Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES
 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER FOUR

 

MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
 

PAINTING
SCULPTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
ARCHITECTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
 

 


ARCHITECTURE
 

Mannerism



AMMANATI.

The same is true of the courtyard of the Palazzo Pitti (fig.
700) by Michelangelo's protege, the sculptor Bartolomeo Ammanati (1511-1592), despite its display of muscularity. Here the three-story scheme of superimposed orders, derived from the Colosseum, has been overlaid with an extravagant pattern of rustication that "imprisons" the columns, reducing them to an oddly passive role. These welts disguise rather than enhance the massiveness of the masonry, the overall corrugated texture making us think of the fancies of a pastry cook.

Ammanati had worked under Jacopo Sansovino in Venice, and the Palazzo Pitti stands in the same relation to Sansovino's Mint (fig. 701) as Vasari's Palazzo degli Uffizi does to Michelangelo's Laurentian Library.



700. Bartolomeo Ammanati. Courtyard of the Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 1558-70





Bartolomeo Ammanati. Cortile degli Svizzeri. 1577-86. Palazzo Ducale, Lucca
 

 


Bartolommeo Ammannati

Bartolommeo Ammannati, (born June 18, 1511, Settignano, near Florence [Italy]—died April 22, 1592, Florence), Italian sculptor and architect whose buildings mark the transition from the classicizing Renaissance to the more exuberant Baroque style.

Ammannati began his career as a sculptor, carving statues in various Italian cities in the 1530s and ’40s. He trained first under Baccio Bandinelli and then under Jacopo Sansovino in Venice, working with the latter on the Library of St. Mark.

He was called to Rome in 1550 by Pope Julius III on the advice of the architect and art historian, Giorgio Vasari. Ammannati’s most important work there was in collaboration with Vasari and Giacomo da Vignola on the villa of Pope Julius, the Villa Giulia (begun 1551). Cosimo de’ Medici (Cosimo I) brought Ammannati back to Florence in 1555; he was to spend almost all of his remaining career in service to the Medicis. His first commission was to finish the Laurentian Library, begun by Michelangelo. Ammannati interpreted a clay model sent him by Michelangelo in 1558 to produce the especially impressive staircase, leading from the vestibule into the library proper.

Ammannati’s masterpiece in Florence is the Pitti Palace, where, beginning in 1560, he enlarged the basic structure by Filippo Brunelleschi, designing a courtyard and facade opening onto the Boboli Gardens, which Ammannati had a part in designing. The facade overlooking the courtyard is very unusual in its rusticated (rough-hewn) treatment of successive levels of Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian attached columns. At the Pitti Palace it provides an appropriately rural yet impressive backdrop for the gardens.

Two other major works by Ammannati in Florence are the Bridge of Santa Trinità (1567–69), which contains elliptical arches, and the Fountain of Neptune (1567–70; destroyed 1944, rebuilt 1957); the latter, in the Piazza della Signoria, features a colossal marble statue of that deity. In his old age Ammannati was strongly influenced by the Counter-Reformation philosophy of the Jesuits. He repudiated his earlier nude sculptures as lustful, and he designed several austere buildings for the Jesuits.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 





Bartolomeo Ammanati
. Leda with the Swan
1540s
Marble, height 50 cm
Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence



Bartolomeo Ammanati.
Fountain of Neptune
1559-75
Marble and bronze
Piazza della Signoria, Florence



Bartolomeo Ammanati
. Fountain of Neptune
1559-75
Marble and bronze
Piazza della Signoria, Florence



Bartolomeo Ammanati.
Fountain of Neptune
1559-75
Marble and bronze
Piazza della Signoria, Florence



Bartolomeo Ammanati.
Fountain of Neptune (detail)



Bartolomeo Ammanati.
The Fountain of Neptune (detail)



Bartolomeo Ammanati
. The Fountain of Neptune (detail)



Bartolomeo Ammanati
. Goddess Opi
1672-75
Bronze, height 95 cm
Palazzo Vecchio, Florence



Bartolomeo Ammanati
. Parnassus
c. 1563
Marble
Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence



Bartolomeo Ammanati
. Victory
1540
Marble, height 262 cm
Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence



Bartolomeo Ammanati.
Allegory of Winter
1563-65
Stone
Villa Medici, Castello

 
 

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