Dictionary of Art and Artists  
Dictionary of Photographers  
Dictionary of Writers and Philosophers  

Visual History of the World




From Prehistoric to Romanesque  Art
Gothic Art
Renaissance  Art
Baroque and Rococo Art
The Art of Asia
Neoclassicism, Romanticism  Art
Art Styles in 19th century
Art of the 20th century
Artists that Changed the World
Design and Posters
Classical Music
Literature and Philosophy

Visual History of the World
I. Prehistory
II. First Empires
III. The Ancient World
IV. The Middle Ages
V. The Early Modern Period
VI. The Modern Era
VII. The World Wars and Interwar Period
VIII. The Contemporary World

Dictionary of Art and Artists


Visual History of the World





Visual History of the World - part III

The Ancient World



Timeline Three


776 First Olympic Games, established as a religious festival in Olympia, Greece
(traditional) Founding of Rome by Romulus
By 700 (traditional) Theseus unifies Athenian state.
Nebuchadnezzar, Neo-Babylonian king (c. 605-562). Under his rule the empire, based in Babylon, reaches its greatest extent, conquering Egypt (605) and Jerusalem (586)
с. 563
Siddhartha (Gautama Buddha), born in Nepal, founder of Buddhism
Persians conquer Babylonian Empire and Egypt (525). Greatest expansion of Persian Empire
510 Roman Republic established
с. 510-508 Laws of Solon in Greece establish the first government based on democratic principles
c. 499 Persians invade Greece; 490, defeated by Athenians at the Battle of Marathon
с. 460-429 Pericles leads the Athenian state, a period of high cultural accomplishment and political power
431-404 Peloponnesian War in the Greek peninsula pits the Greek city-states against one another; Athens is defeated by Sparta and its fleet is destroyed at Syracuse in Sicily, ending Athenian hegemony
Alexander the Great, a young Macedonian general, leads a largely Greek army in conquest of the empires of Egypt (333). Palestine, Phoenicia, and Persia (331), reaching the Indian subcontinent. The empire breaks up after his death. His follower Ptolemy founds the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt, which rules until 30
264-201 Punic Wars waged between Rome, now a major power, and the North African city of Carthage. The Carthaginian general Hannibal marches from Spain across the Alps to invade Italy (218) and threaten Rome (211). He is defeated, however, and Roman expansion continues; Rome annexes Spain (201), by 147 dominates Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Greece (146). Carthage completely destroyed (146)
с. 250 Mithraism, worship of an ancient Persian warrior hero, grows in Roman Empire

82-79 Sulla becomes first dictator of Roman state. Institutes substantial legal and legislative reforms
73-71 Slave rebellion led by the ex-gladiator Spartacus in Rome
51-30 Cleopatra, descendant of the Ptolemys, rules in Egypt
49-44 Julius Caesar (c. 101-44), Roman general, becomes dictator of Rome, after a military career in the provinces. Assassinated by a group of senators who fear his usurpation of power
31 Sea battle of Actium, on the western coast of Greece, in which Julius Caesar's cousin Octavian defeats Marc Antony, a rival, and consolidates the Roman Empire under his control. Octavian takes the name Augustus Caesar and rules with Imperial powers, 27 B.C.-14 A.D. Golden Age of Rome, the Pax Romana. Henceforth Roman emperors are hereditary, although the senate retains some powers

4 Birth of Jesus Christ, crucified с. 30 A.D.

r. 41-54 Claudius, reluctant emperor of Rome, reconquers Britain
r. 54-68 In the reign of the emperor Nero, a fire destroys most of Rome, which is soon rebuilt; first persecutions of Christians
r. 98-117 Emperor Trajan brings the Roman Empire to its greatest expansion, venturing into Persian territory and northern Germany. The city of Rome has an estimated population of one million
79 Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in southern Italy; destruction of cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum by lava and ash
c. 45-50 St. Paul spreads Christianity in Asia
Minor and Greece St. Peter (died с. 64), first Bishop of Rome

132-135 Jewish Diaspora begins; Jews expelled from Jerusalem
Marcus Aurelius, emperor of Rome (r. 161 180), repulses the growing flood of Goth and Hun invaders from Northern Europe
с. 130-68 Dead Sea Scrolls written; early manuscripts of Judaism and Christianity

