Art of the 20th Century



A Revolution in the Arts


 


Art Styles in 20th century Art Map

 

The Great Avant-garde Movements


 

 


Cubism - 1907

Pablo Picasso
Georges Braque

Albert Gleizes
Jean Metzinger
Fernand Leger
Jacques Villon

Raymond Duchamp-Villon

Juan Gris


The Eight. The Ashcan school
- 1908

Arthur B. Davies
Robert Henri
George Luks
William J. Glackens
John Sloan
Everett Shinn
Ernest Lawson
Alfred Maurer
George Bellows
Edward Hopper
Guy Pene Du Bois
Jerome Myers

Artists Groups 1908-1909:
Allied Artists’ Association [A.A.A.].
London, 1908
Noucentisme. Cultural movement of artistic activity in Catalonia, 1908
New Artists' Association group founded in 1909
T
he Eight.
Hungarian group founded in 1909
Septem group. Finnish group founded in 1909
Neukunstgruppe. Austrian group in Vienna in 1909

 


 

The advent of Cubism marked a period of radical revolution in the arts, with a rapid

spread of artistic innovations and a great diversification of styles and techniques.

Russian, Spanish, and American artists influenced one another, while all

felt the powerful draw of Paris, the undisputed focus of artistic life.



 

Cubism may well have been the most influential movement in the history of art since the Renaissance. Its artists overturned the rules of perspective that had governed painting for at least four centuries, and established new formal and conceptual ways of working, that no artist of the future would be able to disregard. This important and wide-ranging revolution did not come entirely unannounced, as certain experiments had already prepared the ground and provided encouragement. In fact, Michel Puy in 1911 acknowledged Cubism as the culmination of the task of simplification undertaken by Cezanne and continued by Matisse and Derain. Certainly, the lessons learnt from Cezanne were fundamental to all avant-garde artistic statements. He had undertaken the challenge to solidify space, to treat objects as geometrical shapes, to portray near and distant elements at the same-time and on the same plane, to sacrifice richness of colour for the expression of volumes, and to structure the picture in accordance with mental and rational schemes. Pointillism had also contributed to the adoption of simplified and geometric chromatic plans for the construction of paintings. Similarly, the work of the Fauves (especially Vlaminck, Derain, and Matisse) had promoted knowledge of synthetic and expressive African sculpture, paving the way for an anti-naturalistic and non-imitative use of colour.

 

 


PICASSO'S BLUE AND ROSE PERIODS
 

Having first started to paint in the stimulating artistic climate of Barcelona, where he frequented  anarchist and avant-garde circles, Picasso spent the first years of the 20th century as a struggling artist alternating between Barcelona and Paris. In L904, he finally took up permanent lodgings at the Bateau Lavoir in Paris, where Renoir and Kees van Dongen  had studios. During this early Blue Period (1901-04), Picasso used a limited palette of cold blue tones to simbolize his need for introspection. Drawing his subjects from social outcasts, he rejected hedonism and concentrated on themes of poverty and despair. The humanity depicted in his paintings is without hope - lonely, defeated creatures who have lost their vital spark. His subjects have a melancholy, wistful look, with bowed heads and folded arms.
The works from the subsequent Rose Period (1904-07) reflected a more optimistic and determined attitude to life. Using delicate shades of pink and darker tones of ochre and terracotta. Picasso adopted new subjects for his paintings, which now portrayed harlequins, actors, acrobats, and circus performers. He was fascinated by the perfomers and their fanciful costumes, generally depicting them in real-life situations, away from the limelight. During these years, he also created his first sculptures and began to explore plastic form in his paintings. Blue and pink were important colours in late 16th-century Spanish art and held a variety of connotations. Picasso was influenced by the great Spanish painters Velazquez and
Goya, whose works are a constant point of reference in his art.

 
Pablo Picasso
The Gourmet (The White Child)
1901
Pablo Picasso
Mother and Child
1905



SEE EXPLORATION:


Pablo Picasso


 


The Image of the Artist  1881-1973
The Making of a Genius  1890-1898
The Art of Youth  1898-1901
The Blue Period  1901- 1904
The Rose Period  1904-1906
In the Laboratory of Art  1906-1907
Analytical Cubism  1907- 1912
Synthetic Cubism  1912-1915
The Camera and the Classicist  1916-1924
A Juggler with Form  1925-1936
War, Art and "Guernica"  1937
The Picasso Style  1937-1943
Politics and Art  1943-1953
The Presence of the Past  1954- 1963
The Case of "Las Meninas"  1957
The Old Savage  1963-1973
The Legend of the Artist

