SEE ALSO:

 
   
  History of the World  






 
Dictionary of Art and Artists  
Dictionary of Photographers  
Dictionary of Writers and Philosophers  
       






Visual History of the World









 


HISTORY OF CIVILIZATION & CULTURE

From Prehistoric to Romanesque  Art
Gothic Art
Renaissance  Art
Baroque and Rococo Art
The Art of Asia
Neoclassicism, Romanticism  Art
Art Styles in 19th century
Art of the 20th century
Artists that Changed the World
Design and Posters
Photography
Classical Music
Literature and Philosophy

Visual History of the World
I. Prehistory
II. First Empires
III. The Ancient World
IV. The Middle Ages
V. The Early Modern Period
VI. The Modern Era
VII. The World Wars and Interwar Period
VIII. The Contemporary World

Dictionary of Art and Artists

 
 
 



Visual History of the World
 
 

CONTENTS
 



 

 

     

 

 
  TIMELINE   TIMELINE  
         
 
Prehistory 

From the Beginning to ca.4000 B.C.
 
 

FROM PREHISTORIC TO ROMANESQUE ART

Artists that Changed the World
 
         
         
  The Stone Age: The Beginning of Mankind
It All Began in Africa
Early Hominoids
Territorial Expansion
Campsites and the Use of Tools
Fire and the Hunt
Language and Burial of the Dead
Religion and Cults
The Art of Early Man
The "Neolithic Revolution"

The Tell Cultures
  collection: Charles Estienne "De dissectione partium corporis humani libri tres"



 
 

 

 

     

 
 
  TIMELINE   TIMELINE  
         
 
First Empires 

ca. 7000 B.C. - 200 A.D.
 

FROM PREHISTORIC TO ROMANESQUE ART

THE ART OF ASIA

Artists that Changed the World
 
         
         
         
  The First Great Civilizations

ca. 7000 B.C. - 200 A.D.
 
     
         
         
  Migration of Peoples      
         
         
  The Early States of Mesopotamia

CA. 3OOO-539 B.C.
 
  text "The Epic of Gilgamesh"  
         
         
  Ancient Egypt

CA. 29OO-332 B.C.

Egyptian religion
 
  The Art of the Ancient Kingdoms
Illustration from the Book of the Dead
Egyptian Goddess


A Brief History of Religions
 
         
         
  The Hittites

CA. 1570-CA. 650 B.C.
 
     
         
         
  Kingdoms on the Borders of the Fertile Crescent.      
         
         
  Syria and Palestine.

3000-332 B.C.
 
  collection: The Rape of Europa
collection:
David
collection:
Bathsheba
collection:
Solomon
text KING SOLOMON "Song of Songs"
 
         
         
  Key Ideas: Judaism

The history of Judaism
 
  A Brief History of Religions
collection:
Moses
collection:
Judith
collection:
Delilah
collection:
Susanna
collection: Salome
see also: THE BIBLE (Encyclopaedia Britannica)
The Bible illustrations by
Julius von Carolsfeld, Gustave Dore,  William Blake
 
         
         
  The Medes and the Persian Empire of the Achaemenids

ca. 800-330 B.C.
 
     
         
         
  The Nomads of the Eurasian Steppes

ca. 1000-200 B.C.
.
     
         
         
  Key Ideas: The Religions of India, China, and Japan

Hinduism, Buddhism, Daoism, Confucianism, Shinto
 
  A Brief History of Religions  
         
         
  India from the Beginnings to the Invasion of Alexander

ca. 7000-325 B.C.
 
  Art of the Indus
collection:
Ramayana illustrations
 
         
         
  Early China up to the "Warring States" Period.

5000-221 B.C.

Hundred Schools of Thought
 
  A Brief History of Religions
Ancient Chinese Art
 

 

     

 
 
  TIMELINE   TIMELINE  
         
 
The Ancient World 

ca. 2500 B.C. - 900 A.D.
 

FROM PREHISTORIC TO ROMANESQUE ART

Artists that Changed the World

THE FOUNDATIONS OF WESTERN LITERATURE

CLASSICAL  LITERATURE


ANCIENT GREEK AND ROMAN FHILOSOPHY
 
 
         
         
  The Culture of the Greeks and Romans

Trojan War


Greek Mythology
  A Brief History of Religions
Greek and Roman Myths in Art
collection: Venus - The Evening Star
collection: Leda and the Swan - myth in art
collection: Ancient Greek Sculpture
text
HOMER "Iliad", "Odyssey"
text OVID "Metamorphoses"
text
"Mythology: Timeless Tales of Gods and Heroes" by E. Hamilton
text
"Bulfinch's Mythology" by T. Bulfinch
text
VERGIL "The Aeneid"
 
         
     
 
 
  Crete and Mycenae - The Beginnings of Greek Culture      
         
         
  Classical Greece from the Culture of the Polis

8TH-3RD CENTURY B.C.
 
  collection: Greek vase painting
collection: Praxiteles
text PLUTARCH "Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans"
 
         
         
  The Rise and Fall of a World Power

7TH-1ST CENTURY B.C.

