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Martins Maria (1894-1973). The Brazilian sculptor Maria Martins better known professionally as simply 'Maria,' as she insisted upon being referred to in all matters pertaining to her artistic life is one of the most important sculptors of the Surrealist period, singled out by André Breton in 1948 as the `shining star' of post-war art.

Martinus Opifex ( fl 1440; d Regensburg, ?1456). Illuminator, active in Germany. Most scholars, except Ziegler (1988), place at the beginning of his career his contribution, dated 1440, to a manuscript (before 1440–66; 295*210 mm; Munich, Bayer. Staatsbib., Cgm. 3974) executed at various workshops. A manuscript with the text of Thomas von Cantimpré’s De natura rerum and extracts from Ibn Butlan’s Tacuinum sanitatis (c. 1445; 455*325 mm; Granada, Bib. U., MS. C.67) also belongs to this early phase. From 1446 to 1449 Martinus is known to have been active at the court of Frederick III in Vienna. To this period belong a Golden Legend (1446–7; 540*360 mm; Vienna, Osterreich. Nbib., Cod. 326) and a Breviary (1447–8; 530*365 mm; Vienna, Osterreich. Nbib., Cod. 1767), which were both executed for Frederick III in collaboration with three other court illuminators and their workshops. In early 1451 Martinus ‘opifex’ is attested in Regensburg.

Martorell Bernat (b Sant Celoni; fl 1427; d Barcelona, between 13 and 23 Dec 1452). Catalan painter. The name Master of S Jorge was coined by Bertaux to refer to the painter of the altarpiece of St George (Chicago, IL, A. Inst.; Paris, Louvre). This was the most spectacular of a group of works attributed to an anonymous artist who was recognized as one of the finest Catalan painters of the 14th and 15th centuries. His works made a transition between those of Lluís Borrassà and Jaume Huguet, and it was thought that he could be identified with Bernat Martorell, the painter recorded as most in demand in Catalonia between 1427 and 1452. The identification was finally proved by the publication in 1938 (Duran i Sanpere) of the contract for the Púbol altarpiece of St Peter Enthroned (Girona, Mus. Dioc.).

Masaccio. The nickname of Tommaso di Giovanni (1401—28?). Florentine painter, one of the great innovators of European art: the revolution he brought about in painting was recognized by his contemporaries even within the short span of his own lifetime. Little is known of his early years and his nickname, variously interpreted as 'naughty loin1, 'clumsy Tom' or 'hulking Tom' gives little clue. Vasari simply maintains that he was impractical in everyday affairs. M. became a member of the Florentine Guild in 1422, which leaves a period of some 6 years in which lie was to accomplish his revolution, before setting out for Rome never to be heard of again. *Masolino is said to have taught him, but if this is so, the roles of master and pupil were to be reversed almost at once. What is certain is that M. was profoundly influenced by those elements of Giotto's art that had been retained and exploited better by the sculptor Donatello and the architect Brunelleschi, than by any contemporary Florentine painter. M. took up Giotto's search for a way of expressing the more exalted human emotions through figures in action in terms of painting. Where the painters of the *International Gothic style allowed line to flow, to proliferate, to become pure decoration, M. tightened it almost to breaking-point. His style is austere. His drawing of the human figure achieves an incredible degree of realism, the illusion of weight and modelling, with the sparest of means. Yet from reality he chooses only what human presence or the Divine Spirit can make noble. The Pisan polyptycb altarpiece, one of his earliest works, has been divided and scattered; they survive separately as: Madonna and Child, Crucifixion, Adoration of the Magi and Beheading of the Baptist. A similar work on panel is the Madonna and Child with St Anne and Five Angels. The fresco 1'he Trinity is undoubtedly the most successful and moving rendering of this subject. But M.'s fame, both as an artist and as the teacher of a whole group of Florentine painters, rests with the frescoes of the Hrancacci chapel, S. Maria del Carmine, Florence. Masolino and, later, Filippino *Lippi also painted subjects on this chapel; a third of the scheme was destroyed by fire, and some difficulty of attribution remains. Generally accepted as being by M. are: The Tribute Money, Uxplusion from Paradise, St Peter and St John healing the Sick by letting their Shadows fall on them, St Peter and St John distributing Alms, The liaising of the King's Son (most) and St Paul visiting St Peter in Prison (part).

Masegne Jacobello Dalle Italian family of sculptors and architects. Jacobello [Giacomello; Jacobellus; Jacomelo] dalle Masegne ( fl from 1383; d after 1409) and his brother Pierpaolo dalle Masegne ( fl from 1383; d c. 1403) were the sons of Antonio dalle Masegne, a stonemason in Venice. They usually undertook and signed their major commissions together, as was the common practice in Venice for family partnerships. However, although there is no documentary evidence to prove it, it is possible to recognize their individual styles in separate sections of their collaborative works.