285 Emperor Diocletian (r. 284-305) divides Roman Empire among four emperors in separate zones. Beginning of Roman decline, loss of territories, economic troubles, and political dissent
c. 250-302 Widespread persecution of Christians in Roman Empire

r. 306-337 Constantine the Great reunites Roman Empire, moving the capital east from Rome to Constantinople, formerly Byzantium. In 313 he proclaims the Edict of Milan, which allows religious toleration, especially of Christianity: с. 312, he converts to Christianity. The religion, already flourishing, spreads rapidly through the Roman world
Christian church Fathers: St. Ambrose (340-397), St. Jerome (c. 347-420), St. Augustine (354-430), St. Gregory (c. 540-604) write basic texts of the Christian faith
395 Christianity becomes official religion of the Roman Empire


Timeline Three


с. 750-700 (traditional) HOMER composes the epics
"Iliad" and "Odyssey"

с. 800 Adoption of the Phoenician alphabet, ancestor of that of modern European languages, by Greeks
с. 700-600 Phoenician sailors circumnavigate African continent; с 700, horseshoes invented in Europe by Celtic tribes
с. 650 Coins for currency imported from Asia Minor to Greece

SAPPHO of Lesbos (c. 600), Greek poet "Poems"

CONFUCIUS (551-е. 479), Chinese philosopher

(c. 520), Greek philosopher
с. 500-400 Greek drama:
AESCHYLUS (525-456),

SOPHOCLES (495-405),

EURIPIDES (480-406), "Electra", "Medea"

ARISTOPHANES (c. 448-385) "Lysistrata"

c. 450-300 Classical Greek philosophy:
SOCRATES (469-399),

PLATO (c. 423-c. 348),

ARISTOTLE (384-322) "Poetics"

585 Thales of Miletus calculates solar eclipse;
с. 560  Anaximander of Miletus designs geographic map and celestial globe
с. 500 Greek advances in metal working; invention of metal-casting and ore-smelting techniques
с. 300 Pharos, or lighthouse, at Alexandria guides shipping in southern Mediterranean

Demosthenes (384-222), Greek philosopher and orator
Plautus (255-184), Roman writer of comedies
с. 300 Euclid, geometrician in Alexandria, writes Elements, fundamental text of mathematics and reasoning;
, Greek explorer, travels the Atlantic coast of Europe, reaching points beyond Britain
Archimedes (287-212), Greek mathematician
c. 240 Chinese scholars begin systematic recording of astronomical observations. Eratosthenes, an Egyptian Greek, measures the globe

c. 200-190 Nike of Samothrace
(c. 200-c. 118), Greek historian

CICERO (106-43),

prominent Roman statesman and orator, whose political career ended in execution
c. 200 Standing army maintained by the Romans; development of the professional soldier; use of concrete as a primary building material occurs on a wide scale in the Roman Empire

VERGIL (70-19), Roman author of "The Aeneid", epic poem narrating the mythic origins of the Roman race

Livy (59 B.C.-17 A.D.), author of From the Founding of the City, a history of Rome
c. 50 Commentaries, by Julius Caesar, detail the progress of his wars in France

OVID (43 B.C.-17 A.D.), poet of "Metamorphoses", amorous and mythological tales

c. 100 Earliest waterwheels
Vitruvius' On Architecture, late first century B.C., a comprehensive manual of classical building methods and styles
46 Julius Caesar establishes the Julian calendar, which remains in use until the 16th century A.D.

SENECA (1-65), prominent Roman Stoic philosopher and adviser to Emperor Nero

PLUTARCH (c. 46-after 119), Greek essayist, author of "Parallel Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans"

c. 47-49 Epistles of St. Paul, written during his missionary work in Asia Minor

TACITUS (55-118),

Roman historian and political commentator Spoils from the Temple in Jerusalem, from the Arch of Titus, Rome, 81 A.D.

с. 77 Pliny the Elder (23-79) writes his Natural History, an encyclopedic history, including a history of art
Ptolemy (85-160), influential geographer and astronomer in Alexandria, popularizes the theory that the earth is at the center of the universe

Pantheon, Rome, 118-125 A.D.
с. 100
Early glass-blowing techniques developed in Syria
Galen (c. 130-200), Greek physician whose writings form the foundation of the study of human physiology

PLOTINUS (205-270),

Neo-Platonic Greek philosopher and author of the Enneads, teaches in Rome
By 200 Over 50,000 miles of paved roads built by Romans

Ammianus Marcellinus (c. 330-395), Roman historian
Arch of Constantine, Rome, 312-315 A.D.


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