty is always obstructed by the appearance of the "object"; therefore the object must be eliminated from the picture.' Fiis Compositions (1914—17) comprise simple flat rectangles of colour, their austerity heightened (c. 1916) by the use of primary colours only. The final evolution of his mature style was in eliminating the depth-suggesting spaces between the rectangles: from с 1917 on the coloured shapes are divided by a flat grid of black lines. His mature eeuvre using only the primary colours and non-colours (black, white and sometimes grey), consists of a series of refined variations, e.g. Broadway Boogie-Woogie (1942—3).
M.'s importance lies in his development of 'pure' abstraction — he called his art Neo-plasticism — in which the shapes, lines and colours have their own absolute, autonomous values and relationships, divorced from any associative role whatsoever. He was a member of the Dutch Theosophical Society from 1909 and it is clear from his writings in the *De Stijl journal (founded in 1917 with Van der Leek and Van Doesburg) and m Ins pamphlet Neо-Plasticisme (1920), that M., inspired by the Dutch philosopher Schoenmaekers, saw his art as an expression of a perfect universal harmony, to whose creation he was contributing.

Monet Claude (1840—1926). French painter. He-was born m Pans but educated at Le Havre where, in 1858, be met Boudin who encouraged him to paint nature on the spot. At the Atelier Suisse in Paris in 1859 he met Pissarro and Cezanne and after military service in Algiers (1862) returned to Paris to study under Gleyre. A fellow-student of Renoir, Sisley and Bazille (1862—4), he painted with them at Chailly, near Fontamebleau. He was the least satisfied with Gleyre's teaching and learnt more from Jongkind and Boudin; and working with them at Honfleur (1864), he began to paint the landscape in terms of its atmospheric appearance. His paintings of the Seine estuary — very well received at the 1865 Salon — already revealed the extraordinarily acute judgment of tonal values that prompted Cezanne to call him 'only an eye, but my God what an eye'. Around 1865/6 he tried to rework the theme of Manet's Le Dejeuner sur l'Herbe without its studio artificiality. The projected large painting was
probably never completed; but the study, dated 1866, in Moscow, is a remarkably complete attempt to represent figures in a glade with the sunlight filtering on to them through the leaves. This was to become a recurrent Impressionist theme. In the late 1860s M. and Renoir worked in a partnership of mutual advantage and produced the 1st pure Impressionist paintings. In La Grenouillere (1869) he began to break up local colour into strokes of pure colour and in The Magpie (c. 1870) — an evenly toned snows-cape - the pale blue of the shadow vibrantly complements the touches of yellow flecked across the snow's surface. Impression Sunrise (1872) which earned the group their derisive name suggests a debt to Constable's empirical directness and to Turner's atmospheric generalizations (M. was in London in 1871). He contributed to 5 of the 8 Impressionist exhibitions and suffered as much as Pissarro and Sisley from hostility and lack of patronage. Working mainly at Argenteuil with Manet, Morisot, Renoir and Sisley during the 1870s, M. remained dedicated to the study of light and its changing effect on nature. In 1 876 he began the first of his series of paintings on a single subject - the Care St Lazare (1876-8) was followed by the Haystacks (1890—2), Poplars (1890—2), and Rouen Cathedral (1892—4). Their object was to observe the transformation of the motif under changing light and atmosphere, but they almost incidentally led to the surface richness of colour and paint of his late style which has earned comparison with Abstract Expressionism. The 1880s were prolific years, but years of continued poverty and depression until in T889 he had his 1st big public success at an exhibition shared with Rodin. In 1883 he settled at Ciiverny where — apart from visits to London (1891, 1899, 1903) and Venice (1908-9) - he spent the rest of his life. There he created an astonishing garden elaborately arranged with plants and flowers of different colours. The late water-lily paintings (Nympheas) painted in the water gardens ('outdoor studios') which he built there, were still responses to his eye, but — increasingly subjective — they embody a larger, cosmic sense of nature. He presented the vast canvases in the Musee de l'Orangerie, Paris, to the state in 1921 as his contribution to the restoring of the spirit of peace. The canvases surround and submerge the spectator. M., who said he 'feared the dark more than death', died blind. Perhaps the most astonishing of the late paintings were given by M.'s son Michel as a bequest to the Musee Marmottan in 1966, including 12 of the Nynipheas and 7 Ponts japonais. These works anticipate in many ways *Abstract Expressionism.