Alexander the Great
  text  ARISTOTLE "Poetics"
collection: Aristotle and P
hyllis

text PLUTARCH "Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans"
 
         
         
  Judea and Arabia before the Romans

CA.1100 B.C.-136 A.D.
 
  ccollection: Massacre of the Innocents
text "The Arabian Nights"
 
         
         
  Carthage: World Power and Rival of Rome

814-44 B.C.
 
     
         
         
  The Etruscans: The League to the Roman Empire

7th century B.C.-1stcentury B.C.
 
     
         
         
  Rome: From the Beginnings to the End of the Republic

753-82 B.C.
 
  collection: Romulus and Remus, The Rape of the Sabine Women
collection: Tarquin and Lucretia
 
         
         
  In Focus: The Roman Empire

Early Rome
 
text PLUTARCH "Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans"
 
         
         
  The Rule of the Generals and Imperial Rome

74 B.C.-192 A.D.

Pompeii
  collection: Cleopatra
collection: Pompeii
 
         
         
  From Constantine to the Rise of Byzantium

312-867
 
     
         
  Key Ideas: Christianity

The history of Christianity
  A Brief History of Religions
collection:
Annunciation in Art
collection: Adoration of the Magi
collection: Flight to Egypt
collection:
The Holy Family
collection: Mary Magdalene
see also:
THE BIBLE
(Encyclopaedia Britannica)
The Bible illustrations by
Julius von Carolsfeld, Gustave Dore,  William Blake
 
         
         
  Armenia and Asia Minor

550 B.C.-CA 200 A.D.
 
     
         
         
  Persia under the Parthians and the Sassanians

250 B.C.-651 A.D.

Manichaeism
Zoroaster
  A Brief History of Religions
text
ZARATHUSTRA "Zoroaster Hymns of the Zend Avesta"
 
         
         
  Celts, Slavs, and Germanic Tribes

бТН CENTURY B.C.-7TH CENTURY A.D.
 
  text "THE LEGENDS OF KING ARTHUR AND HIS KMIGHTS" by J. Knowles
text
"King Arthur and of his Noble Knights" by Sir Thomas Malory
text "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight"
text "Idylls of the King" by Alfred Tennyson
text "The Poetic Edda"
 
         
         
  The Great Migration of Peoples

375-568 A.D.
 
  collection: The Course of Empire and The Voyage of Life, series  by Thomas Cole  
         
         
  The Nomad Empires of the Eurasian Steppes

3RD CENTURY B.C.- 7TH CENTURY A.D.
 
  collection: The Martyrdom of Saint Ursula  
         
         
  Ancient India

321 B.C.-500 A.D.
 
  collection: Mahabharata illustrations by Ravi Varma
collection:
Ramayana illustrations
 
         
         
  China's First Emperors of the Qin and Han Dynasties

221 B.C.-220 A.D.
 
     
         
         
  The First Kingdoms in North and Africa

CA.1000 B.C.-8TH CENTURY A.D.
 
     

 

     

 
 
  TIMELINE   TIMELINE  
         
 
The Middle Ages  

5th - 15th century
 

GOTHIC ART

THE ART OF ASIA

Artists that Changed the World

LITERATURE THE MIDDLE AGES AND THE RENAISSANCE

MEDIEVAL PHILOSOPHY

CLASSICAL MUSIC-The Middle Ages and the Renaissance
 
 
         
         
  The Middle Ages

Feudalism
     
         
         
  The Germanic Empires

5TH CENTURY-774

Nibelungenlied
  collection: Architecture in Germany
collection: The Ring of the Nibelung illustrations by Arthur Rackham
text "The Nibelungenlied"
 
         
         
  The Kingdom of the Franks

486-843
 
     
         
         
  The Holy Roman Empire in the High and Late Middle Ages

911-1519
 
  text "Song of Roland"  
         
         
  Switzerland

1291-1848
 
     
         
         
  France in the High and Late Middle Ages

843-1515

Saint Joan of Arc
  Architecture in France
collection: Fouquet Jean
collection: Joan of Arc
 
         
         
  Burgundy and the Netherlands

6TH-15TH C
 
  collection: Charles the Bold & Mary of Burgundy
collection: Bosch Hieronymus
 
         
  England in the Middle Ages

CA. 450-1485

Wars of the Roses
  collection: Architecture in England
collection:
The Bayeux Tapestry  "Propaganda on cloth"
text
"The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood" by H. Pyle
 
         
         
  Ireland and Scotland in the Middle Ages

CA. 450-1603
 
     
         
