Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES
 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER FOUR

 

MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
 

PAINTING
SCULPTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
ARCHITECTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
 

 


ARCHITECTURE



Proto-Baroque
 

VIGNOLA AND DELLA PORTA.


Palladio's immense authority as a designer keeps the conflicting elements in the facade and plan of S. Giorgio from actually clashing. In less assured hands, such a precarious union would break apart. The most widely accepted solution was evolved just at that time in Rome by Giacomo Vignola
(1507-1573) and Giacomo della Porta (c. 1540-1602), architects who had assisted Michelangelo at St. Peter's and were still using his architectural vocabulary. Il Gesu (Jesus) is a building whose importance for subsequent church architecture can hardly be exaggerated. Since Il Gesu was the mother church of the Jesuits, its design must have been closely supervised so as to conform to the aims of the militant new order, founded in 1534. We may thus view it as the architectural embodiment of the spirit of the Counter Reformation.

The planning stage of the structure began in
1550, only five years after the Council of Trent. Michelangelo himself once promised a design, but apparently never furnished it. The present ground plan, by Vignola, was adopted in 1568 (fig. 706). Il Gesu contrasts in almost every possible respect with Palladio's S. Giorgio. It is a basilica, strikingly compact, dominated by its mighty nave. The aisles have been replaced by chapels, thus herding the congregation quite literally into one large, hall-like space directly in view of the altar. The attention of this audience is positively directed toward altar and pulpit, as our view of the interior shows (fig. 707). (The painting shows how the church would look from the street if the center part of the facade were removed. For the later, High Baroque decoration of the nave vault, see fig. 752.) We also see here an unexpected feature that the ground plan cannot show: the dramatic contrast between the dim illumination in the nave and the abundant light beyond, in the eastern part of the church, supplied by the large windows in the drum of the dome. Light has been consciously exploited for its expressive possibilitiesa novel device, "theatrical" in the best sense of the termto give Il Gesu a stronger emotional focus than we have yet found in a church interior.


706. Giacomo Vignola.
Plan of Il Gesu, Rome.

1568


707. ANDREA SACCIll and JAN MIEL.
Urban VIII Visiting Il Gesu.
1639-41.
Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica, Rome

Despite its great originality, the plan of Il Gesu is not entirely without precedent (see fig. 610). The facade by Giacomo della Porta (fig. 708) is as bold as the plan, although it, too, has its earlier sources. The paired pilasters and broken architrave on the lower story are clearly derived from the colossal order on the exterior of St. Peter's (compare fig. 660), and with good reason, for it was Della Porta who completed Michelangelo's dome. In the upper story the same pattern recurs on a somewhat smaller scale, with four instead of six pairs of supports. The difference in width is bridged by two scroll-shaped buttresses. This novel device, also taken from Michelangelo, forms a graceful transition to the large pediment crowning the facade, which retains the classic proportions of Renaissance architecture (the height equals the width).

What is fundamentally new here is the very element that was missing in the facade of S. Giorgio: the integration of all the parts into one whole. Della Porta, freed from classicistic scruples by his allegiance to Michelangelo, gave the same vertical rhythm to both stories of the facade. This rhythm is obeyed by all the horizontal members (note the broken entablature), but the horizontal divisions in turn determine the size of the vertical members (hence no colossal order). Equally important is the emphasis on the main portal: its double frametwo pediments resting on coupled pilasters and columnsprojects beyond the rest of the facade and gives strong focus to the entire design. Not since Gothic architecture has the entrance to a church received such a dramatic concentration of features, attracting the attention of the beholder outside the building much as the concentrated light beneath the dome channels that of the worshiper inside.

What are we to call the style of Il Gesu? Obviously, it has little in common with Palladio, and it shares with Vasari's architecture only the influence of Michelangelo. But this influence reflects two very different phases of the great master's career: the contrast between the Uffizi and Il Gesu is hardly less great than that between the vestibule of the Laurentian Library and the exterior of St. Peter's. If we label the Uffizi Mannerist, the same term will not serve us for Il Gesu. As we shall see, the design of Il Gesu became basic to Baroque architecture. By calling it proto-Baroque, we suggest both its seminal importance for the future and its special place in relation to the past.