-
appendix:

Pablo Picasso - 1968-1972
Pablo Picasso and his Women
 

 



Pablo Ruiz y Picasso

(Encyclopaedia Britannica)

born October 25, 1881, Málaga, Spain
died April 8, 1973, Mougins, France

in full Pablo Ruiz y Picasso Spanish expatriate painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, and stage designer, one of the greatest and most influential artists of the 20th century and the creator (with Georges Braque) of Cubism.
The enormous body of Picasso's work remains, and the legend lives on—a tribute to the vitality of the “disquieting” Spaniard with the “sombre . . . piercing” eyes who superstitiously believed that work would keep him alive. For nearly 80 of his 91 years Picasso devoted himself to an artistic production that contributed significantly to and paralleled the whole development of modern art in the 20th century.

Life and career

Early years

Pablo Picasso was the son of José Ruiz Blasco, a professor of drawing, and Maria Picasso López. His unusual adeptness fordrawing began to manifest itself early, around the age of 10, when he became his father's pupil in La Coruña, where the family moved in 1891. From that point his ability to experiment with what he learned and to develop new expressive means quickly allowed him to surpass his father's abilities. In La Coruña his father shifted his own ambitions to those of his son, providing him with models and support for his first exhibition there at the age of 13.
The family moved to Barcelona in the autumn of 1895, and Pablo entered the local art academy (La Llotja), where his father had assumed his last post as professor of drawing. Thefamily hoped that their son would achieve success as an academic painter, and in 1897 his eventual fame in Spain seemed assured; in that year his painting Science and Charity, for which his father modeled for the doctor, was awarded an honorable mention in Madrid at the Fine Arts Exhibition.
The Spanish capital was the obvious next stop for the young artist intent on gaining recognition and fulfilling family expectations. Pablo Ruiz duly set off for Madrid in the autumn of 1897 and entered the Royal Academy of San Fernando. But finding the teaching there stupid, he increasingly spent his time recording life around him, in the cafés, on the streets, in the brothels, and in the Prado, where he discovered Spanish painting. He wrote: “The Museum of paintings is beautiful. Velázquez first class; from El Greco some magnificent heads, Murillo does not convince me in every one of his pictures.” Works by these and other artists would capture Picasso's imagination at different times during his long career. Goya, for instance, was an artist whose works Picasso copied in the Prado in 1898 (a portrait of the bullfighter Pepe Illo and the drawing for one of the Caprichos, Bien tirada está, which shows a Celestina [procuress] checking a young maja's stockings). These same characters reappear in his late work—Pepe Illo in a series of engravings (1957) and Celestina as a kind of voyeuristic self-portrait, especially in the series of etchings and engravings known as Suite 347 (1968).
Picasso fell ill in the spring of 1898 and spent most of the remaining year convalescing in the Catalan village of Horta de Ebro in the company of his Barcelona friend Manuel Pallarès. When Picasso returned to Barcelona in early 1899, he was a changed man: he had put on weight, he had learnedto live on his own in the open countryside, he spoke Catalan, and most importantly he had made the decision to break withhis art school training and to reject his family's plans for his future. He even began to show a decided preference for his mother's surname, and more often than not he signed his works P.R. Picasso (by late 1901 he had dropped the Ruiz altogether).
In Barcelona Picasso moved among a circle of Catalan artistsand writers whose eyes were turned toward Paris. These were his friends at the café Els Quatre Gats (“The Four Cats,”styled after the Chat Noir [“Black Cat”] in Paris), where Picasso had his first Barcelona exhibition in February 1900, and they were the subjects of more than 50 portraits (in mixed media) in the show. In addition, there was a dark, moody “modernista” painting, Last Moments (later painted over), showing the visit of a priest to the bedside of a dying woman, a work that was accepted for the Spanish section of the Exposition Universelle in Paris in that year. Eager to see his own work in place and to experience Paris firsthand, Picasso set off in the company of his studio-mate Carles Casagemas (Portrait of Carles Casagemas, 1899) to conquer,if not Paris, at least a corner of Montmartre.

