Dictionary of Art and Artists  
Dictionary of Photographers  
Dictionary of Writers and Philosophers  

Visual History of the World




From Prehistoric to Romanesque  Art
Gothic Art
Renaissance  Art
Baroque and Rococo Art
The Art of Asia
Neoclassicism, Romanticism  Art
Art Styles in 19th century
Art of the 20th century
Artists that Changed the World
Design and Posters
Classical Music
Literature and Philosophy

Visual History of the World
I. Prehistory
II. First Empires
III. The Ancient World
IV. The Middle Ages
V. The Early Modern Period
VI. The Modern Era
VII. The World Wars and Interwar Period
VIII. The Contemporary World

Dictionary of Art and Artists


Visual History of the World






Visual History of the World - part VI

The Modern Era



Timeline Six


1775-83 American Revolution: 1776, Declaration of Independence; 178788, United States Constitution ratified
1789 French Revolution begins. Declaration of a National Assembly dedicated to producing a constitution. Mobs storm Bastille prison and riot in Paris; 1792, French monarchy is abolished; 1793, Louis XVI is beheaded. European states declare war against the French Republic, whose radical ideas are feared to encourage unrest
179395 Reign of Terror in France, dominated by Maximilien Robespierre, with as many as 350 executions per month
1793-95 Partition of Poland by Russia, Prussia, and Austria completely erases the country
1796-97 Napoleon Bonaparte's Italian campaign conquers most of Italy; after his Egyptian campaign (179899), his reputation as soldier and diplomat is established; 1799, he controls France
1793 French government, under Robespierre, outlaws the worship of God; Cult of Reason established
1798 Napoleon abolishes papal rule and establishes a French-dominated Roman Republic in the Papal States

1802 First child labor laws, in England
1803 United States purchases Louisiana from France for S15 million
1804 Napoleon crowned emperor of France, ending the republic established by the French Revolution; 1805-9, occupies Italy and Spain. He wins battles against allied England, Austria, Russia, and Sweden until he retreats from Moscow, 1812, losing the bulk of his army; 1814, successes of allies force him to abdicate; he is exiled to Elba
War of 1812 (European allies against Napoleon) draws United States into conflict with Britain; 1814, Washington, D.C burned
1814 Allies at Congress of Vienna redivide Europe. Louis XVIII, Bourbon king of France (r. 1814-24), establishes a constitutional monarchy; 1815, Napoleon returns; allies defeat him at Waterloo; he abdicates again and, 1821, dies a prisoner of war. Bourbon kings return to power until 1830
1819-21 Spain sells Florida to United States
Pope Pius X (r. 1803-14) reforms church law, music, texts, and administration

1822 Simon Bolivar (1783-1830) leads revolution in Latin America: six countries gain independence from Spain
1823 Monroe Doctrine claims United States sphere of influence in the Western Hemisphere
1833 Factory Act abolishes slavery in British colonies
1830 July Revolution in France; republican mobs riot against the monarchy; Louis Philippe, nominated as new king (r. 1830-48, the July Monarchy), continues conservative policies. This change of power mandated by popular acclaim spawns revolutionary movements across Europe
Queen Victoria (r. 1837-1901) rules Great Britain
1838 "Trail of Tears": Thousands of Cherokee and other Indians arc moved by United States government on a forced march from the Southeast to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma); one in four dies

1842 Oregon Trail opens western lands of North America for settlement
1846-48 War between United States and Mexico over territories of Texas and New Mexico
Revolution of 1848 in France; 1848-52, Second Republic declared after abdication of Louis Philippe. Bloody insurrection leads to the election of Louis Napoleon, nephew of Napoleon I, as constitutional monarch; 1852, he overthrows republic and becomes Emperor Napoleon III (Second Empire, 1852-70); 1861-67, disastrous attempt by France to annex Mexico
1848 Revolutions throughout Europe; 1848-61, unification of Italy begins with a revolt led by Giuseppe Garibaldi against Austrian and French rule
1848 Discovery of gold in American West encourages westward expansion