  Italy in the Middle Ages

CA.600-CA.1500

Marco Polo
  collection: Architecture in Italy
collection: Giotto
collection: Botticelli
text
DANTE "The Divine Comedy" Illustrat. by G. Dore, W. Blake, S. Dali, Botticelli
text
BOCCACCIO "The Decameron" Illustrations by Salvador Dali
text
PETRARCH "Song Book"
 
         
         
  Spain and Portugal in the Middle Ages

8TH-15TH CENTURY
 
  text "The Lay of the Cid" с. 1075  
         
         
  Northern Europe

8TH-16TH CENTURY
 
  text "Beowulf"  
         
         
  Eastern Europe

10TH-15TH CENTURY

The Hussites
     
         
         
  Russia

9TH-16TH CENTURY
 
  collection: Russian Architecture and Russian Icons  
         
         
  The Byzantine Empire

867-1453
 
  Byzantine Art  
         
         
  Southeast Europe

7TH-15TH CENTURY
 
  text "Dracula" by Bram Stoker   
         
         
  The Crusades

11TH-15TH CENTURY
 
  collection: The History of the Crusades illustrations by Gustave Dore   
         
         
  Key Ideas: Islam
 
  A Brief History of Religions  
         
         
  The Spread of Islam

622-CA. 1519
 
     
         
         
  The Mongolian Empire and Its Successors

12TH-15TH CENTURY
 
     
         
         
  India

500-1500
 
  THE ART OF ASIA
collection:
Indian Court Painting
collection: The Love Temples of Khajuraho
text
"Kama Sutra"
 
         
         
  China after the Han Dynasty

220-1279
 
  THE ART OF ASIA  
         
         
  Japan

CA.400-1338
 
  THE ART OF ASIA
text
MURASAKI SHIKIBU "The Tale of Genji"  с 1004
 
         
         
  Southeast Asia

5TH-15TH CENTURY
 
  THE ART OF ASIA  
         
         
  Sub-Saharan Africa

5TH-15TH CENTURY
 
     
         
         
  The Settlement and Cultures of America

СА.15ТН CENTURY B.C.-15TH CENTURY A.D.
 
     

 

     

 
 
  TIMELINE   TIMELINE  
         
 
The Early Modern Period 

16th - 18th century
 

RENAISSANCE ART

BAROQUE AND ROCOCO ART

Artists that Changed the World

THE 17-18th CENTURY LITERATURE

RENAISSANCE PHILOSOPHY

CLASSICAL MUSIC-The Middle Ages and the Renaissance, The Baroque Era
 
 
         
         
  The Early Modern Period

Humanism and the Renaissance
Counter-Reformation
Absolutism and Enlightenment

 

 
RENAISSANCE ART
Masterpieces of World Literature
text MACHIAVELLI "The Prince"
HOBBES
DESCARTES

LOCKE
SPINOZA
LEIBNIZ
GALILEO
NEWTON
MONTESQUIEU
text VOLTAIRE "Candide" Illustrations by  Moreau le Jeune
ROUSSEAU
KANT

 
 
         
         
  In Focus: The Reformation

Reformation
Lutheranism
Protestantism

Calvinism
  A Brief History of Religions  
         
         
  The German Empire: The Reformation and
Its Consequences


1517-1609
 
  collection: Durer
collection: Cranach
collection:
Titian
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
George Frederick
Handel (1685-1759)
 
         
  The Thirty Years' War

1618-1648
 
  collection: Jacques Callot "Miseries of War"  
         
  The Holy Roman Empire under Enlightened Absolutism

1648-1806

 
     
         
  France: From the Wars of Religion to the
Eve of the Revolution


1562-1789

The Huguenots

Marie de' Medici cycle by Peter Paul Rubens
  collection: Cellini Benvenuto
collection: Francois Clouet
collection: Philippe de Champaigne
collection: Charles Le Brun
collection: Georges de La Tour
text
MONTAIGNE MICHEL "The Essays"
text VOLTAIRE "Age of Louis XIV", "Candide"
MONTESQUIEU
MOLIERE
RACINE
 
         
         
  Mistress of the king of France

"Sun King" Louis XIV and his Mistresses
Louis XV and his Mistresses
  collection: Francois Boucher
collection: Tintoretto
collection: Fouquet Jean
collection: Clouet Francois
collection: Fragonard Jean-Honore
 
     

 
 
  The Rise of England

1485-CA.1800

Henry VIII and his wives
  collection: Hans Holbein the younger
text THOMAS MORE "Utopia"
SWIFT JONATHAN
BLAKE  WILLIAM
BURNS ROBERT
NEWTON ISAAC
 
         
         