Discovery of Paris

One of Picasso's principal artistic discoveries on that trip (October–December) was colour—not the drab colours of the Spanish palette, the black of the shawls of Spanish women, or the ochres and browns of the Spanish landscape, but brilliant colour—the colour of Van Gogh, of new fashion, of a city celebrating a world's fair. Using charcoal, pastels, watercolours, and oils, Picasso recorded life in the French capital (Lovers in the Street, 1900). In Moulin de la Galette (1900) he paid tribute to French artists such as Toulouse-Lautrec and Steinlen as well as his Catalan compatriot Ramon Casas.
After just two months Picasso returned to Spain with Casagemas, who had become despondent about a failed love affair. Having tried unsuccessfully to amuse his friend in Málaga, Picasso took off for Madrid, where he worked as anart editor for a new journal, Arte Joven. Casagemas returned to Paris and attempted to shoot the woman he loved, then turned the gun on himself and died. The impact on Picasso was deep: it was not just that he had lost his loyal friend and perhaps felt a sense of guilt for having abandoned him; moreimportantly, he had gained the emotional experience and the material that would stimulate the powerful expressiveness of the works of the so-called Blue Period. Picasso made two death portraits of Casagemas several months later in 1901 as well as two funeral scenes (Mourners and Evocation), and in 1903 Casagemas appearedas the artist in the enigmatic painting La Vie.

Blue Period

Between 1901 and mid-1904, when blue was the predominant colour in his paintings, Picasso moved back and forth between Barcelona and Paris, taking material for his work from one place to the other. For example, his visits to the Women's Prison of Saint-Lazare in Paris in 1901–02, which provided him with free models and compelling subject matter (The Soup, 1902), were reflected in his depictions of Barcelona street people—blind or lonely beggars and castaways in 1902–03 (Crouching Woman, 1902; Blind Man's Meal, 1903; Old Jew and a Boy, 1903). The subject of maternity (women were allowed to keep nursing children with them at the prison) also preoccupied Picasso at a time when he was searching for material that would best express traditional art-historical subjects in 20th-century terms.

The move to Paris

Picasso finally made the decision to move permanently to Paris in the spring of 1904, and his work reflects a change of spirit and especially a change of intellectual and artistic currents. The traveling circus and saltimbanques became a subject he shared with a new and important friend, Guillaume Apollinaire. To both the poet and the painter these rootless wandering performers (Girl Balancing on a Ball, 1905; The Actor, 1905) became a kind of evocation of the artist's position in modern society. Picasso specifically made this identification in Family of Saltimbanques (1905), where he assumes the role of Harlequin and Apollinaire is the strongman (according to their mutual friend, the writer André Salmon).
Picasso's personal circumstances also changed at the end of 1904, when Fernande Olivier became his mistress. Herpresence inspired many works during the years leading up to Cubism, especially ontheir trip to Gosol in 1906 (Woman with Loaves), including the sculpture Head of a Woman (1909) and several paintings related to it (Woman with Pears, 1909).
Colour never came easily to Picasso, and he reverted to a generally more Spanish (i.e., monochromatic) palette. The tones ofthe Blue Period were replaced from late 1904 to 1906 in the so-called Rose Period by those of pottery, of flesh, and of the earth itself (The Harem, 1906). Picasso seems to have been working with colour inan attempt to come closer to sculptural form, especially in 1906 (Two Nudes; La Toilette). His Portrait of Gertrude Stein (1906) and a Self-Portrait with Palette (1906) show this development as well as the influence of his discovery of primitive Iberian sculpture.

Les Demoiselles d'Avignon

Toward the end of 1906 Picasso began work on a large composition that came to be called Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907). His violent treatment of the female body and masklike painting of the faces (influenced by a study of African art) have made this work controversial. Yet thework was firmly based upon art-historical tradition: a renewed interest in El Greco contributed to the fracturing of the space and the gestures of the figures, while the overall composition owed much to Paul Cézanne's Bathers as well as to J.-A-.D. Ingres's harem scenes. The Demoiselles, however, named by Picasso's friend Max Jacob (to refer to Avignon Street in Barcelona, where sailors found popular brothels), was perceived as a shocking and direct assault: these women were not conventional images of beauty but prostitutes who challenged the very tradition from which they were born. Although he had his collectors by this date (Leo and Gertrude Stein, the Russian merchant Sergey Shchukin) and a dealer (Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler), Picasso chose to roll up the canvas of the Demoiselles and to keep it out of sight for several years.
In 1908 the African-influenced striations and masklike headswere superseded by a technique that incorporated elements he and his new friend Georges Braque found in the work of Cézanne, whose shallow space and characteristic planar brushwork are especially evident in Picasso's work of 1909. Still lifes, inspired by Cézanne, also became an important subject for the first time in Picasso's career.

