The Midle Ages and the Renaissance

12th to 16th century

(Classical Music Map)


I. History of Classical Music  (by John Stanley)
The great composers and their masterworks in MP3 format
Albeniz Borodin Donizetti Hindemith Prokofiev Schutz
Albinoni Brahms Dowland Janacek Puccini Scriabin
Allegri Britten Dvorak Kodaly Purcell Sibelius
Arne Bruckner Falla Leoncavallo Rachmaninov Smetana
Auber Busoni Field Liszt Rameau Strauss J.S.
Bach Byrd Gabrieli Lully Ravel Strauss R.
Barber Carissimi Gershwin Mahler Respighi Stravinsky
Bartok Charpentier Gesualdo Mendelssohn Rimsky-Korsakov Tallis
Beethoven Cherubini Glinka Meyerbeer Rossini Tchaikovsky
Bellini Chopin Gluck Monteverdi Saint-Saens Telemann
Bernstein Clementi Gounod Mozart Scarlatti Verdi
Berwald Corelli Grieg Mussorgsky Schoenberg Victoria
Berlioz Couperin Handel Pachelbel Shostakovich Villa-Lobos
Bizet Debussy Haydn Paganini Schubert Vivaldi
Boccherini Delibes Hildegard Palestrina Schumann Wagner
Orff  "Carmina Burana"
II. History of Jazz

Tomas Luis de Victoria



Victoria was the greatest Spanish composer of the sixteenth century. A profoundly religious man, he wrote only sacred music. More than anywhere else in Europe, Spain was gripped at this time by a strident, zealous Catholicism, most evident in the purges of the Inquisition, in Ignatius Loyola's foundation of the Jesuit order in 1534, and in the creation of several new monastic orders. Such deep-seated religious fervour permeated all aspects of life, including the composition of church music. Victoria's music is a reflection of this highly charged and passionate attitude.

Born in Avila, the seventh of 11 children, Victoria grew up with religion an integral part of his life. Two of his uncles were priests, one of whom took care of the young Victoria after the death of his father when he was nine. He went to study at a local Jesuit school, sang in the choir of Avila Cathedral and built up a strong reputation locally.

When his voice broke he was encouraged by both the Cathedral and King Philip II of Spain to further his studies in Rome. There he joined the Jesuit Collegio Germanico, where he trained for the priesthood as well as practising music.

Palestrina was at that time the Maestro di Cappella at the nearby Scininano Romano, and it is likely that he taught Victoria; undoubtedly some sort of exchange of musical ideas took place between the two composers.

Victoria remained in Rome for over 20 years. He became a priest in 1575, and held several appointments at churches and religious institutions. Equally valuable to his musical development was the fertile contact with other composers living in or visiting Rome. He published a number of particularly beautiful books of his music, and in a dedication of Missarum libri duo to Philip II in 1583 he expressed a desire to return to his beloved Spain. In 1587 his wishes were granted when the King appointed him chaplain to the Dowager Empress Maria, widow of Maximilian II, who lived in retirement in Madrid. Victoria served at her convent for the rest of his life. In 1603 the Dowager Empress died and Victoria composed her Requiem, the mighty Officium defunctorum. Little more was heard from him before his own death in 1611.

Victoria's Masses are for four to 12 voices, often divided up into two or three choirs — an innovative arrangement. The rest of his work includes motets, Magnificats, and a variety of other sacred works. His music expresses the ardent, fatalistic Catholicism peculiar to his country and time. While the Officium defunctorum is deeply reflective, Masses such as О quam gloriosum and Ave maris Stella arc more joyful, holding out more hope for this life, as opposed to the next; all demonstrate his passionate faith.


Tomas Luis de Victoria



Tomas Luis de Victoria (1548-1611)



Ave Maria

Joaquín Cachón
Amalia Rodríguez
Coro del Conservatorio de Badajoz

Amici Cantores


Ascendens Christus

Sanctus  Jeff Ostrowski
Benedictus  Jeff Ostrowsk

Dum Complerentur

Kyrie Amici Cantores
Gloria Amici Cantores
Credo Amici Cantores
Sanctus y Benedictus Amici Cantores
Agnus Dei Amici Cantores

O magnum mysterium

Amici Cantores
Lars Fredén
Ubi Sunt?
Coral Armiz


Jueves Santo

Incipit lamentatio

Coro Tomás Luis de Victoria de Brunete
Vau. Et egressus

Coro Tomás Luis de Victoria de Brunete
Jod. Manum suam
Coro Tomás Luis de Victoria de Brunete

Amicus meus

Coro Tomás Luis de Victoria de Brunete

Ubi Sunt?
Iudas mercator pessimus

Ubi sunt?
Coro del Conservatorio de Badajoz
Coro Tomás Luis de Victoria de Brunete

Unus ex discipulis

Ubi sunt?
Coro Tomás Luis de Victoria de Brunete
Eram quasi agnus

Ubi sunt?
Una hora

Ubi sunt?
Coro del Conservatorio de Badajoz
Coro Tomás Luis de Victoria de Brunete

Seniores populi

Ubi sunt?











Orff  "Carmina Burana"


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