1853-55 Crimean War; England and France halt the advance of Russia into the Balkans
1854 Commodore Matthew Perry of the United States signs treaty opening Japan to foreign trade

1861 Russia abolishes serfdom
1861-65 Civil War in the United States, centering on the issue of slavery: 1863, Emancipation Proclamation frees slaves; 1865, assassination of President Abraham Lincoln
1864 First International Workingman's Association led by Karl Marx, in England
1869 Susan B. Anthony organizes American movement for women's suffrage

1870 Franco-Prussian War; 1871, defeat of French brings collapse of the Second Empire government. Paris populace sets up Third Republic (1870-1914), at first ruling through the short-lived, radical Paris Commune, opposed to the monarchy. In German states, Prussian victory leads to a nationalist movement for unification (declared 1871) under Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor of Prussia (r. 1862-90) and a conservative (antisocialist) government
1876 Battle of Little Bighorn, in Montana: troops of George Armstrong Custer (1839-76), United States general, defeated and killed by forces of Sitting Bull (Tatanka Io-take, c. 1831-90), Sioux leader
1876-1914 Peak of European colonialism worldwide

1881-82 First pogroms against Jews in Russia
1886 Labor unrest in United States: Haymarket riot, Chicago, leads to the foundation of the American Federation of Labor, first national labor union; 1892, Carnegie steel strike, Pennsylvania
1886 Zionism, a doctrine calling for the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine, appears in Europe; 1897, first Zionist Congress called by Theodor Hertzl, in Basel, Switzerland

1890 Battle of Wounded Knee, between Sioux nation and United States Army, effectively ends Indian resistance
1893 World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago
1894-1906 Dreyfus Affair: a charge of treason brought fraudulently against a Jewish army officer stirs antisemitism and popular unrest in France
1895-98 Wars in Cuba and America weaken Spanish kingdom and result in losses in territory and prestige
1899-1902 Boer War in South Africa; British defeat South Africans and annex territory

Edward VII of England (r. 1901-10), whose government passes sweeping education reforms (1902)
19045 Russian-Japanese War over territory on the Pacific coast ends in humiliating defeat for the Russians and heightened unrest among the population; 1905, Bloody Sunday massacre of demonstrating workers in St. Petersburg leads to first Russian revolution; the Great General Strike gives birth to organized labor movement and the first soviets, or workers councils
1911 Revolution in China: emperor deposed. Sun Yat-sen establishes a republic
1912 British ocean liner Titanic sinks
1914 Outbreak of World War I: assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo leads to war between Germany, Austro-Hungarian Empire, and allies on one side, and Serbia, Russia, France, England, and allies on the other; most of Europe and its colonies become involved; 1917, United States enters; 1918, defeat of Germany. Yugoslavia, Poland, Turkey, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Austria become independent nations; Syria, Iraq, and Palestine become mandates controlled by France and Britain


Timeline Six


1774 GOETHE JOHANN WOLFGANG (1749-1832) publishes The Sorrows of Young Werther in Germany, extolling naturalism and sentimentality; it inspires numerous suicides, "Faust"

Wolfgang Amadeus
Mozart (1756-91),

innovative Austrian composer of symphonies, operas, and church music

1768-79 Captain James Cook (1728-79) explores the islands of the Pacific
1774 Joseph Priestly (1733-1804), English chemist, isolates oxygen

ADAM SMITH (1723-90), Scottish economist, writes The Wealth of Nations

KANT IMMANUEL (1724-1804),

German critical philosopher, writes the Critique of Pure Reason

1792 Mary Wollstonecraft
(1759-1836) writes Vindication of the Rights of Women, first English feminist treatise
1783 First flight in a hot-air balloon, France
1789 Antoine Lavoisier (1743-94), publishes his systematic study of chemistry in France
1790-1801 Revolutionary government of France institutes metric system