Mashkov Ilya (b Mikhaylovskaya-on-Don, 29 July 1881; d Moscow, 20 March 1944). Russian painter. He studied at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture (1900–10) under Valentin Serov and Konstantin Korovin. In 1909–10 he exhibited with the Third Golden Fleece and in 1910 was a founder-member of the avant-garde exhibiting society the Jack of Diamonds, of which he remained a leader until 1915. In these early years his still-lifes, landscapes and portraits were particularly influenced by Fauvism. Characteristic is the magnificent portrait of Mme Kirkal’da (1910; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.), which demonstrates a witty sense of humour and a love of bold colouring and crude figure drawing. A series of still-lifes, including Loaves of Bread (1912; St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.), was inspired by Russian folk art. In 1914 Mashkov moved away from these influences; paintings such as Still-life with Horse’s Skull (St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.) reveal lighter brushwork, a restrained palette and new sensitivity to the different material qualities of objects.

Maso di Banco (ft. mid-14th c). Italian painter and one of the greatest of Giotti's followers; he is sometimes confused with Giottino. The only works which can be ascribed to him with certainty are the fresco cycle St Sylvester and the Limperor Constanline in S. Croce, Florence.

Masolino (c. 1383— c. 1432). Florentine painter trained in the international Gothic style, perhaps by Ghiberti, e.g. Madonna. He was influenced by Masaccio, a much younger man, when working with him on frescoes in the Brancacci chapel, S. Maria del Carmine, Florence. He was in Hungary (1425—7) and later worked in Eripoli, Todi and Rome.

Masson Andre (1896—1987). French *Surrealist painter. He quarrelled with *Breton in the late 1920s and developed a form of calligraphic Surrealism which probably had some influence on the *Abstract Expressionist movement in the U.S.A.

Massys Jan (b Antwerp, c. 1509; d Antwerp, before 8 Oct 1575). Painter, son of Quinten Metsys. More so than his brother Cornelis Massys, who was a less talented artist, Jan worked in the style of his father, whose studio he may have taken over following his death in 1530. Two years later, though still under the age of majority, Jan was admitted as a master in the Guild of St Luke in Antwerp. Like Cornelis, he seems to have left Antwerp immediately after attaining the status of master, for he is not mentioned again in the archives. It has been suggested on stylistic grounds that he worked for a period at Fontainebleau, but this is disputed. He was, in any case, back in Antwerp by 1536, when he took on an apprentice, Frans van Tuylt. In 1538 he married Anna van Tuylt, by whom he had three children. In 1543 Frans de Witte was registered as an apprentice.

Massys Quentin (1465/6-1530), also spelt 'Quentin' and 'Matsys' or 'Metsys'. Early Netherlandish painter born in Louvain but made a master of the Antwerp Guild in 15 19. M.'s style carries the Netherlands search for refinement and spiritual sensitivity to an extreme in his religious work and his portraits; his painting had a considerable influence, especially among the Italianate painters of the Netherlands. His range of subjects is large. An outstanding early painting is the central panel of the ,S7 Anne

Altarpiece. Portraits of scholars at their work such as Erasmus anticipate a favourite subject of Holbein. In his Virgin and Child, Rest on the Flight into Ugypt and other studies of the Holy Family there is a profound melancholy. The caricature drawings and the faces of the crowd in Бесе Homo provide the reverse side of the refinement. Genre paintings such as Money-changer and his Wife are in the tradition of Van Eyck and Petrus Christus. Late, highly finished panels such as The Temptation of St Anthony were often the result of a collaboration with *Patenier. Finally, the exceptional painting in tempera on linen, 'The Virgin and Child with St Barlumi (?) and St Catherine gives evidence of Italian influences, particularly of Raphael and Leonardo da Vinci.

see also:
Quentin Massys

Master Bertram of Munden. German artist working at Hamburg 1367—87. His workshop produced an altarpiece for St Peter's, Hamburg, now in the Kunsthalle.

Masters Bohemian

Master Boucicaut ( fl c. 1390–1430).
Illuminator, active in Paris.The anonymous artist known as the Boucicaut Master is named after his work in the Book of Hours of Paris Use , which was commissioned by Jean II le Meingre de Boucicaut, Marshal (marechal ) of France (1365–1421).

Master Dutch

Master E.S.