Cubism

Picasso and Braque worked together closely during the next few years (1909–12)—the only time Picasso ever worked with another painter in this way—and they developed what came to be known as Analytical Cubism. Early Cubist paintings were often misunderstood by critics and viewers because they were thought to be merely geometric art. Yet the painters themselves believed they were presenting a new kind of reality that broke away from Renaissance tradition, especially from the use of perspective and illusion. For example, they showed multiple views of an object on the same canvas to convey more information than could be contained in a single, limited illusionistic view.
As Kahnweiler saw it, Cubism signified the opening up of closed form by the “re-presentation” of the form of objects and their position in space instead of their imitation through illusionistic means; and the analytic process of fracturing objects and space, light and shadow, and even colour was likened by Apollinaire to the way in which the surgeon dissects a cadaver. This type of analysis is characteristic of Picasso's work beginning in 1909, especially in the landscapes he made on a trip to Spain that summer (Factory at Horta de Ebro). These were followed in 1910 with a series of hermetic portraits (Ambroise Vollard; Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler); and in his 1911–12 paintings of seated figures, often playing musical instruments (The Accordionist, 1911), Picasso merged figures, objects, and space on a kind of grid. The palette was once again limited to monochromatic ochres, browns, and grays.
Neither Braque nor Picasso desired to move into the realm of total abstraction in their Cubist works, although they implicitly accepted inconsistencies such as different points of view, different axes, and different light sources in the same picture. Furthermore, the inclusion of abstract and representational elements on the same picture plane led both artists to reexamine what two-dimensional elements, such as newspaper lettering, signified. A song title, "Ma Jolie," for instance, could point to events outside the painting; it could refer narratively to Picasso's new mistress, Eva (Marcelle Humbert). But it could also point to compositional elements within the painting, to the function of flat pictorial elements that play off other flat planes or curvilinear motifs. The inclusion of lettering also produced the powerful suggestion that Cubist pictures could be read coming forward from the picture plane rather than receding (in traditional perspective) into it. And the Cubists' manipulation of the picture shape—their use of the oval, for example—redefined the edge of the work in a way that underlined the fact that in a Cubist picture the canvas provides the real space.

Collage

By 1912 Picasso and Braque were gluing real paper (papier collé) and other materials (collage) onto their canvases, taking a stage further the Cubist conception of a work as a self-contained, constructed object. This Synthetic phase (1912–14) saw the reintroduction of colour, while the actual materials often had an industrial reference (e.g., sand or printed wallpaper). Still lifes and, occasionally, heads were the principal subjects for both artists. And in Picasso's works the multiple references inherent in his Synthetic compositions—curves that refer to guitars and at the same time to ears, for instance—introduce an element of play that is characteristic of so much of his work (Student with a Pipe, 1913) and lead to the suggestion that one thing becomes transformed into another. Absinthe Glass (1914; six versions), for example, is in part sculpture (cast bronze), in part collage (a real silver sugar strainer is welded onto the top), and in part painting (Neo-Impressionist brushstrokes cover planes of white paint). But the work is neither sculpture, nor collage, nor painting; planes refer to two-dimensionality, while the object indeed possesses three dimensions. The work of art thus hovers between reality and illusion.
By 1915 Picasso's life had changed and so, in a sense, had the direction of his art. At the end of that year his beloved Eva died, and the painting he had worked on during her illness (Harlequin, 1915; Museum of Modern Art, New York City) gives testimony to his grief—a half-Harlequin, half-Pierrot artist before an easel holds an unfinished canvas against a black background.

Parade

World War I dispersed Picasso's circle; Apollinaire, Braque, and others left for the front, while most of Picasso's Spanish compatriots returned to their neutral homeland. Picasso stayed in France, and from 1916 his friendship with the composer Erik Satie took him into a new avant-garde circle that remained active during the war. The self-appointed leader of this nucleus of talents who frequented the Café de la Rotonde was the young poet Jean Cocteau. His idea to stage a wartime theatrical event in collaboration with Sergey Diaghilev's Ballets Russes resulted in the production of Parade , a work about a circus sideshow that incorporated imagery of the new century, such as skyscrapers and airplanes. Cocteau went to Satie for the music and then to Picasso for the sets and costumes. Work began in 1917, and although Picasso intensely disliked travel, he agreed to go with Cocteau to Rome where they joined Diaghilev and the choreographer of Parade, Léonide Massine. It was on this occasion that Picasso also met his future wife, Olga Kokhlova, among the dancers.
Parade was first performed in May 1917 at the Théâtre du Châtelet in Paris, where it was considered no less than an attempt to undermine the solidarity of French culture. Satie seems to have been the principal target of abuse (partly because of his inclusion of airplane propellers and typewriters in the score), while Picasso disarmed the public with the contrast between his basically realistic stage curtain and the startling Synthetic Cubist constructions wornby the characters, the sideshow managers, in the ballet.