HEINRICH HEINE (1797-1856), German poet

1798 Edward Jenner (1749-1823) demonstrates first vaccination against smallpox
1798 Alois Senefelder (1771-1834), Hungarian inventor, develops lithography


American statesman and inventor, invents bifocal lens, lightning rod, and Franklin stove, and publishes observations on electricity in Philadelphia

1800s English Romantic poets:
WORDSWORTH WILLIAM (1770-1850), "The Prelude"

BYRON  GEORGE GORDON LORD (1788-1824), "Don Juan"

SHELLEY PERCY BYSSHE (1792-1822), "Prometheus Unbound"

KEATS JOHN (1795-1821), "The Eve of St. Agnes"


AUSTEN  JANE (1775-1817)

DICKENS  CHARLES (1812-1870)


BRONTE ANNE (1820-1849)


BRONTE  EMILY (18181848)

ELIOT T. S. (1888-1965), "The Waste Land"

KIPLING RUDYARD (1865-1936), "Poems"

1807 Georg Wilhelm Friedrich
HEGEL (1770-1831)

writes Phenomenology of Mind

1819-37 Jacob and Wilhelm
GRIMM, brothers, collect authoritative versions of German folktales and myths, "Grimms Fairy Tales"

1800 Estimated world population nears 1 billion; that of Europe is 180 million; Alessandro Volta (1745-1827) constructs the first battery and demonstrates electric currents
18046 Lewis and Clark cross the American continent to the Pacific Ocean
1811 Invention of tin cans for food storage
1814 Steam locomotive, in England, used to power early railroad travel
1819 First steamship crossing of the Atlantic

David Roberts (1796-1864) "A Journey in the Holy Land"

Jean-Leon Gerome

Adolphe William Bouguereau

Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882)

Lord Frederic Leighton (1830-1896)

Gustave Dore (1832-1883)

Edward Coley Burne-Jones

Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1836-1912)

John William Waterhouse

John William Godward

DICKINSON  EMILY (1830-86), American poet, "Poems"

1833 Carl von Clausewitz, a general in the Napoleonic Wars,
writes On Wat; a treatise on modern warfare

РОЕ EDGAR ALLAN publishes suspenseful and macabre short stories in United States, "Ligea", "The Raven"

1825 Opening of the Erie Canal, allowing passage of ships from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes
1831 Invention of mechanical McCormick reaper; 1837, John Deere plow
с. 1837 Development of armaments: rifles, artillery, shrapnel, revolvers, and torpedoes by the 1880s
1839 First forms of photography: daguerreotype and negative-positive system

1842 HONORE DE BALZAC  (1799-1850),

completes The Human Comedy, a series of novels and stories

Modern economic theories:
KARL MARX and Friedrich Engels write The Communist Manifesto and John Stuart Mill publishes Principles of Political Economy;

1844 Samuel Morse's telegraph transforms communications by allowing transmission and reception of a coded signal through wires; 1866, transatlantic cable laid
1846 Sewing machine invented by Elias Howe; William Morton uses ether anesthesia in surgery
1847 First Law of Thermodynamics formulated by Julius von Mayer and James Joule;
1850, Second Law, by Rudolf Clausius

Mid-1800s Russian literature:
GOGOL NIKOLAI (1809-52),

TURGENEV IVAN (1818-83),


TOLSTOY LEO (1828-1910),

CHEKHOV  ANTON (1860-1904)


1852 Harriet Beecher Stowe antislavery novel Uncle Tom's Cabin;
1853, Ruskin's The Stones of Venice;


BAUDELAIRE  CHARLES "The Flowers of Evil"

1855 First plastic material, celluloid, discovered by Alexander Parkes
с. 185663 Steel manufacturing processes invented; experimentation with alloys proliferates; 1890, first steel-frame skyscraper built, in Chicago

DARWIN  CHARLES publishes The Origin of Species, formulating the theory of evolution


Edouard Manet (1832-1883)

Edgar Degas (1834-1917)

Claude Monet (1840-1926)

Pierre-Auguste Renoir

Paul Cezanne (1839-1906)

Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890)


Impressionist composers:
Debussy (1862-1918),

Ravel (1875-1937);

Romantics composers: :
Chopin (1810-49),

Schumann (1810-56),

Liszt  (1811-86),

Brahms (1833-97).

