Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES
 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER FOUR

 

MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
 

PAINTING
SCULPTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
ARCHITECTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
 
 


SCULPTURE
 


PRIMATICCIO.

Parmigianino also strongly influenced Francesco Primaticcio (1504-1570), Cellini's rival at the court of Francis I. A man of many talents, Primaticcio designed the interior decoration of some of the main rooms in the royal chateau of Fontainebleau, combining painted scenes and a richly sculptured stucco framework. The section shown in figure 696 caters to the same aristocratic taste that admired Cellini's saltcellar. The four maidens are not burdened with any specific allegorical significancetheir role recalls the nudes of the Sistine Ceilingbut perform a task for which they seem equally ill-fitted: they reinforce the piers that sustain the ceiling.
 


696. PRIMATICCIO. Stucco Figures, ñ 1541-45.
Room of the Duchesse d'Estampes, Chateau of Fontainebleau, France


 


PRIMATICCIO. Royal Staircase
1530s.
Apartments of the Duchesse d'Etampes,
Fontainebleau


PRIMATICCIO. Royal Staircase (detail)
1530s. Stucco
Apartments of the Duchesse d'Etampes, Fontainebleau



PRIMATICCIO. Royal Staircase (detail)
1530s.
Apartments of the Duchesse d'Etampes, Fontainebleau




PRIMATICCIO. Royal Staircase (detail)
1530s
Stucco
Apartments of the Duchesse d'Etampes, Fontainebleau




PRIMATICCIO. Royal Staircase (detail)
1530s
Stucco
Apartments of the Duchesse d'Etampes, Fontainebleau
 

 


Francesco Primaticcio

Francesco Primaticcio, also called Bologna, Le Primatice, or Primadizzi (born April 30, 1504, Bologna, Emilia [Italy]—died 1570, Paris, France), Italian Mannerist painter, architect, sculptor, and leader of the first school of Fontainebleau.

Primaticcio was first trained as an artist in Bologna, under Innocenzo da Imola and later Bagnacavallo. He also studied with Giulio Romano and assisted him in his work on the decorations of the Palazzo del Te in Mantua. When the French king Francis I invited Romano to assist in the redecoration of the Fontainebleau Palace in 1532, Romano sent Primaticcio in his place, and, once there, Primaticcio became one of the principal artists in France. He would remain an artist at Fontainebleau for the rest of his life.

In his initial work at Fontainebleau, Primaticcio employed a decorative style that combined stucco work and mural painting. He returned to Rome for a couple of years to purchase artworks for Francis I, and on his return he decorated the Cabinet du Roi with a series of paintings, now lost, that flouted rational perspective in painting and stressed the primacy of the human figure. Primaticcio’s stylistic use of exaggerated musculature and active, elongated figures in these works was to exert great influence on French painting for the remainder of the 16th century.

In 1543 Primaticcio completed a number of decorations, most depicting scenes from the Life of Alexander the Great, for the bedchamber of the duchesse d’Étampes; all of these works survive. During this period he also completed work on the Galerie d’Ulysse (1541–70) and the Salle de Bal (or Galerie Henri II). The former was completely destroyed under Louis XV, and the latter has been heavily restored. Primaticcio increased his use of foreshortening and illusionistic treatment of subjects in his later work. His design for the ceiling of the chapel of the Hotel de Guise in Paris (1557) was to be the artist’s last major work. For the last decade of his life, Primaticcio collaborated with the sculptor Germain Pilon on the tomb of Henry II in the abbey church of St. Denis near Paris. In his decorations Primaticcio was one of the first artists in France to replace religious themes with those of classical mythology. He subdued the violence of Italian Mannerism, investing it with a quiet and characteristic French elegance.
 

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 




PRIMATICCIO. Ceiling decoration
1531
Fresco
Camera degli Stucchi, Palazzo del Te, Mantua



PRIMATICCIO. Ceiling decoration (detail)
1531
Fresco
Camera degli Stucchi, Palazzo del Te, Mantua



PRIMATICCIO. Frieze
1531
Fresco
Camera degli Stucchi, Palazzo del Te, Mantua

 
 

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