  Elizabethan Age   SHAKESPEARE WILLIAM
text BACON  FRANCIS "New Atlantis"
William Byrd,
composer
collection: Theodore De Bry "Indians of North America"
 
 
      collection: Antony van Dyck
collection: Canaletto
Collection:
William Hogarth "A Harlot's Progress"

text
MILTON  JOHN "Paradise Lost"
CLASSICAL MUSIC:The Baroque Era - Handel, composer
 
         
         
  The Netherlands: From the Struggle to the
French Occupation


1477-1795
 
  collection: Bruegel
collection: Rubens
collection: Rembrandt
collection: Frans Hals
collection:
Jacob Jordaens
 
     



 
 
  The Italy of Popes and Princes

СА.1450-CA.1800
  collection: Leonardo da Vinci
collection: Michelangelo
collection: Raphael
collection: Titian
collection: Pinturicchio
collection: Gian Lorenzo Bernini
text VASARI "Lives of the Most Eminent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects"
text ARIOSTO "Orlando Enraged" canto 1-4
text
TASSO TORQUATO   "Jerusalem Delivered"
Alessandro Scarlatti (1659-1725)
Antonio
Vivaldi (c. 1678-1741)
 
 
         
         
  The Borgias   text MACHIAVELLI NICCOLO "The Prince"  
         
         
  Renaissance Women   collections: Sandro Botticelli, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Titian
collection:
Piero di Cosimo
collection: Alessandro Allori
collection: Correggio
collection: Tintoretto
 
         
         
  Medici Family   collection: Benozzo Gozzoli
collection: Bronzino
 
         
         
  Spain and Portugal

1500-1800

Christopher Columbus
Battle of Lepanto
El Greco: The Burial of Count Orgaz
The Spanish Armada
Las Meninas or The Family of Philip IV
The Surrender of Breda

 
collection: El Greco
collection:
Velazquez
collection: Veronese
collection:
Tintoretto
collection: Francisco de Goya
collection: Picasso's studies  of  Las Menina
 
         
         
  Inquisition
Heresy

The Persecution of the "Witches"
Bosch's Monsters

Baldung's Witches
Goya's Demons



 
collection: Revelations. Devil Art of the Apocalypse
collection:
Alchemy & Mysticism. The Hermetic Cabinet
collection:
Hieronymus Bosch
collection:
Hans Baldung Grien
collection:
Francisco de Goya
collection:
"Faeries" by H. Johnson
collection:
"Good faeries & bad faeries" by B. Froud
 
 
         
         
  Eastern Europe and Scandinavia

1500-1800
 
  collection: Sebastien Bourdon  
         
         
  Russia's Rise as a Great Power

1613-1801
  collection: Vasili Perov
collection: Vasily Surikov
collection: Ilya Repin
collection: Mstislav Dobuzhinsky
collection: Alexandre Benois
collection: Valentin Serov
collection: Ostroumova-Lebedeva
text PUSHKIN ALEXANDER "The Bronze Horseman"
 
         
         
  The Ottoman Empire, the Great Power of the East

CA.1300-1792

The Harem
 
  collection: Orientalism
collection: Jean-Leon Gerome
collection: Theodore Chasseriau
collection: Mariano Fortuny y Carbo
collection: John Frederick Lewis
collection:
Georges Clairin
collection: Francois Boucher
collection: Ingres
collection: Delacroix
collection: Henri Matisse
 
 
         
         
  North Africa

16TH-18TH CENTURY
 
     
         
  Persia under the Safavids and Qajars

CA.1450-1921
 
     
         
         
  Mogul India and the European Trading Companies

1526-CA.1800
 
  THE ART OF ASIA
collection:
Indian Court Painting
 
         
         
  China under the Ming and Manchu Emperors

1368-CA.1800
 
  THE ART OF ASIA
CONFUCIUS
 
         
         
  Japan from the Muromachi Period to the
Tokugawa Shogunate


1338-1868
  THE ART OF ASIA
collection:
Japanese Ukiyo-e
collection: Japanese Prints
collection: Hiroshige's "Tokaido"
collection: Hokusai's "Views of Mt. Fuji" and "Panoramic View of Sumidagawa River"
collection: Tsukioka Yoshitoshi "Tsuki hyakushi" - 100 Aspects of the Moon
collection: Sesshu's Long Scrolll
 
         
     

 
 
  Southeast Asia

1500-1800
 
  THE ART OF ASIA  
         
         
  Africa

1500-1800

African Masks

 
   
         
         
  The Ancient American Empires and the Conquest
by Spain and Portugal


CA.1500-1800

Human sacrifice in Aztec culture
  collection: Sacrifice of Isaac  
         
         
  North America to the Founding of Canada
and the United States


1497-1789
 
  collection: Church Frederic Edwin
collection:
Benjamin West
collection:
Theodore De Bry Indians of North America
 
         
         
  Oceania and Australia to the Arrival of the Europeans

16TH-18TH CENTURY

Tahiti women
 
  collection: Paul Gauguin  

 