New Mediterraneanism

Picasso's paintings and drawings of the late teens often seem unexpectedly naturalistic in contrast to the Cubist works that preceded or sometimes coincided with them (Passeig de Colom, 1917). After his travels to Italy and a return to Barcelona in 1917 (Parade was performed there in November), a new spirit of Mediterraneanism made itself felt in his work, especially in the use of classical forms and drawing techniques. This was reinforced by a conscious looking back to Ingres (for example, in Picasso's portrait drawings of Jacob and Vollard, 1915) and to late Pierre-Auguste Renoir. Even the direction of Picasso's Cubist work was affected. By clarifying planes, forms, and colour, the artist imparted to his Cubist paintings a classical expression (Saint-Raphaël still lifes, 1919; two versions of the Three Musicians, 1921).
Picasso's only legitimate child, Paulo, was born in 1921. As part of his new status as darling of the socialites (encouraged particularly by his wife and Jean Cocteau) Picasso continued his collaborations with the Ballets Russes and produced designs for Manuel de Falla's Three-Cornered Hat (1919); Igor Stravinsky's Pulcinella (1920); De Falla's Cuadro Flamenco (1921); and Satie's ballet Mercure (1924). André Breton called Picasso's designs for this ballet “tragic toys for adults” created in the spirit of Surrealism.

Surrealism

Although Picasso never became an official member of the group, he had intimate connections with the most important art movement between the two world wars, Surrealism. The Surrealist establishment, including its main propagandist, André Breton, claimed him as one of their own, and Picasso's art gained a new dimension from contact with his Surrealist friends, particularly the writers. Inherent in Picasso's work since the Demoiselles were many elements that the official circle advocated. The creation of monsters, for instance, could certainly be perceived in the disturbing juxtapositions and broken contours of the human figure in Cubist works; Breton specifically pointed to the strange Woman in a Chemise (1913). Moreover, the idea of reading one thing for another, an idea implicit in Synthetic Cubism, seemed to coincide with the dreamlike imagery the Surrealists championed.
What the Surrealist movement gave to Picasso were new subjects—especially erotic ones—as well as a reinforcement of disturbing elements already in his work. The many variations on the subject of bathers with their overtly sexual and contorted forms (Dinard series, 1929) show clearly the impact of Surrealism, while in other works the effect of distortion on the emotions of the spectator can also be interpreted as fulfilling one of the psychological aims of Surrealism (drawings and paintings of the Crucifixion , 1930–35). In the 1930s Picasso, like many of the Surrealist writers, often played with the idea of metamorphosis. For example, the image of the minotaur, the monster of Greek mythology—half bull and half human—that traditionally has been seen as the embodiment of the struggle between the human and the bestial, becomes in Picasso's work not only an evocation of that idea but also a kind of self-portrait.
Finally, Picasso's own brand of Surrealism found its strongest expression in poetry. He began writing poetry in 1934, and during one year, from February 1935 to the spring of 1936, Picasso virtually gave up painting. Collections of poems were published in Cahiers d'Art (1935) and in La Gaceta de Arte (1936, Tenerife), and some years later he wrote the Surrealist play Le Désir attrapé par la queue (1941, Desire Caught by the Tail).

Sculpture

Picasso's reputation as a major 20th-century sculptor came only after his death, because he had kept much of his sculpture in his own collection. Beginning in 1928, Picasso began to work in iron and sheet metal in Julio González's studio in Paris. Then, in 1931, with his new mistress, Marie-Thérèse Walter, he left his wife and moved to a country home at Boisgeloup, where he had room for sculpture studios. There, with Marie-Thérèse as his muse, Picasso began working on large-scale plaster heads. He also began to make constructions incorporating found objects, and until the end of his life Picasso continued working in sculpture in a variety of materials.