[Jap.: ‘object school’]. Term applied to tendencies in the works of the Japanese artists Nobuo Sekine (b 1942), Katsuro Yoshida (b 1943), Susumu Koshimizu (b 1944), Katsuhiko Narita (1944–92), Shingo Honda (b 1944), Kishio Suga (b 1944) and the Korean Lee U-fan (b 1936) after 1968 and particularly from 1972 to 1974. The term began to be used informally to denote the fact that they took as their material natural objects, including trees, stones and earth, and manmade objects such as beams, girders, concrete, paper and glass. However, the emphasis in the works of the Monoha artists was not on the objects themselves, as with some Minimalist works and the Arte Povera, but on the relationship between object and object or between objects and the spaces they occupy (e.g. Suga’s Situation of Eternity, 1970; Kyoto, N. Mus. Mod. A.). This demonstrated a new artistic approach, unlike that of conventional sculpture or environmental art, that took as its aim the shaping of space itself. In this it had affinities with Concrete art. The central concern in Monoha works, however, was not a purely formal interest in creating some new kind of shape but an attempt to reconsider fundamental questions concerning humanity’s involvement with the world of matter. It was thus a characteristically Japanese tendency, whatever its similarities with some European and American movements.

Montage [Fr.: ‘mounting’]. Assemblage that results from the overlapping or joining of various materials, images or objects to form a new single picture.

Montald Constant (b Ghent, 4 Dec 1862; d Brussels, 1944). Belgian painter, illustrator and teacher. He studied at the Koninklijke Academie of Ghent, and first made his mark by winning the Prix de Rome in 1886 with Diagorus Borne in Triumph. This success allowed him to travel throughout Europe and the Near East. In 1896 he took part in the first Salon d’Art Idйaliste, organized by Jean Delville, and exhibited there regularly. In the same year he became professor of decorative art at the Acadйmie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels, a post he held for the next 37 years. He was a founder-member of L’Art Monumental in 1920. In 1928 he illustrated the Legend of Uilenspiegel and Lamme Goedzak (Brussels) by Charles de Coster.

Montanes Juan Martinez (b Alcala la Real (Jaen), bapt 16 March 1568; d Seville, 18 June 1649). Spanish sculptor. He strove constantly for perfection, and, although he did not paint his own statues, he arranged for polychrome to be added by the most competent masters. Montanes was frequently sought for prestigious sculptural commissions in Seville, and he ran the most complete and organized workshop in the city, with an enormous production, similar to that run by Gregorio Fernandez in Valladolid. The names of many of his collaborators are known, which implies that he was the director of a large enterprise. He planned and directed work and carried out the execution of appropriate parts or whole works as requested by his customers.

Moore Albert Joseph (1841-92). British painter, son of William Moore, mural and decorative painter. M. exhibited at the R.A. but was never an Academician.

Moore Henry (1898—1986). British sculptor. M. studied at Leeds College of Art (1919—21) and at the Royal College of Art, London (1921—5), where he was a fellow-student of Barbara Hepworth. The 1st major contemporary British sculptor of international standing, M. exerted a considerable influence on succeeding generations, although this was to some extent superseded by the rise of British Constructivism in the 1950s. 3 main influences dominated his work from the beginning: first primitive and archaic arts (encouraged by reading Roger Fry's Vision and Design, and by the precedent of Epstein, who admired and encouraged his early work); secondly the contemporary work of Brancusi and Picasso (M. made several visits to Paris from 1923); and thirdly his visit to Italy (1925) on a scholarship, where he discovered Giotto and Masaccio but was little interested in the 'perfection' of Renaissance art. In 1928 M. had his 1st one-man exhibition and his 1st public commission — the North Wind relief on the London Transport Executive Building, St James's. Around 1927—9 he made his first reclining figure, the theme which was to be central to his whole auvre. In treating the figure he was never concerned with its superficial appearance, but with creating an elemental living image. The hollows in Reclining Figure (1930), for example, reveal space contained within a volume and are at the same time womb-like fertility symbols. There are also subconscious analogies to landscape — hillsides, caverns, etc.
— in many of his figures. Brancusi, he said, made him 'shape-conscious', but M.'s shapes at their most abstract retain a vital sense of organic growth, often in an ambiguous part-animal, part-vegetable metamorphosis. All of his prewar work was characterized by his truth to the nature of his materials (carving allowed him this closeness of contact), full 3-diniensioiiality and an unideahzed urgent sense of energy and vitality- In 1933 M. was a founder-member of Unit One with Nash, Hepworth and Micholson. His work in the 1930s ranged from strange Surrealist metamorphoses influenced by Tanguy and Picasso, to his most abstract works
— the String Figures of 1937—40, inspired by Gabo and Nicholson; the Helmet Head (1939—40) was the 1st of his ideas on a theme of forms-within-forms. The Shelter drawings of the London Underground which he made as a war artist (1940—3) pursue this interest with the small figures enclosed within the throat of the tunnel.
There is also an expressive element of pathos in these wartime drawings, which in general abandon Surrealism for a naturalism full of feeling for humanity. Since the war he continued to work on the reclining figure theme — the figure often divided into 2 or 3 monumental pieces. The general development of his post-war sculpture, much of it in bronze, was towards an overpowering dominance of mood and a massive sense of scale. The domesticity of his Madonna and Child (1943—4) gave way to the primeval cult character of the King and Queen (1952—3) and the early Surrealist organisms to the pantheistic, totem-like Glenkiln Cross (1955-6).

