Dictionary of Art and Artists  
Dictionary of Photographers  
Dictionary of Writers and Philosophers  

Visual History of the World




From Prehistoric to Romanesque  Art
Gothic Art
Renaissance  Art
Baroque and Rococo Art
The Art of Asia
Neoclassicism, Romanticism  Art
Art Styles in 19th century
Art of the 20th century
Artists that Changed the World
Design and Posters
Classical Music
Literature and Philosophy

Visual History of the World
I. Prehistory
II. First Empires
III. The Ancient World
IV. The Middle Ages
V. The Early Modern Period
VI. The Modern Era
VII. The World Wars and Interwar Period
VIII. The Contemporary World

Dictionary of Art and Artists


Visual History of the World





Visual History of the World - part VII

The World Wars and Interwar Period



Timeline Seven


1916 Easter Rebellion in Ireland attempts to gain independence from Britain, but fails
1917 Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, under Lenin, inaugurates first communist state
1917 British government, in control of much of the Middle East following World War I, promulgates the Balfour Declaration supporting the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine
1919 Foundation or the League of Nations, an international congress to promote peace, forerunner of the modern United Nations
1920 Women enfranchised in the United States; 1928, in England; 1945, in France
1920 With the passage of the Home Rule Bill, the British concede autonomy to southern Ireland; Mohandas Gandhi initiates peaceful mass protests (satyagraba, or passive resistance) in India against British rule
1922 Fascists under Benito Mussolini seize power in Italy
1926-53 Joseph Stalin controls Soviet Union; his government is a rigid totalitarian state marked by purges, pogroms, and radical collectivization of farms and industries
1929 Stock-market crash in United States inaugurates the Great Depression, worldwide economic crisis, during the 1930s

1931-41 Japanese wage undeclared war on China, annexing Manchuria
1933 In United States: the New Deal, a program of government spending to end the Depression; in Germany: Adolf Hitler's National Socialist (Nazi) Party seizes power
1934-35 Long March: 90,000 communist rebels led by Mao Tse-tung flee Chiang Kai-shek across China; less than half survive
1936-39 Spanish Civil War, won by Fascists
1938 Germany annexes Austria; 1939, occupies Czechoslovakia
1939-45 World War II: 1939, Germany invades Poland; 1940, Belgium and France; Italy enters war as ally of Germany, 1941, Germany attacks Russia. Japan, allied with Germany, bombs American fleet at Pearl Harbor; United States enters war. Holocaust in Europe: Nazis systematically exterminate over 6 million lews, communists, homosexuals, gypsies, and others. 1945, defeat of Germans and Japanese by Allies
1939-43 Rampant persecution of Orthodox church in Soviet Union

1945 United Nations founded as an international advisory and peacekeeping council; Yalta Conference: British prime minister Winston Churchill, American president Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Marshal Joseph Stalin of the Soviet Union plan division of Germany into zones of occupation and Europe into spheres of influence


Timeline Seven


Charlie Chaplin (1889-1977), Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin, was an English comedic actor and film director. Chaplin became one of the most famous actors as well as a notable filmmaker, composer and musician in the early to mid Classical Hollywood era of American cinema.
Birth-control movement, led by Margaret Sanger in the United States, advocates family planning

PROUST MARCEL (1871-1922),

French critic and novelist, writes Remembrance of Things Past

1919 The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, innovative German Expressionist silent film

1920s American free-verse and modernist poets:
FROST  ROBERT (1874-1963), "Poems"

POUND EZRA (1885-1972),

ELIOT T. S.  (1888-1965), "The Waste Land"

1923 Martin Buber, German Jewish theologian, writes I and Thou

KAFKA FRANZ  (1883 -1924), The Castle;

Ernest Hemingway's The Sim Also Rises; 1927

WOOLF VIRGINIA (1882-1941)
Virginia Woolf's To the Lighthouse;

Abel Gance makes the film Napoleon; 1928,

LAWRENCE D. H. (1885-1930)
D. II. Lawrence's Lady Ckatterh's Lover; 1929,

William Faulkner's The Sound and the bury

1920 Radio programs broadcast, Pittsburgh
1922 Howard Carter discovers the tomb of Tutankhamen in Egypt
1925-26 Werner Heisenberg and Erwin Schrodinger's theories of quantum mechanics
1926 Sound motion pictures and television demonstrated
1927 Charles Lindbergh flies an aircraft solo across the Atlantic
1929 Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin

Russian modernist composers:
Rachmaninov (1873-1943),

Stravinsky (1882-1971),

Prokofiev (1891-1953),

Shostakovich (1906 -1975)

1932 Aldous Huxley's Brave New World describes a pseudo-utopian future
1930s Gertrude Stein explores the forms and structure of language;

JOYCE JAMES (18821941)
1939 James Joyce publishes Finnegans Wake, further experimenting with language

1931 Radio waves from space detected by the American electrical engineer
Jansky: beginning of radio astronomy, using radio waves to trace objects;
с. 1935-36, radar discovered by the Scottish physicist Robert Watson-Watt, and others
1935 C. F. Richter, American, devises scale for measuring earthquakes

1941 Charlie Chaplin makes the film The Great Dictator

CAMUS  ALBERT (1913-1960)
1942 Albert Camus publishes The Stranger

SARTRE JEAN-PAUL (1905-1980)
1943 Jean-Paul Sartre writes Being and Nothingness, statement of Existentialism

Expressionism - 1905

Edvard Munch

Amedeo Modigliani
(1884 - 1920)

Cubism - 1907

Pablo Picasso (

Futurism - 1909

Dadaism - 1916

The Bauhaus school - 1919

Art Deco - 1920

Pin-Up Art

Diego Rivera (1886-1957)

Marc Chagall (1887 - 1985)

Surrealism - 1924
BRETON ANDRE (1896-1966) Manifesto of Surrealism, 1924

Salvador Dali (
1910 - 1928)

Frida Kahlo (1907-1954)


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