The 1930s

The privacy of his life with the undemanding Marie-Thérèse formed a contrast to the hectic pace of life kept by Olga and her bourgeois circle of society friends. Once in Boisgeloup, Picasso lived openly with Marie-Thérèse (with whom he had a child, Maya, in 1935), and she became the subject of his often lyrical, sometimes erotic paintings, in which he combined intense colour with flowing forms (Girl Before a Mirror, 1932).
Picasso never completely dissociated himself from the women who had shared his life once a new lover occupied hisattention. This is evident in his work, in which one mistress often turns into another; for instance, in a private sketchbook (number 99, 1929) Picasso's portrait drawings betray his double life, for the pictures of his then secret mistress evolve into horrific images of screaming Olgas. Andin 1936, while money and a certain amount of attention were given to both Olga and Marie-Thérèse, Picasso moved back to Paris and began to live with the Yugoslav photographer Dora Maar. This change in his own life coincided with a period of personal preoccupation with the Spanish Civil War, which had begun in that year.
Although Picasso never returned to his native country after avisit in 1934, his sympathies always lay with Spain (the short-lived Republican government named him honorary director of the Prado), and in early 1937 he produced a seriesof etchings and aquatints (Dream and Lie of Franco) to be sold in support of the Republican cause. His major contribution, of course, was the mural painting Guernica (named for the Basque town bombed in 1937 by the Fascists)commissioned by the Republican government for the Spanish pavilion at the 1937 World's Fair in Paris. As compensation Picasso was provided with a studio in Paris on rue des Grands Augustins large enough to accommodate the enormous canvas (11.5 × 25.5 feet; 3.49 × 7.77 metres). Dora Maar worked with him to complete the final work, which was realized in just over three weeks. The imagery in Guernica—the gored horse, the fallen soldier, and screaming mothers with dead babies (representing the bullfight, war, and female victims, respectively)—was employed to condemn the useless destruction of life, while at the same time the bull represented the hope of overcoming the unseen aggressor, Fascism.

World War II and after

The expressive quality of both the forms and gestures in the basically monochromatic composition of Guernica found its way into Picasso's other work, especially in the intensely coloured versions of Weeping Woman (1937) as well as in related prints and drawings, in portraits of Dora Maar and Nusch Éluard (wife of Picasso's friend, the French poet Paul Éluard), and in still lifes (Still Life with Red Bull's Head, 1938). These works led to the claustrophobic interiors and skull-like drawings (sketchbook number 110, 1940) of the waryears, which Picasso spent in France with Dora Maar as well as with Jaime Sabartés, a friend of his student days in Barcelona. Thereafter Sabartés shared Picasso's life as secretary, biographer, and companion, and more often than not as the butt of endless jokes (Portrait of Jaime Sabartés, 1939; Retour de Bruxelles, sketchbook number 137, 1956).
After the war Picasso resumed exhibiting his work, which included painting and sculpture as well as work in lithography and ceramics. At the Autumn Salon of 1944 (“Salon de la Liberation”) Picasso's canvases and sculpture of the preceding five years were received as a shock. This plus the announcement that Picasso had just joined the Communist Party led to demonstrations against his political views in the gallery itself. At the same time Picasso opened up his studio to both new and old writer and artist friends, including Jean-Paul Sartre, Pierre Reverdy, Éluard, the photographer Brassaï, the English artist Roland Penrose, andthe American photographer Lee Miller, as well as many American GI's.
Already in 1943 a young painter, Françoise Gilot, had presented herself at the studio, and within months she became the successor to Dora Maar. In 1946 Picasso moved to the Mediterranean with Gilot (with whom he was to have two children, Claude in 1947 and Paloma in 1949). First they moved to Antibes, where Picasso spent four months painting at the Château Grimaldi (Joie de Vivre, 1946). The paintings of this time and the ceramics he decorated at the studio in nearby Vallauris, beginning in 1947, vividly express Picasso's sense of identification with the classical tradition and with his Mediterranean origins. They also celebrate his new-found happiness with Gilot, who in works of this period is often nymph to Picasso's fauns and centaurs.

Ceramics

Picasso's ceramics are usually set apart from his main body of work and are treated as less important, because at first glance they seem a somewhat frivolous exercise in the decoration of ordinary objects. Plates, jugs, and vases, mostly made by craftsmen at the Madoura pottery in Vallauris, were reshaped or painted, gouged out, scratched, or marked by fingerprints, and, for the most part, were rendered useless. In turning to craft, Picasso worked with a sense of liberation, experimenting with the play between decoration and form (between two and three dimensions) and between personal and universal meaning.
During this period Picasso's fame increasingly attracted numerous visitors, including artists and writers, some of whom (Hélène Parmelin, Édouard Pignon, Éluard, and especially Louis Aragon) encouraged Picasso's further political involvement. Although he contributed designs willingly (his dove was used for the World Peace Congress poster in Wrocław, Poland, in 1949), it was not so much from a commitment to the Communists as from a sincere and lifelong sympathy with any group of repressed people. War and Peace, two panels painted in 1952 to adorn the Temple of Peace attached to an old chapel in Vallauris, reflect Picasso's personal optimism of those years.