     

 
 
  TIMELINE   TIMELINE  
         
 
The Modern Era 

1789 - 1914
 

NEOCLASSICISM, ROMANTICISM ART

ART STYLES IN 19TH CENTURY

Artists that Changed the World
Design and Posters
Photography

THE 18-19th CENTURY LITERATURE

MODERN PHILOSOPHY

CLASSICAL MUSIC-The Classical Era, the Romantic Era, the Romantic Legacy
 
         
         
  The French Revolution

1789 - 1799

Declaration of the Rights of Man - 1789
Marie Antoinette
The Death of Marat
The Reign of Terror
 
  collection: Between Two Revolutions (From David to Delacroix)
collection:
Jacques-Louis David
 
         
         
  In Focus: The French Revolution      
         
         
  Napoleonic Domination

1792 - 1814

Emma, Lady Hamilton

Napoleon Bonaparte

 
  collection: Andrea Appiani
collection:
Francisco de Goya
collection:
Joseph Mallord William Turner
collection:
Francois Gerard
collection:
Pierre-Paul Prud'hon
collection:
Jacques-Louis David
collection:
Jean-Antoine Gros
collection:
Francois Gerard
collection:
Jean-Leon Gerome
collection: Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres
collection: Thomas Rowlandson
 
         
         
  The Industrial Revolution Begins in Europe

CA.1750 - 1848

Liberalism
 
  collection: Between Two Revolutions (From David to Delacroix)
ADAM SMITH
collection: Eugene Delacroix
collection: Thomas Rowlandson
 
         
         
  German States: The Reshaping of Austria  and Prussia

1815-1871

Biedermeier style
"Sisi"
 
  text GOETHE JOHANN "Faust"
text FREUD  SIGMUND "The Interpretation of Dreams"
text
NIETZSCHE FRIEDRICH "Thus Spake Zarathustra"

collection: Carl Spitzweg
collection: Georg Friedrich Kersting
 
         
         
  Imperial Germany

1871-1914
 
     
         
         
  Austria-Hungary

1867-1914

anti-Semitism

Viennese Modernism
 
  collection: Gustav Klimt
collection: Egon Schiele
HUGO VON HOFMANNSTHAL,  "Poems"
SIGMUND FREUD, "The Interpretation of Dreams"
Gustav Mahler, composer
Arnold
Schoenberg, composer
 
         
         
  France

1814-1914

Nadar and Sarah Bernhardt
 The Dreyfus Affair


 
collection: Between Two Revolutions (From David to Delacroix)
collection: Eugene Delacroix
collection:
Gustave Courbet
collection:
Francois Gerard
text CHARLES BAUDELAIRE "The Flowers of Evil"
text EMILE ZOLA "J'accuse" (I accuse)
Nadar
Sarah Bernhardt
 
         
         
  Great Britain

1830-1914
 
  collection: Thomas Gainsborough
text
BYRON GEORGE "Don Juan"
text
CARROLL  LEWIS "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland"
 
         
         
  Victorian Era

1837-1901
  Pre-Raphaelites
Official Art (Academic Art)

Art, Technology and Industry
Furnishings and Fashions
Graphic Design a new History
 
         
         
  The Benelux Countries

1815-1914
 
  collection: Vincent van Gogh
collection: Mengs Anton Raphael
 
         
         
  Italy from the Congress of Vienna to the Eve of  World War I

1815-1914
 
     
         
         
  Portugal and Spain

1814-1914
  collection: Goya  
         
         
  Scandinavia

CA.1800-1917
 
  composer Edvard Grieg
IBSEN HENRIK
 
         
         
  European royal families

House of Bonaparte
House of Bourbon
House of Capet
House of Carolingian
House of Habsburg
House of Hanover
House of Lancaster
House of Plantagenet
House of Stuart
House of Tudor
House of Valois
House of Windsor
House of York
     
         
         
  Russia from the Treaty of Tilsit to the Abdication of the Last Czar

1807-1917

 Anarchism
Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion
Beilis Affair
The last Russian emperor Nicholas II
  collection: Ilya Repin
collection: Mikhail Vrubel
Russian  Silver Age 
World of Art (Mir iskusstva) - 1898
text
PUSHKIN ALEXANDER  "Eugene Onegin", "The Bronze Horseman"
DOSTOEVSKI  FYODOR
TOLSTOY LEO

CHEKHOV  ANTON
composer Glinka
composer Tchaikovsky
composer Scriabin
 
         
         
  The Balkans

1821-1914
 
  collection: Eugene Delacroix
text
BYRON GEORGE "Don Juan"
 
         
         
  The Ottoman Empire

CA.18007-1914
 
     
         
         
  Egypt

1798-1914
 
     
         