The Romantic work of
Wagner (1813-83) transforms opera

VICTOR HUGO'S  novel Les Miserables

1863 First subways built, in London
1864 In France, Louis Pasteur's germ theory alters medical research and practice; 1865, antiseptic techniques introduced in surgery
1865 Genetic experiments of Gregor Mendel published in Austria
1866 Invention of dynamite by Alfred Nobel
American transcontinental railroad completed; Suez Canal opens;
periodic table of elements formulated bv Dmitri Mendeleev

JUNG CARL (18751961),

Swiss psychologist, explores the concept of the collective unconscious

MANN THOMAS (1875-1955), German novelist


German philosopher, writes Man and Superman,
"Thus Spake Zarathustra"

1872 Heinrich Schliemann excavates Troy
1876 Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone
187685 In Germany, internal-combustion engine, running on gasoline fuel, developed
1877 Thomas Edison invents phonograph; 1879, incandescent bulb; 1894, motion pictures
1879 Ivan Pavlov explores the relationship between psychology and physiology

Odilon Redon (1840-1916)

Auguste Rodin (1840 - 1917)

Henri Rousseau (1844-1910)

Paul Gauguin (1848-1903)

Matisse Henri (18691954)

Gustav Klimt (1862-1918)

Aubrey Beardsley (1872-1898)

Egon Schiele (18901918)


French Symbolist poets:

VERLAINE PAUL (1844-96), "Poems"

RIMBAUD ARTHUR (1854-91), "Poems"

1881 Portrait of a Lady by

1884 The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by

1884 Against the Grain by Joris-Karl Huysmans
с. 1880 Barbed-wire fences of galvanized iron patented, and used to fence in much of the open range in American West
c. 1885 First automobiles invented, by Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler, in Germany

1890-1903 Erik Satie composes Three Small Pieces in the Form of a Pear


writes The Picture of Dorian Gray,
"The Ballad of Reading Gaol", "The Paradox of Oscar Wilde"

STOKER  BRAM publishes "Dracula"

Jorge Luis Borges (1899-1986), Argentine Surrealist author

CONRAD  JOSEPH publishes Lord Jim

с. 1890 Reinforced concrete begins to be used as a primary building material

FREUD  SIGMUND, Austrian physician, formulates the theory and method of psychoanalysis, "The Interpretation of Dreams"

1895 X-rays discovered by Wilhelm Rontgen; Guglielmo Marconi invents wireless telegraph, a precursor of radio
1897 Joseph Thomson discovers the electron
1898 Marie Curie discovers radium

Pablo Neruda (1904-73), Chilean poet
1906 Upton Sinclair publishes The Jungle, an American documentary цруе1 that exposes the injustices of the industrial system
1908 Filippo Tommaso Marinetti writes the Futurist Manifesto;
the composer Arnold Schoenberg uses atonality in composition
Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913), French philologist, founds modern linguistics
1903 First aircraft flight, made by Orville and Wilbur Wright, in North Carolina
1905 Albert Einstein (1879-1955), pioneering physicist, formulates the theory of relativity, radically changing modern views of space and time;
1953, Unified Field Theory
1909 American Robert Peary reaches North Pole;
1912, Robert Scott's American expedition reaches the South Pole
(discovered by the Norwegian Roald Amundsen, 1911)

1910 Vasily Kandinsky publishes Concerning the Spiritual in Art

с. 1912-15 John Dewey (1859-1952) and Maria Montessori (1870-1952) pioneer new ideas about education
1911 First model of atomic structure made, by Ernest Rutherford, in Britain
By 1913 Diesel engines replace steam locomotives on many railways
1914 Henry Ford's fully mechanized mass-production plant for the Model T car marks the beginning of American industrialization


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