Mora Juan Gomez de (Madrid, 1586 – ibídem, 1648) fue un arquitecto español. Sobrino del también arquitecto Francisco de Mora, tuvo relación con la realeza desde su nacimiento. Su padre, Juan Gómez, fue pintor de cámara del rey Felipe II de Espana. Tras la muerte de su tío en 1610 y a la edad de 24 años es nombrado maestro mayor de las obras del Alcázar de Madrid así como arquitecto de Felipe III. Entre sus obras más destacadas se encuentra la Plaza Mayor que realiza de una forma rectangular y porticada, la Cárcel de Corte de Madrid además de la Casa de la Villa, una de las sedes del Ayuntamiento de Madrid. Realiza además el retablo mayor de la basílica del Monasterio de Guadalupe en Cáceres. En Salamanca construye La Clerecía destinada a la Orden de los Jesuitas. El Convento de la Encarnación, que se atribuía habitualmente a este arquitecto, se ha documentado que es obra de fray Alberto de la Madre de Dios, arquitecto del Carmen descalzo y de los duques de Lerma, que dirigió las obras reales hasta que Juan Gómez de Mora alcanzó la suficiente experiencia.

Morales Luis de. * Luis de Morales

Morandi Giorgio (1890—1964). Italian painter. In 1918 he joined the *Metaphysical school of painters (Pittura Metafisica) and subsequently the Novecento group. He then followed a solitary path with the single-mindedness of a Chardin or Cezanne. He specialized in subtle, simplified groups of still-life objects — bottles, jugs, candlesticks, paper roses — which have great serenity. M. is one of the few major figures of 20th-c. representational art. He was also an accomplished engraver.

Moran Earl. Pin -Up Art

Morazzone (b Morazzone, 3 July 1573; d 1625/6). Italian painter and draughtsman. With Cerano, Giulio Cesare Procaccini and Tanzio da Varallo he was one of the principal Lombard painters of the early 17th century. Like many of his contemporaries, he was strongly affected by the piety and mysticism of the teaching of St Carlo Borromeo, yet his work is distinguished from theirs by a greater classicism, owing to his training in Rome. He is well known for his altarpieces, but his outstanding achievements are large decorative frescoes for the sacrimonti at Varallo and Varese . He was an original draughtsman, and the major collections of his drawings are in Milan (Bib. Ambrosiana) and Florence (Uffizi).

Moreau Gustaves (1826—98). French painter who studied under F.-E. Picot. A painter in the academic tradition, he favoured large, involved biblical or classical subjects, painted in great detail. Most celebrated of M.'s works is the Salome described by Huysmans in his novel A Rebours; it was admired by the novelist for its *'decadence' of mood. M.'s views on the use of colour and his valuable teaching at the Fcole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, had some influence on Surrealism, and stimulated his outstanding pupils, Matisse and Rouault, and several of the lesser Fauve painters.