         
  Persia and Afghanistan

CA.1800-1914
 
     
         
         
  India

CA.1800-1914
 
  THE ART OF ASIA
EXPLORATION: Indian Court Painting
 
         
         
  China to the Last of the Emperors

CA.1840-1912
 
  THE ART OF ASIA  
         
         
  Japan

1854-1912
 
  THE ART OF ASIA
EXPLORATION: Japanese Ukiyo-e
collection: Japanese Prints
Hiroshige's
"Tokaido"
Hokusai's
"Views of Mt. Fuji" and "Panoramic View of Sumidagawa River"
Tsukioka Yoshitoshi "Tsuki hyakushi" - 100 Aspects of the Moon
Sesshu's Long Scrolll
"East and West"
 
         
         
  Southeast Asia

UNTIL 1914
 
  THE ART OF ASIA  
         
         
  African State Building and Colonization

1814-1914

Zulu Dance
 
     
         
         
  The United States: Beginnings and Rise to World Power

1789-1917

Founding Fathers
The Statue of Liberty in New York
 
  text LONGFELLOW HENRY "The Song of Hiawatha"  
         
         
  Latin America

1810-1914
 
  collection: Diego Rivera
collection:
Jose Orozco
collection:
David Siqueiros
 

 

     

 
 
  TIMELINE   TIMELINE  
         
 
The World Wars and Interwar Period 

1914 - 1945
 

ART OF THE 20TH CENTURY

Artists that Changed the World
Design and Posters
Photography

MODERNIST LITERATURE

CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHY

CLASSICAL MUSIC-The Modern Age

Josephine Baker
Vintage Photography Gallery
Pin-Up Art
 
         
         
  The First World War

1914-1918
 
     
         
         
  Key Ideas: Ideologies of the 20th Century

Democracy
Communism
Fascism

National Socialism
 
  Socialist Realism
National Socialist Art
 
 
         
         
  The Unpopular Democracy: The German Reich

1918-1933
Brigitte Helm in Metropolis
 
  Marlene Dietrich-film star  
         
         
  Under the Swastika: Nazi Germany

1933-1939

Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun
Public Book Burning
Kristallnacht
The 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin
Film Stars of the Third Reich
 
  National Socialist Art
collection: John Heartfield

 
 
         
         
  Austria: From Habsburg Empire to German "Ostmark"

1918-1945
 
     
         
         
  Switzerland: Island of Stability

1914-1945
 
     
         
         
  France: Insecurity and Occupation

1918-1945

Munich agreement
 
     
         
         
  Britain between the World Wars

1919-1939

Munich agreement
 
     
         
         
  Ireland: Division and Independence

1914-1949
 
     
         
         
  Belgium and the Netherlands

1914-1945

Atrocity Propaganda
 
     
         
         
  Italy under Fascism

1919-1945

Benito Mussolini and Clara Pettaci
 
     
         
         
  Spain and Portugal

1914-1945

Federico Garcia Lorca and Salvador Dali
Robert Capa "Spanish Loyalist"
War, Art and "Guernica"
 
  collection: Picasso
collection: Dali
Federico Garcia Lorca
ROBERT CAPA
 
         
         
  Scandinavia and the Baltic

1917-1944
 
     
         
         
  Poland

1914-1939

Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact
Katyn Massacre
 
     
         
         
  Hungary and Czechoslovakia

1914-1945

Munich agreement
 
     
         
         
  The Soviet Union

1917-1939

The last Russian emperor Nicholas II
Red Terror
Vladimir Lenin
The Great Famine-Genocide in Soviet Ukraine (Holodomor)
German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact
Great Purge
Great Purge and Intelligentsia
Iosif Stalin
 
  Socialist Realism


EXPLORATION (in Russian):
Osip Mandelshtam
Marina Tsvetaeva
Anna Achmatova

 
 
         
         
  Southeast Europe between the Wars

1914-1945
 
     
         
         
  The Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire

1914-1945
 
     
         
         
  The Reorganization of Arabia

1918-1945

Palestine: A Religio-Political Conflict Is Born
 
     
         
         
  Iran and Afghanistan: Battle for Independence

CA.1900-1945
 
     
         
         
  India's Path to Independence

UNTIL 1947
 
     
         
         
  China between Empire and Communism

1911-1949
 
     
         
         
  Imperial Japan and Southeast Asia

1914-1945

Atomic Attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Manhattan Project
 
     
         
         
  The British Commonwealth:
Emancipation of the British Colonies


1914-1945
 
     
         
         
  Africa under Colonial Rule

THROUGH 1939
 
     
         
         
  Ethiopia and Egypt:
Between Subjugation and Independence


UNTIL 1945
 
     
         
         
  Euphoria and Depression: The US between

1917-1945

Manhattan Project
 
  Josephine Baker
A Brief History of Jazz
HOLLYWOOD (The Golden Age)
Pin-Up Art
 
         
         