Master Francke (d. after 1424). Painter who worked in Hamburg; information about his activities is slight. Owing to the influence of French illuminated mss evident in his work he is believed to have been in Paris. His painting shows an advance on that of the slightly older Hamburg artist Master Bertram, in its composition, brilliance of colour, observation of life and expressiveness coupled with restraint. Most famous are his St Thomas Altar (1424), on Thomas a Becket, including the gentle Nativity panel, and 2 versions of the Man of Sorrows.

Master Hohenfurt

Master M S

Master M Z

Master Norwegian

Master of Alkmaar

Master of Avila

Master of Budapest

Master of Cologne Workshop

Master of Female Half-length. Early Netherlandish artist active about 1530 in Antwerp, who often painted young girls playing musical instruments or reading. His graceful, rather mannered style is close to that of *Massys, e.g. Three Girls Playing Instruments.

Master of Heiligenkreuz

Master of Hoogstraeten

Master of Life of the Virgin. German painter active in Cologne с. 1463—80. His serene style, showing Netherlands influences, is seen best in the beautiful Annunciation from the altar-piece which gave him his name. Other important works: The Presentation in the 'Temple and a triptych including The Crucifixion.

Master of Moulins (с 1483—r. 1500) also known as the 'Master of the Bourbons', or 'Maitre aux Anges'. French painter, influenced by Netherlandish artists, especially H. van der Goes, but with a very individual and graceful style which can be seen at its best in the altar-piece, Moulins cathedral. Works include: Nativity, St Mary Magdalene and Female Donor, The Annunciation, and Charlemagne and the Meeting at the Gopdeu date.

Master of Narbonne Parament

Master of Psalter of R. de Lisle

Master of Rohan Book of Hours
French artist active r. 1420, named after Les Grandes Heures du Due de Rohan. M. had a predilection for Last Judgement themes, suffering, violence and death, often rendered in almost Expressionist terms.

Master of San Francesco Bardi

Master of Schloss Tirol Altar

Master of St Cecilia

Master of St Gilles
. French or Netherlandish artist who worked for the French court in Lyons, Paris and the Loire Valley.

Master of St Veronica

Master of Westminster Altar

Master of Wittingau

Master of the Aix Annunciation. The painter of an altarpiece, Annunciation, for the Eglise des Precheurs, Aix-en-I'rovence, c. 1445. The artist was probably French, though influenced by Van Eyck's Adoration of the Lamb and the Master of Flemalle.

Master of the Aix-en-Chapel Altarpiece

Master of the Albrecht Altar

Master of the Avignon School

Master of the Bambino Vispo

Master of the Castello Nativity

Master of the Catholic Kings

Master of the Glatz Madonna

Master of the Housebook. Late 15th-c. German or Dutch artist called after the Hausbucli at Schloss Wolfegg. This contains many drawings depicting contemporary life; and the numerous engravings attributed to this master, important early examples of the technique, have similar subjects.

Master of the Joseph Legend

Master of the Kaufmann Crucifixion

Master of the Legend of St. Ursula

Master of the Life of Saint John the Baptist

Master of the Lower Saxon Workshop

Master of the Lyversberg Passion

Master of the Ortenberg Altar

Master of the Paradise Garden

Master of the Pfullendorf Altar

Master of the Polling Panels

Master of the St Bartholomew Altar

Master of the St Lucy Legend. Early Netherlandish painter, active in Bruges с 1480—90, named after Scenes from the Life of St Lucy. Other attributed works include St Catherine and Madonna until Magdalen and Virgins. Gerard David and others were influenced by the master's quality of elegance in painting the female saints, the richness of their costume and brilliance of landscape detail.

Master of the St Ursula Legend. Early Netherlandish artist working at Bruges at the end of the 15th c, a close follower in style of Rogier van der Weyden and Memlinc, who painted the 4 Scenes from The St Ursula Legend.

Master of the Tegernsee Passion

Master of the Trebon Altarpiece or Wittingau. Bohemian Gothic painter whose masterpiece is The Resurrection, a panel from the parts of an altar-piece painted с 1380 for a church in Tebon, or Wittingau, now in Czechoslovakia.

Master of the Vienna Adoration

Master of the Virgo inter Virgines
. Early Netherlandish artist, probably working in Delft at the end of the 15th c, who painted the Madonna and Child Surrounded by Tour Holy Women.

Master of the Votive Picture of Sankt Lambrecht

Master of the Wilton Dyptych

Masters Austrian

Masters Flemish

Masters French

Masters German

Masters Hungarian

Masters Italian

Masters of the Gothic Art

Masters Spanish

Master Theodoric

Master Thomas de Coloswar

Master Westphalian


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