Neoclassicism and Romanticism


(Neoclassicism, Romanticism and Art Styles in 19th century - Art Map)






Francisco de Goya

"Life and Work"





Early Years (1746-1773)


Move to Madrid (1774-1783)


Artist to Nobility (1783-1791)


Crisis and a New Start (1792-1798)


The Sleep of Reason (1797-1799)




The Height of Fame (1799-1807)


Times of War (1808-1818)




The "Black Paintings" (1819-1823)




Exile in France (1824-1828)









Last Images









Francisco de Goya
Self-Portrait Aged 78

Pen and brown ink, 70 x 81 mm
Museo del Prado, Madrid

Goya worked at his art until the very end. He enjoyed his peace and independence in Bordeaux. He occupied himself with new artistic techniques with continuing pleasure in his discoveries. In Paris he was able to extend his knowledge of the art of lithography and was now working on several lithographs on his favorite theme, bullfighting. He drew directly onto the lithographic stone with black crayon.
In miniature painting he developed a completely new way of working. Perhaps inspired by miniatures he had seen in Paris, he painted on tiny pieces of ivory. He began by blackening the surface of a small piece of ivory and then dripping water onto it. The accidental shapes formed in this way provided him with ideas for painting, and he now added details with the point of his paintbrush, working the shapes into greater precision and here and there adding accents of color. In this way he painted a man delousing a dog (above), a man eating leeks, children reading, old people. Even Goya's ever-changing theme of the coquettish Spanish maja re-emerges (right). He himself estimated that he painted 40 of these ivory miniatures.
At the same time, he was teaching drawing to Leocadia's ten-year-old daughter and was also busy drawing for himself; his albums from this period contain over 200 drawings. In these carefully composed pages he expressed both the horrific and the amusing, what he had seen and what he had imagined. These expressive drawings are undoubtedly among the masterpieces of his graphic works.
On April 16, 1828, Francisco de Goya y Lucientes died in Bordeaux at the age of 82. In France at this tune, the first copies of individual prints from the Capricbos series were already circulating. The young painter Kugene Delacroix mentioned Goya's name in the same breath as that of Michelangelo. He was the first of a long line of  19th- and 20th-century artists influenced by Goya's work, including Honore Daumier, Edouard Manet, Pablo Picasso, and many others.
Today most of Goya's paintings are in the Prado in Madrid; his prints are to be found in many great museums throughout the world.




Francisco de Goya
Portrait of Javier Goya, the Artist's Son

Black chalk, 90 x 80 mm
Private collection



Francisco de Goya
Holy Week in Spain in Times Past

Black chalk, 191 x 146 mm
National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa



Francisco de Goya
Majo and Maja



Francisco de Goya
A Man Delousing a Small Dog
 Charcoal and watercolor on ivory 9x8.5cm
Dresden, Galerie Neuer Meister, Kupferstichkabinett

This tiny image shows an everyday scene in a free and lively style.
Goya's late miniatures demonstrate his enormous artistic mastery.



Francisco de Goya
Phantom Dancing with Castanets

Black chalk, 189 x 139 mm
Museo del Prado, Madrid

The round-faced old man in the monk's robes is dancing to the rhythm of the castanets:
he creates the effect of a merry ghost, a little mad but not frightening.
Goya positioned the pale figure before a dark background, thus giving it a strong presence.



Francisco de Goya
Old Man on a Swing
Black chalk on paper
19x15.1 cm
New York, Hispanic Society of America

The drawing comes from the same album as Dancing Ghost  and is one of the most famous prints from the late Goya; he also used this theme in an etching. With no firm footing and only the swinging rope in his hand, the old man swings laughingly through theair. His instability gives the old man a foolish pleasure instead of anxiety or discomfort. Goya seems to be contradicting cliches about the wisdom of old age. It is surely not by chance that his childish old people all look alike and could even be grotesque mutations of his own image.



Francisco de Goya
A Lunatic behind Bars

Black chalk, 1913 x 145 mm
National Gallery of Art, Washington


Francisco de Goya
Spanish Entertainment

Lithograph, 300 x 410 mm
Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid


Francisco de Goya
The Divided Arena

Lithograph, 300 x 425 mm
Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid


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