Developments in the 19th Century


Art Styles in 19th century - Art Map


Jan Toorop


Jan Toorop



(b Purworedjo, Java, 20 Dec 1858; d The Hague, 3 March 1928).

He moved to the Netherlands in 1872 and took a course in drawing at the Polytechnische School in Delft (1876–9). He also studied at the Rijksakademie voor Beeldende Kunsten in Amsterdam (1880–82) and at the Ecole des Arts Dťcoratifs in Brussels (1882–5). In Amsterdam he joined the St Lukas Society, and in Belgium he was a founder-member of Les XX in 1884. Although he had met Jozef IsraŽls in 1880 and respected the style of the Hague school, he was more attracted by what he saw in Brussels, particularly work by French artists. His portraits of 1884 are painted in an Impressionist style. With other members of Les XX he trained himself in plein-air; he learnt from James Ensor how to apply colours with a palette knife and how to use white with the same intensity as other colours. His style, however, remained austere and his scenes of workmen show a sensitive realism reminiscent of Gustave Courbet’s work, for example Respect for the Dead


Turningt in on Oneself


The Three Fiancees


A New Generation




Zang der tijden    




O grave, where is thy Victory ?


The Sphinx

Desire and Gratification 

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