Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES
 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER FOUR

 

MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
 

PAINTING
SCULPTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
ARCHITECTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
 

 


ARCHITECTURE


Other Trends
 

SANSOVINO.

We have not encountered the architecture of Venice since the Ca' d'Oro (see fig.
484), for it remained outside the mainstream of the Renaissance. Its essential characteristics were defined by Jacopo Sansovino (1486-1570), a minor Florentine sculptor of incipient Mannerist persuasion from the circle of Raphael who settled there after the Sack of Rome in 1527 and established himself as the chief architect of the city. Not surprisingly, his buildings are remarkably sculptural in treatment. Indeed, his masterpiece, the Library of St. Mark's (fig. 701) facing the Piazzetta along the Grand Canal, looks like nothing so much as a huge wedding cake, so luxurious is the sculptural encrustation. The street-level arcade consists of the Roman Doric order, inspired by the Colosseum (see fig. 247), while the upper one shows an unusually elaborate treatment of the Ionic order (including triple engaged columns) surmounted by a garlanded entablature. The ensemble is capped off by a balustrade, with lifesize statues over every column cluster and obelisks at each corner. Although there is not a solid wall anywhere on the facade, the extravagant ornamentation creates an effect of ponderous opulence. The Library set a new standard for lavish architecture. Sansovino's style was so authoritative that it enjoyed classic status and was followed in Venice for the remainder of the century. Nevertheless, we have left the commanding logic of the High Renaissance far behind.

Stranger still is the Mint to the left of the Library. Once again the facade has been penetrated wherever possible, but the results are yet more massive. Though of equal height, the rusticated arcade seems barely able to sustain the weight of the upper two stories (the top story was added belatedly around 1560), which feature unique corkscrew columns and support heavy cornices. We seem on the verge of Mannerism, but a glance at Ammanati's Pitti courtyard (see fig. 700) will convince us of the differences. Art historians have yet to find a term adequate to this grandiose style.



701. Jacopo Sansovino. Mint (left) and Library of St. Mark's, Venice. Begun c. 1535/7




Jacopo Sansovino. Loggetta of the Campanile. c. 1537-45, Red, white and green marbles and bronze.
Piazza San Marco, Venice




 Jacopo Sansovino. Palazzo Dolfin-Manin. 1538-70. Venice

 

 


Jacopo Sansovino

Jacopo Sansovino, original name Jacopo Tatti (baptized July 2, 1486, Florence—died Nov. 27, 1570, Venice), sculptor and architect who introduced the style of the High Renaissance into Venice. In 1502 he entered the Florence workshop of the sculptor Andrea Sansovino and, as a sign of admiration, adopted his master’s name. In 1505 he accompanied the Florentine architect Giuliano da Sangallo to Rome, studying ancient architecture and sculpture while employed by Pope Julius II in the restoration of ancient statues. Back in Florence he carved the statue St. James the Elder (1511–18; Santa Maria del Fiore) and the Bacchus (c. 1514).

From 1518 Jacopo worked in Rome, first on the Madonna del Parto (c. 1519), which shows the continuing influence of Andrea Sansovino, and on the St. James (1520).

After the sack of Rome in 1527, Sansovino fled to Venice, where he was made protoma gister (supervising architect) of the cathedral. He became a friend of the painter Titian and the author Pietro Aretino and was appointed chief architect of the city, a position he held until his death. His first Venetian building was the Palazzo Corner della Ca’ Grande (1533), in which he retained the rusticated base and trabeated second story (piano nobile) of the Roman palaces of Donato Bramante and Raphael. But Sansovino added a third story and altered the proportions of each story in order to conform more closely to Venetian traditions of palace design.

Sansovino planned a transformation of St. Mark’s Square into a unified arrangement of interrelated structures. Although his plan was incomplete at the time of his death, his influence on the urban landscape endured. His Zecca (Mint) dates from 1536 and is notable for the imaginative rustication of its columns and wall surfaces, which give the building an appropriately fortified appearance. The Library of St. Mark’s (also called the Old Library), one of the major architectural works of the 16th century, was begun the same year. The small but richly decorated Loggetta, also begun in the mid-1530s, was the first of the three to be completed (1542).

Sansovino’s early Venetian bronzes, such as the statuettes of the Evangelists and the doors of the sacristy in St. Mark’s (1540s), recall the easy grace of his Roman and Florentine works but show a new independence and maturity of conception. His marble statue of the youthful St. John the Baptist (1554) in Santa Maria dei Frari shows the transition from his mature style to that of his old age.

Among the works showing his severe late style are the bronze portrait of Tommaso Rangone over the entrance to the Church of San Giuliano (1554), which Sansovino also designed; the colossal statues of Mars and Neptune (1554–56); and the monument to the doge Francesco Venier in the Church of San Salvatore (1556–61).

Many of Sansovino’s most important works are decorative elements of his architecture, and he was perhaps more successful than any other Renaissance architect in fusing architecture and sculpture. He remained an advocate of the balance and restraint of the High Renaissance style even while Mannerism was becoming the dominant artistic trend in Italy.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 



Jacopo Sansovino. Bacchus
1511-18
Marble, height 146 cm
Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence




Jacopo Sansovino. Bacchus (details)
1511-18
Marble
Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence



Jacopo Sansovino. Neptune
1554-67
Marble, height 305 cm
Palazzo Ducale, Venice



Jacopo Sansovino. Madonna del Parto
1518
Marble, over lifesize
S. Agostino, Rome



Jacopo Sansovino. Monument of Tommaso Rangone
1553-57
Bronze and stone, 241 cm
San Giuliano, Venice

 
 

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