708. Giacomo della Porta. Facade of Il Gesu, Rome, ñ. 1575-84




708. Giacomo della Porta. Facade of Il Gesu, Rome, ñ. 1575-84
 

 


Giacomo da Vignola

Giacomo da Vignola, also called Giacomo Barozzi or Giacomo Barozio (born Oct. 1, 1507, Vignola, Bologna [Italy]—died July 7, 1573, Rome), architect who, with Andrea Palladio and Giulio Romano, dominated Italian Mannerist architectural design and stylistically anticipated the Baroque.

After studying in Bologna, Vignola went to Rome in the 1530s and made drawings of the antiquities for a projected edition of Vitruvius’ treatise on architecture. In 1541–43 he spent 18 months at the court of Francis I at Fontainebleau and in Paris, where he probably met his fellow Bolognese, the architect Sebastiano Serlio and the painter Primaticcio. On his return to Italy he built the Palazzo Bocchi at Bologna and then went to Rome (c. 1550), where he was appointed architect to Pope Julius III, for whom he built the Villa Giulia in collaboration with Giorgio Vasari and Bartolommeo Ammannati, in 1551–55. This was a summer villa, based on ancient villa types as described by Pliny the Younger, with a small house and an elaborate garden.

In 1554 he built the church of S. Andrea in the nearby Via Flaminia, the first church to have an oval dome, although the ground plan is rectangular. In his church of Sta. Anna dei Palafrenieri (begun c. 1572), Vignola extended this idea to include an oval in the ground plan, and this oval theme became a favourite of 17th-century Baroque architects. Vignola’s most important church was, however, Il Gesù in Rome, headquarters of the Society of Jesus, which he began in 1568. Vignola died before the structure was completed, but the basic plan is his: aisles subsumed in side chapels so as to produce an illusion of vast interior space. The broad nave thus created was an effective instrument for dramatizing the Mass, and as such was widely copied throughout Europe in the service of the Counter-Reformation.

After the death of his patron Julius III in 1555, Vignola worked mainly for the Farnese family, for whom he completed the huge Palazzo Farnese at Caprarola, near Viterbo, the plan of which had been established earlier by Antonio da Sangallo and Baldassarre Peruzzi.

The academic tendency of Vignola’s mind is epitomized in his Regola delli cinque ordini d’architettura of 1562, which remained a standard textbook on the architectural orders for three centuries. He also wrote on perspective in Le due regole della prospettiva pratica, which was published posthumously (1583) and had a short life.


Encyclopædia
Britannica
 

 




Giacomo Vignola. Villa Farnese in Caprarola, Italy




Giacomo Vignola. Villa Farnese in Caprarola, Italy

 

 


Giacomo della Porta

Giacomo della Porta, (born c. 1537, Rome, Papal States [Italy]—died 1602, Rome), Italian architect whose work represents the development in style from late Mannerism to early Baroque. He was the chief Roman architect during the latter third of the 16th century and contributed to most of the major architectural projects undertaken in Rome during that period.

Della Porta was a follower of Michelangelo and continued two of his greatest architectural projects, the Piazza del Campidoglio and St. Peter’s in the Vatican at Rome. Working with Domenico Fontana, the architect to Pope Sixtus V, Della Porta gave a higher, more pointed profile than Michelangelo had intended to the dome of St. Peter’s; it became the prototype of the Baroque dome. He also added the facade to Giacomo da Vignola’s Gesù, mother church of the Jesuits, which was widely copied by Jesuit missionaries and became the model of many Baroque church facades. Della Porta made Il Gesù’s facade dramatic and lively by gradually increasing the number of architectural elements toward the centre of his design, thus creating a sense of tension released by entrance into the building’s seemingly vast interior. He designed a number of palaces, the most famous being the Villa Aldobrandini (1598–1604; Frascati), his last work, notable for its huge broken pediment and elegant fenestration.
 

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 




Giacomo della Porta. Fontana delle Tartarughe. In "Piazza Mattei" near Largo Argentina in Rome




Giacomo Della Porta created the fountain with sculpted tritons in 1574-1576, and Gian Lorenzo Bernini redesigned it 1654,
adding the central statue "Il Moro", an Ethiopian fighting a dolphin.

 
 

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