Morelli Giovanni (1816—91). Italian art critic who formulated systematic criteria for making attributions of works of art to artists by codifying 'minor' details (hands, ears, noses, etc.), his theory being that, by the close study of such, attribution can be made beyond doubt. M.'s theory is now regarded with scepticism.

Moretto. * Bonvicino Alessandro.

Morgan Evelyn de (1855-1919). The Pre-Raphaelite.

Morimura Yasumasa (June 11, 1951 - ) is a Japanese appropriation artist. He was born in Osaka and graduated from Kyoto City University of Arts in 1978. Since 1985, Yasumasa Morimura has primarily shown his work in international solo exhibitions, although he has been involved in various group exhibitions. Yasumasa Morimura borrows images from historical artists (ranging from Edouard Manet to Rembrandt to Cindy Sherman), and inserts his own face and body into them. His work engages with issues of gender, and challenges both Western and Japanese notions of good taste. Among others, Morimura's exhibitions have been shown at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago (1992), the Cartier Foundation for Contemporary Art in Jouy-en-Josas, France (1993), the Hara Art Museum in Hara, Japan (1994), the Guggenheim Museum (1994), the Yokohama Museum of Art in Yokohama, Japan (1996),Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego (2006), and the Art Gallery of NSW in Sydney, Australia (2007). In his most recent and most extravagant reproduction, Morimura created a series of hybrid self-portraits modeled after the art of Frida Kahlo.

Morisot Berthe (1841-95). French painter who studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris (1856—9) and then from i860 under Corot. She exhibited in 7 of the 8 Impressionist exhibitions and her sensitive impressionism influenced Manet, her brother-in-law, during the 1870s. The Cradle (1873) was shown in the 1st Impressionist exhibition (1874).

Morley Malcolm (1931— ). British artist who lives in N.Y. Known after the mid-1960s as the leading Photo-Realist (*Super Realism). Post-1970—1 he became a *Neo-Expressiomst with vivid, colourful and vivacious works which make frequent references to *Delacroix, Van *Gogh, *Monet, *De Kooning and other late 19th-c. and early 2oth-c. masters, combining a variety of visual references, techniques and styles, e.g. Day Fishing at Heraklion (1983).

Morner Stellan (1896-1979). Surrealism.

Moronobu Hishikawa. Japan Artist.

Morosov Ivan (1871-1921). One of the great Muscovite merchant patrons (who had an influence on the development of modern art in Russia) and among the 1st to buy Post-Impressionist French painting in Russia. His coll. of 135 works (acquired 1905—14) is now divided between the Pushkin Mus. (Moscow) and the Hermitage (Leningrad). Cezanne, Gauguin, Monet anil Renoir predominate with specially commissioned panels by Bonnard, Denis and Vuillard.

Morris Robert (1931- ). U.S. artist, working first in San Francisco and from 1961 in N.Y.; his work has ranged from mixed media works to *Performance art. In the mid-1960s he was noted for large-scale *Minimalist sculptures built from industrial materials. Among M.'s other projects were performances with Yvonne Ramer, permutation pieces, changed every few days during their exhibition, anti-form sculpture and *Process art.

Morris William (1834—96). British writer, designer, craftsman and Socialist. At Oxford (1853—5) he met Burne-Jones; in 1859 M. married and commissioned the building of the famous Red House, Bexley Heath, from P. Webb. From 1876 M. became increasingly involved in political activities, although he continued to publ. poetry, lecture on politics, and take up and master new crafts until his death. M., like Ruskin, who strongly influenced his ideas, was appalled by the deadening effect of industrialism; he believed that art derived from the workman's pleasure in his 'daily necessary work' and that decoration, the beginning of art, was the expression of this pleasure; the 1st move towards a rebirth of art must be to raise the condition of the workers. Thus M.'s political and artistic convictions were closely interwoven. This craft theory of art, which was coupled with an admiration for the Middle Ages, together with his contempt for 19th-c. English art, led M. to the founding of 'The Firm' to design and manufacture wallpapers and furniture for the Red House; besides M. the designers were Burne-Jones, Rossetti, Ford Madox Brown and Webb. Originally a private venture, 'The Firm' continued m production for the commercial market. The arts and crafts movement was the development of M.'s work. His concern that the artist-designer should understand craft processes and 'honour' his material is reflected in the principles of the *Bauhaus.