  Latin America

1914-1945
 
  collection: Diego Rivera  
         
         
  In Focus: World War II      
         
         
  The Second World War

1939-1945
 
     
         
  The Holocaust of European Jewry (1933-1945)

German Instrument of Surrender
Nuremberg Trials
The Trial of Adolf Eichmann
 
  collection: Marc Chagall  
 
     

 
 
  TIMELINE   TIMELINE  
         
 
The Contemporary World 

1945 to the present
 

ART OF THE 20TH CENTURY

Artists that Changed the World
Design and Posters
Photography

MODERNIST LITERATURE

CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHY

CLASSICAL MUSIC-The Modern Age
 
         
         
  Trends in World Politics

United Nations
 
     
         
         
  The Path to European Unity      
         
         
  Germany

SINCE 1945

United Nations member states-Germany 
     
         
         
  Austria

SINCE 1945

United Nations member states-
Austria
     
         
         
  Switzerland

SINCE 1945

United Nations member states-Switzerland
     
         
         
  Great Britain:
From Commonwealth to European Union


SINCE 1945

United Nations member states-
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
  text ORWELL GEORGE "Nineteen Eighty-Four"  
         
         
  Ireland

SINCE 1945

United Nations member states-Ireland
     
         
     
 
 
  France

SINCE 1945

United Nations member states-
France
  collection: Picasso
collection: Chagall
 
         
         
  Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembour

SINCE 1945

United Nations member states-
Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg
     
         
         
  Italy

SINCE 1945

United Nations member states-Italy
Andorra, Malta, Monaco, San Marino
     
         
         
  Spain:
From Military Dictatorship to Constitutional Monarchy


SINCE 1945

United Nations member states-
Spain
  collection: Dali  
         
         
  Portugal

SINCE 1945

United Nations member states-
Portugal
     
         
         
  Northern Europe

SINCE 1945

Christian X King of Denmark - Legend and trivia

United Nations member states-
Finland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Iceland
 
 
 
         
         
  Eastern and Central Europe

SINCE 1945

Hungarian Revolution of 1956
Prague Spring, 1968



United Nations member states-
Hungary, Poland,Czech Republic, Slovakia,
Bulgaria Romania, Albania
     
         
         
  Yugoslavia

SINCE 1945

United Nations member states-
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia,
Montenegro, Serbia,
Slovenia
  
     
         
         
  Greece and Turkey

SINCE 1945

United Nations member states-
Greece, Turkey, Cyprus
     
         
         
  The Soviet Union and Its Successor States

SINCE 1945

GULAG


Hungarian Revolution of 1956
Prague Spring, 1968


Soviet dissidents
The Chernobyl disaster

United Nations member states-
Russian Federation,
Ukraine,Belarus, Moldova,
Armenia,
Azerbaijan, Georgia,
Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania,
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
  Soviet Nonconformist Art
ANNA AKHMATOVA
ALEKSANDR SOLZHENITSYN
JOSEPH BRODSKY
Shostakovich
 
         
         
  Northwest Africa

SINCE 1945

United Nations member states-
Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria
     
         
         
  Key Ideas: Zionism      
         
         
  Israel

SINCE 1948

1948: the War of Independence
1967: the Six-Day War
1973: Yom Kippur War
Chagall in Israel

United Nations member states-Israel
  Collection: David Roberts "A Journey in the Holy Land"
Collection: Marc Chagall
 
         
         
  The Arab World and the Near East

SINCE 1945

United Nations member states-
Jordan, Egypt, Libya,Syria,Lebanon,
Saudi Arabia,Yemen,
Kuwait,
United Arab Emirates,Bahrain,Qatar,Oman
Iraq,Iran,Afghanistan
 







 
 
         
         
  Pakistan and India

SINCE 1947

United Nations member states-
Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, Bhutan, Nepal
     
         
         
  Southeast Asia

SINCE 1945

United Nations member states-
Sri Lanka,Indonesia,Malaysia,
Singapore,
Brunei Darussalam,Maldives
Philippines,Myanmar,Thailand,Laos,Cambodia,
Viet Nam
     
         
         
  China, Japan and Korea

SINCE 1945

United Nations member states-
China, Japan,
Republic of Korea,
Democratic People's Republic of Korea,

Mongolia
     
         
         
  Australia, New Zealand, and Oceania

SINCE 1945

United Nations member states-
Australia, New Zealand,
Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia,
Nauru,
Palau Papua New Guinea,
Samoa,
Solomon Islands, Tonga, Vanuatu
 
 
 
         
         