The Picasso myth

After World War II an aura of myth grew up around the name of Picasso, and in the last decades of his life his work had, in a sense, moved beyond criticism. Although there were few critics able to keep pace with his latest work, there were few who attacked him. One exception was the British critic John Berger (The Success and Failure of Picasso, 1965), who raised questions about Picasso's economic motives and speculated about his inflated public reputation. Picasso's enormous output (especially in printing and drawing) kept his name before the public, even though his work seemed at the time to be far from mainstream, nonfigurative imagery. For example, in the series that characterized the working methods of his late years he used figurative imagery to weave a kind of narrative within each series' numerous variations.
In 1953 Françoise Gilot with their two children left Picasso, and he spent several years as a bachelor, dividing his time between Paris and his home at La Californie, near Cannes. In 1954 he had met Jacqueline Roque, who worked in the pottery shop in Vallauris, and they married in 1961; she not only became his steadfast companion, but also, as his muse, she became the principal image and source of inspiration for practically all of the late work. They are both buried in the castle at Vauvenargues, which Picasso purchased in 1958. But the years from their marriage to Picasso's death they spent at Mougins.

History of art

In his late work Picasso repeatedly turned toward the history of art for his themes. He seemed at times obsessed with the need to create variations on the works of earlier artists; thus in his many prints, drawings, and paintings of that period, reference is made to artists such as Altdorfer, Manet, Rembrandt, Delacroix, and Courbet. Repeatedly Picasso did a complete series of variations on one particular work, the most famous being perhaps the series on Las Meninas of Velázquez consisting of 58 discrete pictures. At times Picasso reworked a specific work because he identified personally with it. For example, he was attracted to Delacroix's Femmes d'Alger because the figure on the right bore resemblance to his wife. More often he seemed moved by the challenge to rework in his own way the complex pictorial and narrative problems the older artists had originally posed for themselves. In a sense Picasso was writing himself into the history of art by virtue of such an association with a number of his predecessors.
There is a renewed sense of play in the work of Picasso's later years. He transformed paper cutouts into monumental sculptures, and in Henri-Georges Clouzot's film Le Mystère Picasso (1955), the artist, the sole star, behaves like a conjurer, performing tricks with light as well as with his brush. And finally, just as he turned to the paintings of earlier masters, redoing their works in many variations, so he turned to his own earlier oeuvre, prompted by the same impulse. The circus and the artist's studio became once again the stage for his characters, among whom he often placed himself portrayed as an old acrobat or king.

Assessment

Because Picasso's art from the time of the Demoiselles was radical in nature, virtually no 20th-century artist could escape his influence. Moreover, while other masters such as Matisse or Braque tended to stay within the bounds of a style they had developed in their youth, Picasso continued to be an innovator into the last decade of his life. This led to misunderstanding and criticism both in his lifetime and since, and it was only in the 1980s that his last paintings began to be appreciated both in themselves and for their profound influence on the rising generation of young painters. Since Picasso was able from the 1920s to sell worksat very high prices, he could keep most of his oeuvre in his own collection. At the time of his death he owned some 50,000 works in various media from every period of his career, which passed into possession of the French state and his heirs. Their exhibition and publication has served to reinforce the highest estimates of Picasso's astonishing powers of invention and execution over a span of more than 80 years.

Marilyn McCully
 

 


__________


"...The art of painting original arrangements

composed of elements taken from conceived

rather than perceived reality."