Mosaic. A design composed of coloured squares of clay, glass, marble or wood embedded in walls, floors or ceilings, either inset in small squares or covering a large area. Both pictorial and abstract designs are found. The Romans were the most extensive users of m. and the early Christians continued the tradition, which survived into the early Middle Ages, and which under the Byzantine empire was raised to an unsurpassed level.

Moser Lukas. German 15th-c. painter whose only known work is the Magdalen Altar (1431) at Tiefenbronn, near Pforzheim, in Swabia. Stylistically, this altarpiece is a German counterpart to the work of Van Fyck or Campin.

Moses Grandma (Anna Mary Robertson) (i860—1961). U.S. primitive painter (*primitives). She took to painting in her old age and rapidly gained widespread attention.

Mossa Gustave Adolphe (1883- 1971). Born in Nice. A late Symbolist, himself the son of a painter, Mossa admired Moreau. His work takes up the Symbolist themes with detachment and humour. He treated most of the Symbolist subjects, in particular that of Woman, who appears in his work as perverse by nature. 

Moss Marlow (1890-1958). British abstract painter and sculptor. She was a member of the *Abstraction-Crcation group in Paris and was a close follower of Mondrian in the 1920s.

Mostaert Jan (r. 1475-c 1555). Dutch painter from Haarlem probably identifiable with the Master of Oultrernont; he probably worked for the Regent of the Netherlands. He travelled 111 Italy and painted court portraits and religious subjects. A large number of works by other hands have been attributed to him.

Mothe Vallin de la (1729-1800)

Motley Archibald (1891 — 1980). Painter of African-American city life, best known for his use of bright, incandescent colours depicting vivacious 'jazzy' scenes. Like contemporary artists *Hayden and *Douglas, M. was in search of a consummate pictorial style representational of African culture without idealizing it and its people.

Motonobu Kano. Japan Artist

Mound Builders. Prehistoric North American cultures of the S.E. states. The name derives from a series of massive earth structures at sites in Ohio, Mississippi, Arkansas and Alabama; archaeologists distinguish between the Hope-well and Adena cultures of Ohio and the Mississippi culture. The structures are of various types: conical funerary mounds; flat topped, terraced or stepped mounds; and linear mounds outlining animal shapes. Archaeological finds include stone sculptures, among the finest in pre-Columbian North America, and carvings such as pipes in animal shapes.

Movimento arte concreta [MAC].

Italian art movement founded in Milan in December 1948 by the critic (and at that time painter) Gillo Dorfles (b 1910), the artist and architect Gianni Monnet (1912–58; the originator and leader of the group), Bruno Munari and Atanasio Soldati (1896–1953), a painter who had been working in an abstract idiom during the 1930s. They were inspired by the growth of CONCRETE ART in Switzerland and immediately attracted a large following with other Italian artists, among them Galliano Mazzon (b 1896), Luigi Veronesi, Mario Nigro (b 1917), Mauro Reggiani (b 1897), Ettore Sottsass and Amalia Garau. In Turin, Naples and Florence, other groups of Concrete artists formed that had links with the Milan group, which disbanded after Monnet’s death in 1958. MAC had no rigid programme or manifesto: despite its name, its adherents did not discriminate rigorously between what they termed ‘Concrete art’ and more generic abstract or geometric art, which did not flourish in Italy. In Milan the group brought together those few artists who had rejected the tradition of Novecento Italiano and who did not accept the artistic and ideological attitudes of social realism. Similarly, some years after its foundation, when non-representational art became prominent, MAC defended the positions of rationalism and perceptive rigour and was in fact responsible for the diffusion in Italy of the theories of Gestalt psychology and rejected automatism, irrationalism and profusion of sentiment in non-figurative works. MAC’s theoretical antagonism towards non-representational art was not, however, borne out coherently in the works produced by its members, which, particularly after 1954, reflected the influence of action painting. The most interesting of MAC’s activities was the publication of their monthly and, from 1954, annual bulletins, the graphics, typography and layout of which were truly innovative: they included such features as a square format, transparent paper and pages cut into shapes or sewn together (for which Munari was mainly responsible), and they contained articles on design, on visual perception, on the synthesis of the arts and on the reproducibility of art work.

Mozarabic. Term applied to the Christian communities and the mixed style produced by Christian artists working under and for the Moorish rulers of Spam (8th—15th cs).