  Africa since the Independence of Its Nations

SINCE 1945

United Nations member states-
Angola,Benin,Botswana,Burkina Faso,Burundi,Cameroon,
Cape Verde,Central African Republic,Chad,Comoros,Congo,
Cote d'Ivoire,Democratic Republic of the Congo,Djibouti,
Equatorial Guinea,Eritrea,Ethiopia,Gabon,Gambia,Ghana,
Guinea,Guinea-Bissau,Kenya,Lesotho,Madagascar,Malawi,
Mali,Mauritania,Mauritius,Mozambique,Namibia,Niger,Nigeria,

Rwanda,Sao Tome and Principe,Senegal,Seychelles,Sierra Leone,
Somalia,South Africa,Sudan,Swaziland,Tanzania,Togo,Uganda,

Zambia,Zimbabwe,
 
      
         
         
  Canada

SINCE 1945

United Nations member states-
Canada
     
         
         
  The United States: Global Power

SINCE 1945

"American way of life"
John F. Kennedy assassination
Clinton-Lewinsky scandal

United Nations member states-United States of America
  Pop Art
Collection: Andy Warhol
Bernstein
Idols (Elvisiana. Elvis Presley-Pop Idol. Marilyn Monroe "American symbol")
 
         
         
  Latin America

SINCE 1945

Evita


United Nations member states-
NORTH AMERICA
Antigua and Barbuda,Bahamas,Barbados,Belize,

Costa Rica,Cuba,Dominica,Dominican Republic,
El Salvador,Grenada,Guatemala,Haiti,Honduras
Jamaica,Mexico,Nicaragua,Panama,
Saint Kitts and Nevis,Saint Lucia,
Saint
Vincent and the Grenadines,Trinidad and Tobago


SOUTH AMERICA
Argentina,Bolivia,Brazil,Chile,Colombia,
Ecuador,Guyana,Paraguay,Peru,
Suriname,Uruguay,Venezuela
  Collection: Fernando Botero  
         
         
  Key Ideas: Globalization

20 th century events
Internet
 
 
 
         
  In Focus: The sexual revolution

Feminism
Industrial Revolution
Psychoanalysis
Free love
Hippie
Nudity
  MARQUIS DE SADE "Justine"
SIMONE DE BEAUVOIR
WOOLF VIRGINIA
MILLER HENRY
JOHN CLELAND
"Fanny Hill"
FREUD  SIGMUND
Spencer Tunick
Body art
Erotica in Art
Fine Art Photography
Nude in Art of the 20th century
Pin-Up Art
"Rubenesque" proportions
Superstar Stormy Daniels
Tattoo
 
         
  In Focus: Terrorism      


 





APPENDIX

(Encyclopaedia Britannica)
 

         
  History of Europe

Prehistory
The Metal Ages
Greeks, Romans, and barbarians

The Middle Ages
The Renaissance
The emergence of modern Europe, 15001648
The great age of monarchy, 16481789
Revolution and the growth of industrial society, 17891914
European society and culture since 1914

 

 

 

 



United Nations




United Nations member states
 

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Andorra
Angola
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan

 Bahamas
 
Bahrain
 
Bangladesh
 
Barbados
 
Belarus
 
Belgium
 
Belize
 
Benin
 
Bhutan
 
Bolivia
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina
 
Botswana
 
Brazil
 
Brunei Darussalam
 
Bulgaria
 
Burkina Faso
 
Burundi

 Cambodia
 
Cameroon
 
Canada
 
Cape Verde
 
Central African Republic
 
Chad
 
Chile
 
China
 
Colombia
 
Comoros
 
Congo
 
Costa Rica
 
Cote d'Ivoire
 
Croatia
 
Cuba
 
Cyprus
 
Czech Republic

Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Denmark
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic

Ecuador
 
Egypt
 
El Salvador
 
Equatorial Guinea
 
Eritrea
 
Estonia
 
Ethiopia

Fiji
Finland
France



 

Gabon
Gambia
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Grenada
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana

Haiti
Honduras
Hungary




 

Iceland
 
India
 Indonesia
 Iran
 
Iraq
 
Ireland
 
Israel
 
Italy

Jamaica
Japan
Jordan

Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kiribati
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan

Lao People's Democratic Republic
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg

Madagascar
 Malawi
 Malaysia
 Maldives
 Mali
 Malta
 Marshall Islands
 Mauritania
 Mauritius
 Mexico
 Micronesia
 Monaco
 Mongolia
 Montenegro
 Morocco
 Mozambique
 Myanmar

Namibia
Nauru
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Norway

Oman



Pakistan
Palau
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal

Qatar



Republic of Korea
Republic of Moldova
 
Russian Federation
Rwanda

Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoa
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
 Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic

Tajikistan
 Thailand
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Timor-Leste
Togo
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Tuvalu

Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
United Republic of Tanzania
United States of America
Uruguay
Uzbekistan

Vanuatu
Venezuela
Viet Nam



Yemen



Zambia
Zimbabwe

            Vatican City

 

 
 

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