Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES
 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER EIGHT
 

THE BAROQUE

(PART III)
 

PAINTING
ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

 
 


ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE
 


RUSSIA
 


Domenico Trezzini

 

 


Domenico Trezzini

(From Wikipedia)

Domenico Trezzini (ca. 1670-1734) was a Swiss architect who elaborated the Petrine Baroque style of Russian architecture.
Domenico was born in Astano, near Lugano, in the Italian speaking Ticino (at that time administered by the German speaking cantons). He probably studied in Rome. Subsequently, as he was working in Denmark, he was offered by Peter I of Russia, among other architects, to design buildings in the new Russian capital city, St. Petersburg.
Since 1703, when the city was founded, he substantially contributed to its most representative buildings. The Peter and Paul Fortress with the Peter and Paul Cathedral, the Twelve Collegia Building (now the headquarters of Saint Petersburg University) as well as Peter's Summer House count among his many achievements. He also helped found and design Kronstadt and the Alexander Nevsky Monastery.
Domenico Trezzini was very important for another aspect of Russian architectural history: in founding a school based on the European model, he laid the foundations for the development of the Petrine Baroque.
 

 



Domenico Trezzini.
Peter and Paul Cathedral. St Petersburg

 


Bartolomeo Rastrelli.
 

 


Bartolomeo Francesco Rastrelli

Bartolomeo Francesco Rastrelli, (born 1700, Paris, France—died April 1771, St. Petersburg, Russia), French-born inventor of an opulent Russian Baroque architecture that combined elements of Rococo with traditional elements of Russian architecture, producing multicoloured and decorative ornamentation on all facades.

Of Italian descent, Rastrelli moved to St. Petersburg in 1716 with his father, the sculptor Bartolomeo Carlo Rastrelli. During his first five years in Russia, he worked with his father decorating the interiors of the palaces of the Russian aristocracy. From 1721 he worked independently as an architect, and he immediately made a name for himself as a master with a rich imagination.

Over a period of 50 years Rastrelli erected a great number of palaces for Russia’s rulers and members of the imperial court. He was in special favour with the empresses Anna I and Elizabeth I, who were partial to opulent luxury. For Anna he built two palaces in Moscow (the Winter and Summer Annenhof palaces; neither has survived), the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg (eventually destroyed by a fire, but later restored by a different architect), and, for her favourite, Count Ernst Johann Biron, two palaces in Latvia. The empress, pleased with Rastrelli’s work, conferred upon him the title of chief court architect.

During the 20-year reign of Elizabeth (1741–61), Rastrelli built 12 palaces and a number of cathedrals for her. With her permission he also built elaborate homes for her courtiers. (In St. Petersburg the Stroganov and Vorontsov palaces have survived.)

From 1747 to 1752 Rastrelli worked on a reconstruction of the palace of Peterhof (Petrodvorets). The three-story building stretches nearly 1,000 feet (some 300 metres). Situated on the seashore and surrounded by a great number of fountains, the palace—in the words of the director and painter Alexandre Benois—gave the impression of being the “Residence of the Sea King.”

From 1749 to 1756 Rastrelli rebuilt the Bolshoi Dvorets (Grand Palace) in Tsarskoye Selo (now Pushkin) and erected a series of pavilions in its park. The Tsarskoye Selo Palace (now called the Pushkin Palace) is some 1,000 feet long, noteworthy for the ornamentation of its facades and interiors and the wealth of its plasticity and colour. The French ambassador, viewing the palace on the day of its inauguration, commented, “There is only one thing missing here: a suitable case to house a jewel of such magnificence.”

In 1748 at the behest of the empress, who—though partial to the joys of life, was also very religious—wanted in her old age to become a nun, Rastrelli began building the Smolny Monastery on the outskirts of St. Petersburg. A large two-story square of monastic cells surrounds a massive inner courtyard, in the centre of which stands a grand five-domed cathedral. The structure’s abundant ornamentation makes it appear to have been chiseled out of a single chunk of stone.

The Winter Palace in St. Petersburg (1754–62) was the pinnacle of Rastrelli’s creation. The three-story building is in the form of a quadrangle: the powerful square expanses are united with one another at their corners by wide three-storied galleries in which antechambers and living quarters were located. The abundance of ornament gives the facades a feel of surging inner power. The palace is the pinnacle of Russian architectural Baroque and the beginning of its end.

Catherine the Great regarded the Baroque style as crude and favoured Neoclassicism, and she dismissed Rastrelli from service. Shortly before his death the Russian Academy of Arts accorded him an honorary membership.

Andrei D. Sarabianov

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 

 



Bartolomeo Rastrelli. Rundale Palace. Pilsrundale near Bauska. Latvia. 1736—1740




Bartolomeo Rastrelli. Jelgava Palace. Jelgava, Latvia. 1738—1740




Bartolomeo Rastrelli. Peterhof Palace, Peterhof near St. Petersburg. Russia. 1747—1755




Bartolomeo Rastrelli. Peterhof Palace Chapels, Peterhof near St. Petersburg. Russia. 1747—1751




Bartolomeo Rastrelli. Saint Andrew's Church. Kiev. Ukraine. 1748—1767




Bartolomeo Rastrelli. Smolny Convent, St. Petersburg. Russia. 1748—1764




Bartolomeo Rastrelli. Vorontsov Palace, St. Petersburg. Russia. 1749—1757




Bartolomeo Rastrelli. Catherine Palace, Tsarskoe Selo (Pushkin). Russia. 1752—1756




Bartolomeo Rastrelli. Hermitage Pavilion, Tsarskoe Selo (Pushkin). Russia. 1749




Bartolomeo Rastrelli. Marie Palace, Kiev. Ukraine. 1752




Bartolomeo Rastrelli. Stroganov Palace, St. Petersburg. Russia. 1753—1754




Bartolomeo Rastrelli. Winter Palace, St. Petersburg. Russia. 1754—1762

 
 

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