Mozert Zoe. Pin -Up Art

Mraz Franjo (1910–81). Hlebine school.Croatian group of painters

Mucha Alphonse or Alphonso Mario (1860-1939). Czech-born *Art Nouveau graphic artist and designer. He trained and worked in Munich, Vienna and Paris where (1894) he became associated with the actress Sarah Bernhardt. He designed jewellery, furniture, wallpaper panels and a series of now celebrated *posters.

Muche Georg (b Querfurt, 8 May 1895; d 1987). German painter and teacher. His father was an amateur painter and art collector who became known as the naive painter Felix Ramholz. In 1913 Muche began studying painting at the Azbe-Kunstschule in Munich. His work was entirely conventional until 1914, when he moved to Berlin and became Herwarth Walden’s exhibitions assistant at the Sturm-Galerie. After his introduction to Expressionist circles, he began to paint intensively, plunging into a heady abstraction that combined a Cubist approach to form with the rich saturated colours of the work of Der Blaue Reiter and Marc Chagall.

Mueck Ron (born 1958) is an Australian hyperrealist sculptor working in Great Britain. Mueck's early career was as a model maker and puppeteer for children's television and films, notably the film Labyrinth for which he also contributed the voice of Ludo, and the Jim Henson series The Storyteller. Mueck moved on to establish his own company in London, making photo-realistic props and animatronics for the advertising industry. Although highly detailed, these props were usually designed to be photographed from one specific angle hiding the mess of construction seen from the other side. Mueck increasingly wanted to produce realistic sculptures which looked perfect from all angles. In 1996 Mueck transitioned to fine art, collaborating with his mother-in-law, Paula Rego, to produce small figures as part of a tableau she was showing at the Hayward Gallery. Rego introduced him to Charles Saatchi who was immediately impressed and started to collect and commission work. This led to the piece which made Mueck's name, Dead Dad, being included in the Sensation show at the Royal Academy the following year. Dead Dad is a rather haunting silicone and mixed media sculpture of the corpse of Mueck's father reduced to about two thirds of its natural scale. It is the only work of Mueck's that uses his own hair for the finished product. Mueck's sculptures faithfully reproduce the minute detail of the human body, but play with scale to produce disconcertingly jarring visual images. His five metre high sculpture Boy 1999 was a feature in the Millennium Dome and later exhibited in the Venice Biennale. In 1999 Mueck was appointed as Associate Artist at the National Gallery, London. During this two year post he created the works Mother and Child, Pregnant Woman, Man in a Boat and Swaddled Baby.

Mueller Otto (1874-1930). German painter and graphic artist, one of the members of Die *Brucke from 1907 to 1913, and from 1919 a teacher at the Breslau Academy. He painted subjects mainly of women bathing or grazing horses; Expressionist in manner, he was influenced by Gauguin.

Mughal miniature painting. Art of the Muslim Mughal empire of India. Its first masterpieces (1549—r. 1564) are the 1400 large ms. ills for the fantastic narrative Hamza Mama by 2 Persian artists and Indian assistants. Their polished Indo-Persian style evolved a vigorous, detailed realism. This reached maturity in the atelier established by Emperor Akbar (T556—1605); here European techniques also were fluently adapted. M. m. p. includes ills for histories of the emperors and brilliant royal portraits, some in formalized profile with a nimbus, notably Jahangir (1605—27). Decline began under Shah Jahan (1627—58) accelerated under Aurangzeb (1658—1707), many artists moving to *Rajput and *Deccani courts. There was a brief revival under Muhammad Shah (1719-48). The M. artist painted on burnished paper and the finished picture, often embellished with gold leaf, was also burnished.

