Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES
 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER FOUR

 

MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
 

PAINTING
SCULPTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
ARCHITECTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
 
 


SCULPTURE
 

Italian sculptors of the later sixteenth century fail to match the achievements of the painters. Perhaps Michelangelo's overpowering personality discouraged new talent in this field, but the dearth of challenging new tasks is a more plausible reason. In any case, the most interesting sculpture of this period was produced outside of Italy, and in Florenceafter the death of Michelangelo in 1564the leading sculptor was a Northerner.



Mannerism, First and Second Phases


BERRUGUETE.

If the anticlassical phase of Mannerism, represented by the style of Rosso and Pontormo, has no sculptural counterpart, the work of the Spaniard Alonso Berruguete (c.
1489-1561) most closely approaches it. Berruguete had been associated with the founders of the anticlassical trend in Florence about 1520; his St. John the Baptist (fig. 694), one of the reliefs carved 20 years later for the wood choir stalls of Toledo Cathedral, still reflects this experience. The angular, emaciated body, clawlike hands, and fixed, wide-eyed stare recall the otherworldly expressiveness of Rosso's Descent from the Cross (see fig. 675).
 


694. Alonso Berruguete. St. John the Baptist ń. 1540.
Wood, 80 x 49 cm. Toledo Cathedral, Spain


 

 


Alonso Berruguete

Alonso Berruguete, (born c. 1488, Paredes de Nava, Castile [now in Palencia, Spain]—died 1561, Toledo, Castile), the most important Spanish sculptor of the Renaissance, known for his intensely emotional Mannerist sculptures of figures portrayed in spiritual torment or in transports of religious ecstasy.

After studying under his father, the painter Pedro Berruguete, Alonso went to Italy (c. 1504/08). Most of his sojourn was spent in Florence and Rome, where he was influenced by the works of Michelangelo and such examples of Hellenistic sculpture in the Vatican collections as the Laocoön. Berruguete’s painting of Salome (Uffizi Gallery, Florence) suggests that his Italian paintings were in the early Mannerist style of Jacopo da Pontormo and Rosso Fiorentino.

Berruguete returned to Spain in about 1517, and in 1518 he was made court painter to Charles V and settled at Valladolid. Because he did not follow the emperor to Germany in 1520, however, he received no royal commissions for paintings. Berruguete turned, therefore, to sculpture and architecture, and in the period 1518–21 executed sculpture for the tomb of Juan Selvagio in the church of Santa Engracia at Zaragossa, carved the relief of the Resurrection in the cathedral of Valencia (c. 1517), and submitted plans in 1521 for the Capilla Real (Royal Chapel) in Granada, which, not meeting with official approval, were never realized. Among his major sculpture commissions of the Valladolid period were the retables, or altarpieces, for the monastery of La Mejorada at Olmedo (1526), for San Benito at Valladolid (1527–32), for the Colegio de los Irlandeses at Salamanca (1529–32), and for the Church of Santiago at Valladolid (1537).

In 1539 the great Spanish humanist and art patron Juan Pardo Cardinal Tavera asked Berruguete to Toledo to execute the choir stalls of the Toledo Cathedral (1539–43), as well as the alabaster Transfiguration at the west end of the choir (1543–48). These carvings are somewhat more moderate and classical in feeling than his earlier works. At the time of his death Berruguete was working on the tomb for Cardinal Tavera (1552–61) in the Hospital de San Juan Bautista at Toledo. Berruguete’s use of a rather rich and extravagant but delicate ornamentation in his church decorations is typical of Spain’s Plateresque style.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 

 


Alonso Berruguete. Eve
1539-43

 


Alonso Berruguete. St Christopher
1526-32

 


Alonso Berruguete. The Sacrifice of Isaac
1526-32

 


Alonso Berruguete. St Sebastian
1526-32

 


Alonso Berruguete. Adoration of the Magi
1526-32
Polychrome wood
National Museum of Religious Carvings, Valladolid

 


Alonso Berruguete. Adoration of the Magi (another view)
1526-32
Polychrome wood
National Museum of Religious Carvings, Valladolid

 


Alonso Berruguete. Choir-stall (detail)
1539-43
Wood
Cathedral, Toledo

 


Alonso Berruguete.
Visitation altarpiece , Convento Santa Ursula


Alonso Berruguete.
Visitation altarpiece , Convento Santa Ursula

 
 

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