Developments in the 19th Century


Art Styles in 19th century - Art Map


The Birth of Realism


Jean-Francois Millet



Jean-Francois Millet

born Oct. 4, 1814, Gruchy, near Gréville, Fr.
died Jan. 20, 1875, Barbizon

French painter renowned for his peasant subjects.

Millet spent his youth working on the land, but by the age of 19 he was studying art in Cherbourg. In 1837 he arrived in Paris and eventually enrolled in the studio of Paul Delaroche, where he seems to have remained until 1839.

After the rejection of one of his entries for the Salon of 1840, Millet returned to Cherbourg, where he remained during mostof 1841, painting portraits. He achieved his first success in 1844 with “The Milkmaid” and a large pastel, “The Riding Lesson,” that has a sensual character typical of a large part of his production during the 1840s.

The peasant subjects, which from the early 1850s were to be Millet's principal concern, made their first important appearance at the Salon of 1848 with “The Winnower,” later destroyed by fire. In 1849, after a period of great hardship, Millet left Paris to settle in Barbizon, a small hamlet in the forest of Fontainebleau. He continued to exhibit paintings of peasants, and, as a result, periodically faced the charge of being a socialist. Letters of the period defending Millet's position underline the fundamentally classical nature of his approach to painting.

By the mid-1860s, Millet's work was beginning to be in demand; official recognition came in 1868, after nine major paintings had been shown at the exposition of 1867. Important collections of Millet's pictures are to be found in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and in the Louvre.



Peasand spreading manure


Woman Sewing by Lamplight


Landscape with Two Peasant Women


Autumn landscape with a flock of Turkeys


Vert Vert, the Nun's Parrot


Harvesters Resting


Haystacks : Autumn


The Bouquet of Daisies


Garden Scene


The Sheep Meadow, Moonlight


The Church of Greville

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