Muhl Otto (b. 1925). Viennese Actionism

Multimedia. Term used in an art-historical context to describe art forms that include a variety of media, often unconventional. It is used mainly where a complete description of media would be too lengthy. Multimedia may also comprise live or PERFORMANCE ART, Happenings, ENVIRONMENTAL ART, VIDEO ART and INSTALLATION. The origins of multimedia may be traced to DADA, especially the activity in 1916 in Zurich of the Cabaret Voltaire. The concept was developed further by artists associated with SURREALISM, for example at the Exposition Internationale du Surréalisme (1938) at the Galerie des Beaux-Arts, Paris: works were exhibited in a series of ‘environments’, such as the display of Salvador Dalí’s Rainy Taxi, which was positioned under a localized rainstorm and contained a female dummy and live, crawling snails; in another room Marcel Duchamp hung 1200 coal-sacks from the ceiling, covered the floor with dead leaves and moss and installed a lily pond surrounded by firs and reeds. Duchamp in particular opened the way for artists to explore new art forms and combinations of multimedia. In the second half of the 20th century groups or movements that advanced the concept of multimedia included the Situationists, FLUXUS, the INDEPENDENT GROUP, POP ART, NOUVEAU RÉALISME and AKTIONISMUS.

Multiples. Works of art — usually 3-dimensional — which are produced m limited editions.

Multscher Hans (c. 1400—before 1467). German sculptor and painter working mainly in Ulm, where he produced a number of carvings. The Wurzach Altar (1437), the only picture known to be by him, exhibits a realism nearer to contemporary Flemish than German painting.

Munch Edvard (1863-1944). Norwegian painter. I le studied at Oslo (1880-2). His early work is influenced by the social realism of his friend Christian Krohg. His work became widely known through periodicals m Pans and Berlin (1895—1905, his most creative period) and was one of the main artistic sources of German *Expressionism. He returned to Norway (1909) after a nervous breakdown and painted the mural decorations for Oslo Univ. (1909—10), several portraits, and reworked some earlier themes. He was condemned as 'degenerate' by the Nazis, The Sick Child (1885-6) was inspired by his sister's death from tuberculosis and shows the neurotic Expressionism with which he intensified images from reality. His mature paintings and prints were concerned with the expression of his feelings in face of reality rather than representing the appearance of reality. In Paris (1889—92) he gained confidence in his developing ideas from Van Gogh's art and from the current Symbolist movement (Gauguin, Mallarme, Moreau, Redon) and was impressed by the brilliant colours of Neo-Impressionism. In his most characteristic work, The Scream (1893), he builds up rhythms of colour and
swirling lines — as Van Gogh had done in his self-portraits — to a pitch of hysterical intensity.

Munson K.O. Pin -Up Art

Munter Gabriele (1877—1962). German painter and engraver, at one time married to *Kandinsky. Her style was initially influenced by the Impressionists, but after 1908 by the *Expressionists; she contributed to the *Blaue Reiter and Der *Sturm Munich exhibitions.

Murakami Takashi
(born 1 February 1963 in Tokyo, Kantō region), is a prolific contemporary Japanese artist who works in both fine arts media, such as painting, as well as digital and commercial media. He attempts to blur the boundaries between high and low art. He appropriates popular themes from mass media and pop culture, then turns them into thirty-foot sculptures, "Superflat" paintings, or marketable commercial goods such as figurines or phone caddies.

Mural painting. Painting on a wall, either directly on to the surface, as a fresco, or on a panel which is mounted in a permanent position; a type of architectural decoration which can either exploit the Hat character of a wall or create the effect of a new area of space.

Murillo Bartolome Esteban (1618—82). Spanish painter. Highly esteemed in his own time, M. was the 1st president of the Seville Academy (1660). A lesser artist than his contemporary Velazquez, he perfected popular genre paintings and sentimental biblical themes painted in the prevailing bombastic and polished mode of the Spanish Counter-Reformation; his beggar boys, fruit-sellers, Madonnas and saints are presented with shallow feeling. The Beggar Boys Throwing Dice and Madonna are among his best and most sincere paintings.

Muromachi or Ashikaga. Period in Japanese history, mitl-14th—16th c, presided over by the Ashikaga shoguns at their palace in the Muromachi quarter of Kyoto. The court's mannered elegance was reflected in Noh drama and the tea ceremony imbued with the restrained cult of Zen Buddhism, which inspired a school of monochrome ink painters, notably *Sesshu (1420-1506) and Sesson (1504-89), both influenced by Chinese S. *Sung masters. Important court painters included Noami (1397—1494), Geiami (7431—85) and Soami (d. Г525).

Mycenaean culture. Greek culture named from its principal site of Mycenae. M. с fl. с 1600-с 1200 ВС; it was indebted to *Minoan culture.

Myers Jerome (1867-1940). The Ashcan school.

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