History of Photography

Introduction History of Photography (Encyclopaedia Britannica)

A World History of Photography (by Naomi Rosenblum)

The Story Behind the Pictures 1827-1991 (by Hans-Michael Koetzle)

Photographers' Dictionary
(based on "20th Century Photography - Museum Ludwig Cologne")



Photographers' Dictionary

(based on "20th Century Photography-Museum Ludwig Cologne")




Anne Brigman

(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Anne W. Brigman (1869 - 1950) was an American photographer and one of the original members of the Photo-Secession movement in America. Her most famous images were taken between 1900 and 1920, and depict nude women in primordial, naturalistic contexts.
Brigman was born in Hawaii in 1869 and moved to California when she was sixteen. In 1894 she married a sea captain, Martin Brigman. She was trained as a painter but began taking photos around 1902. That year, Alfred Stieglitz noticed Brigman's work and invited her to join the Photo-Secession, an elite group of pictorialist American photographers who were dedicated to transforming photography into a higher form of art. Brigman was the only Fellow of the society west of the Mississippi River, and one of the few women. Her photos were printed in three issues of Stieglitz's journal, Camera Work.
In California, she became revered by West Coast photographers and her photography influenced many of her contemporaries. Here, she was also known as an actress in local plays, and as a poet performing both her own work and more popular pieces such as Enoch Arden. An admirer of the work of George Wharton James, she photographed him on at least one occasion. Brigman died in 1950 in California.
Brigman's photographs frequently focused on the female nude, dramatically situated in natural landscapes or trees. Many of her photos were taken in the Sierra Nevada Mountains in carefully selected locations and featuring elaborately staged poses. Brigman often featured herself as the subject of her images. After shooting the photographs, she would extensively touch up the negatives with paints, pencil, or superimposition.
Brigman's deliberately counter-cultural images suggested bohemianism and female liberation. Her work challenged the establishment's cultural norms and defied convention, instead embracing pagan antiquity. The raw emotional intensity and barbaric strength of her photos contrasted with the carefully calculated and composed images of Stieglitz and other modern photographers.

Self-portrait, 1908


"Soul of the Blasted Pine," a self-portrait of Anne Brigman taken in 1908.


Sanctuary / The Grand Canyon



The Heart of the Storm , 1912


The Harp of the Winds


Flame, 1927


Invictus, 1924



Illustration from Charles Buxton Going
"The Ghostly Mother"
American Magazine, June 1908


Cleft in the Rock, 1907


The Source, 1907




Self Portrait


The Cleft in the Rock






Ebb Tide






The Breeze


Father and Daughter, 1930


The Dying Cedar, 1906


Via Dolorosa


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