The Romantic Era

nineteenth century

(Classical Music Map)


I. History of Classical Music  (by John Stanley)
The great composers and their masterworks in MP3 format
Albeniz Borodin Donizetti Hindemith Prokofiev Schutz
Albinoni Brahms Dowland Janacek Puccini Scriabin
Allegri Britten Dvorak Kodaly Purcell Sibelius
Arne Bruckner Falla Leoncavallo Rachmaninov Smetana
Auber Busoni Field Liszt Rameau Strauss J.S.
Bach Byrd Gabrieli Lully Ravel Strauss R.
Barber Carissimi Gershwin Mahler Respighi Stravinsky
Bartok Charpentier Gesualdo Mendelssohn Rimsky-Korsakov Tallis
Beethoven Cherubini Glinka Meyerbeer Rossini Tchaikovsky
Bellini Chopin Gluck Monteverdi Saint-Saens Telemann
Bernstein Clementi Gounod Mozart Scarlatti Verdi
Berwald Corelli Grieg Mussorgsky Schoenberg Victoria
Berlioz Couperin Handel Pachelbel Shostakovich Villa-Lobos
Bizet Debussy Haydn Paganini Schubert Vivaldi
Boccherini Delibes Hildegard Palestrina Schumann Wagner
Orff  "Carmina Burana"
II. History of Jazz

Ferencz Liszt



Liszt was born in Raiding, Hungary, and grew up m a musical environment — his father was an official at the Esterhazy court where Haydn had worked. The family soon moved to Vienna where Liszt studied the piano with Carl Czerny and composition with Mozart's rival, Antonio Salieri. At a concert given in the presence of Beethoven, Liszt is said to have been rewarded with a kiss on the forehead from the aging master.

In 1823 Liszt arrived in Pans, where he soon became a celebrated performer and toured France. He also played in England in 1824, where he was received by King George IV, before illness and the death of his father from typhoid prompted his return. He went back to Paris in 1826, where he befriended Berlioz and Chopin and began his career as a progressive and visionary composer. He also considered becoming a priest and on top of everything else fell in love - these three sides to his character competed for ascendancy during the rest of his life.

As a composer Liszt was influenced by leading Romantics, such as the author Victor Hugo and the painter Eugene

Delacroix: while Chopin brought out his poetic nature, Berlioz encouraged the latent Mephistophelian character in his music. On hearing Paganini in 1831 Liszt set out to match the violinist's astonishing virtuosity in his own work, and wrote a piano transcription of Paganini's La campanella. These diabolical and fiendishly virtuoso elements would later find expression in the swirling Mepliisto waltzes for piano.

In 1834 Liszt began a long affair with the Countess Mane d'Agoult, and the couple moved to Geneva the following year. He continued to perform widely, and won a famous piano duel against his rival Sigismond Thalbergin 1837. In 1839 he began touring extensively as he sought to raise funds for a Beethoven memorial in Bonn. His piano-playing created a sensation wherever he went. He was honoured in his native Hungary, where he rediscovered the interest in gypsy music that would later inspire his Hungarian rhapsodies. He also proposed the establishment of a national conservatoire in Budapest. But his long absences from home cost him his relationship with the countess and they separated in 1844.

Liszt had a succession of mistresses during these touring years until, m 1847, the Princess Carolyne Sayn-Wittgenstein of Kiev persuaded him to give up travelling and settle as a full-time conductor and composer in Weimar, Germany. In the course of the next 12 years he conducted music by Wagner (including the first performance of Lohengrin m 1850) Schumann, Berlioz. Verdi, and others, m addition to performances of his own works. Weimar became the shrine of the "New German School'', and pianists and composers flocked there for lessons or consultations with Liszt, for which he refused payment. However, his cohabitation with the married princess was becoming a court scandal, and his enthusiastic support of Wagner (then a political exile) was highly controversial. He resigned his post in 1858 and eventually left Weimar in 1861.

Liszt is credited with the invention of the symphonic poem and he completed all but one of the works employing this quintessentially Romantic form during his Weimar years. The main technique was "thematic transformation", in which one or more musical themes, representing heroic people or ideas, evolved throughout the work, thus providing both musical structure and Romantic narrative. The technique reached its zenith in his Piano sonata in В Minor (1853) and m the Faust symphony (1854).

Liszt eventually joined Princess Carolyne m Rome where she had tried, in the end unsuccessfully, to persuade the Pope to grant a divorce. He remained there for eight years, occupying himself mainly with music inspired by religion, including the reflective Annees de pelerinage (Years of pilgrimage) for piano. These pieces are in three volumes: the first deals with Swiss subjects, the second with Italian, and the

third is an unauthorized volume published after Liszt's death. In 1 865 he took the four minor orders of the Catholic Church.

Invitations to Weimar in 1869 and to Budapest in 1871 marked the beginning of a new phase in his life and he subsequently travelled continually between these two cities and Rome. The three centres symbolized the visionary artist, the passionate gypsy, and the pious Catholic that lived within the same man.

Liszt's final tour in 1886 took him once again to Paris and London, but he soon became weak with dropsy and spent his last days in the Wagner festival town of Bayreuth. There he was looked after by Cosima, his second daughter by the Countess d'Agoult and by then Wagner's widow, and was able to attend a production of Parsifal before dying from pneumonia. Liszt left behind more than 400 original works in addition to many transcriptions and arrangements, and he made an impact during his life as the most phenomenal pianist of his time.


Ferencz Liszt



Ferencz Liszt (1811-1886)



Peter Lang
Piano concerto No.1 in E flat major

Allegro maestoso
Allegro marziale animato-Presto

Hanae Nakajima
Piano concerto No.2 in A major
Allegro Agitato assai
Allegro moderato
Allegro deciso
Allegro animato

W.M. Gan
Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 in C-sharp minor, S.244/2

E. Helling
Hungarian Rhapsody No. 4 in E-flat major, S.244/4

E. Helling
Hungarian Rhapsody No. 5 in E minor (Heroide-elegiaque), S. 244/5

Hungarian Rhapsody No. 15

M. Hawley
Sonata in B minor, S.178

Dieter Goldmann
The Rustel of the Trees
Dance of the Gnomes

Sylvia Capova
Love dream No.3
Consolation in E major

Annees de Pelerinage
T. Pascale

Au bord d'une source
F. Zappala
Sonetto 47 del Petrarca
Sonetto 104 del Petrarca
Sonetto 123 del Petrarca

A. Antonov
Ballade no.2 in B minor

I. Klyuev
Mephisto Waltzes

E. Helling
Valse melancolique

Prelude and Fugue in A minor (after BWV 543)



Eugene Delacroix





















J.S. Strauss







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