The Classical Era

mid-eighteenth to mid-nineteenth century

(Classical Music Map)


I. History of Classical Music  (by John Stanley)
The great composers and their masterworks in MP3 format
Albeniz Borodin Donizetti Hindemith Prokofiev Schutz
Albinoni Brahms Dowland Janacek Puccini Scriabin
Allegri Britten Dvorak Kodaly Purcell Sibelius
Arne Bruckner Falla Leoncavallo Rachmaninov Smetana
Auber Busoni Field Liszt Rameau Strauss J.S.
Bach Byrd Gabrieli Lully Ravel Strauss R.
Barber Carissimi Gershwin Mahler Respighi Stravinsky
Bartok Charpentier Gesualdo Mendelssohn Rimsky-Korsakov Tallis
Beethoven Cherubini Glinka Meyerbeer Rossini Tchaikovsky
Bellini Chopin Gluck Monteverdi Saint-Saens Telemann
Bernstein Clementi Gounod Mozart Scarlatti Verdi
Berwald Corelli Grieg Mussorgsky Schoenberg Victoria
Berlioz Couperin Handel Pachelbel Shostakovich Villa-Lobos
Bizet Debussy Haydn Paganini Schubert Vivaldi
Boccherini Delibes Hildegard Palestrina Schumann Wagner
Orff  "Carmina Burana"
II. History of Jazz

Muzio Clementi



Clementi was the eldest son of a Roman silversmith who was also a keen amateur musician. By the age of seven he was receiving organ lessons, and in open competition with adults was appointed the local church organist. At the age of 14 he went to study in England, after the Englishman Peter Beckford heard him play and was impressed enough to become his patron. Clementi made his first London appearance in 1775. In 1779 he published his six Piano sonatas Opus 2; these established the piano sonata as distinct from the harpsichord sonata and made Clementi's reputation.

In 1781 he visited Europe and was astonished in France by the excitement his work generated. He engaged in public competition with other pianists, including the famous "piano duel" with Mozart, in which each player improvised upon his own compositions. Neither was declared outright winner: Mozart considered Clementi "a Charlatan - like all Italians", while Clementi was more gracious about Mozart's gifts.

Clementi continued his travels in Europe and wrote more sonatas (his final tally was over 100). 13y adding a third movement to the two that were typical of the Italian style, Clementi brought the sonata to a new level of development. He settled in

London in spring 1785 and remained there for the next 20 years, re-establishing old links with the Hanover Concert series and enjoying rising status as a soloist and conductor. He turned his attentions to composing symphonies, but his works suffered from comparison with those of the hugely revered Haydn, who visited London in 1791 and probably contributed to Clementi's lack of success. None of his own efforts was published during his lifetime.

In 1802, by now a partner in a successful piano manufacturing business, Cleincnti took his ex-pupil John Field on a tour of Europe to promote pianos. Field remained in St Petersburg while Clementi continued travelling. In 1810 he returned to London, continuing to prove himself a shrewd businessman. Approaching 60, he married Emma Gisborne, with whom he had four children. He continued to compose and in 1813 joined the board of the Philharmonic Society. He made visits abroad in pursuit of a wider audience for his symphonies, but by now the Continent was enraptured by Beethoven — some of whose works Clementi published.

In 1817 Clementi began Gradus ad Parnassum, a volume of studies and five-finger exercises still in use today as a piano tutor and responsible for dementi's influence on generations of pianists (although Debussy parodied him m his piano piece Dr Gradus ad Parnassum). He retired to Evesham m Worcestershire and died after a short illness at the age of 80.


Muzio Clementi



Muzio Clementi (1752-1832)



Symphony No. 3, "Great national"
Keyboard sonatas

Pierre-Narcisse Guerin
















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