Guillaume Apollinaire, The Beginnings of Cubism, 1912

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Cubism

   



Albert Gleizes




Jean Metzinger




Fernand Leger




Jacques Villon

When Les Demoiselles d Avignon by Pablo Picasso was first seen in 1907, it certainly represented a radical break with the canons of traditional portrayal. No longer governed by the laws of a single, central perspective, artists were able to depict the subject from various simultaneous viewpoints. A purely intellectualized vision - a combination of angular solids and geometric planes - could now be conveyed within a two-dimensional canvas, thus dismissing spatial illusionism. Picasso was introduced to Georges Braque by a mutual friend, the poet Guillaume Apollinaire. The two artists shared a common desire for a new language and worked together for more than seven years. Picasso and Braque sought a way of expressing a more complete and multi-faceted reality (by painting what is known about space and shapes, not only what is seen). Such is the similarity of their paintings, that it is sometimes difficult to identify each artist's work. However, Braque seems to have stayed more in touch with formal values, founded on harmonious and rhythmic composition, while Picasso, true to his Spanish blood, was more aggressive, passionate, and dramatic. Recurring themes in the works of both painters include angular human figures - treated like wooden sculpture and possessing an almost sacred solemnity - and landscapes in which small houses were reduced to geometric cube shapes. It was in Louis Vauxcelles's description of this detail in Gil Bias in November 1908 that the term "cubism" was coined. Portraits were often of the painters' dealer and collector friends, such as Kahnweiler, Vollard, and Uhde, while the still lifes show fragments, silhouettes, and profiles of objects that appear to interlock tightly as if within a web. Musical instruments were often represented, chosen partly for their formal values - piano keys relate well to spatial rhythm, and the shape of the mandolin echoes the curves of the female body - and partly in the ever-present hope of achieving a synthesis of painting and music. Within two years, the process of dismantling form started by Picasso and Braque took fragmentation and obscurity to such extreme lengths that it led to cryptic and indecipherable works.

This phase is known as Analytical Cubism, when pyramidal structures of geometrical solids tend to dematerialize through the effect of light shining through them, making them crystalline and forming schemes that have been mistaken as abstract. In fact, Cubists sought to penetrate reality to its very depths, investigating its most hidden aspects in order to provide as much information about it as possible. According to
Jean Metzinger (1883-1957) and Albert Gleizes (1881-1953) in Du Cubisme (published in 1912), the Cubists wanted to circle around the object and, under the control of the intellect, give a concrete representation of several successive aspects of it. Although Picasso and Braque were acknowledged as the two most significant exponents of Cubism in its analytical phase and subsequent stages, neither of them took part in the movement's first official viewing held in April 1911 at the Salon ties Independants. Works by participating artists - Metzinger, Gleizes, Fernand Leger, and Robert Delaunay (1885-1941) - showed very different artistic experiences, but were now-grouped under one name, which acquired its own resonance and historic significance. The five painters of the Salon were soon joined by Roger de la Fresnaye, Marcoussis, and the so-called "Puteaux group", comprising the three brothers Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968), Jacques Villon-Gaston Duchamp (1875-1963)
(Gaston Duchamp was the elder brother of: Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Marcel Duchamp, Suzanne Duchamp-Crotti (1889-1963), painter) , and the sculptor Raymond Duchamp-Villon (1876-1918). Later on, the Spanish painter Juan Gris (1887-1927) was associated with the group, albeit loosely. Also in 1911, contacts were made with the Blaue Reiter at Delaunay's exhibition in Munich, and with the Cubo-Futurists Malevich, and Burliuk.

In the same year,
Gris' Homage to Picasso acknowledged Picasso
as the father of a new, historic artistic-era, and the Cubist exhibition in Brussels, which was organized by Guillaume Apollinaire, marked the close of the movement's first phase. Other Cubist developments followed, such as so-called Synthetic Cubism, and the distinctive Orphic Cubism. In these, the object, which had initially been analysed and broken into parts, losing any recognizable features, was reconstituted. depicted according to its essential structure, and expressed in terms of its most significant components. Cubists now sought to avoid the danger of abstraction and mystification. Instead, they favoured a subtle linguistic game of metaphors and cross-references between reality and illusionism. Works now featured letters, numbers, and "pieces of reality", such as cloth, newspaper cuttings, stamps, and other objets tronres. The use of these items by Cubists launched the technique of collage and papier colle, which was later adopted enthusiastically by Dadaists and Surrealists. Impelled by the need to achieve order, clarity, and increasingly repelled by the drab and uniform colours of the majority of Cubist paintings, Juan Gris and, subsequently. Fernand Leger adopted a rigorous structure and more luminous and brilliant colours. The Cubism of these artists is a simple, essential, and schematic language of geometric shapes, enriched by flat areas of clear, pure colour.


 


Pablo Picasso

 


Georges Braque

 


Juan Gris
 

   
 

 

 


Cubism

(Encyclopaedia Britannica)

Highly influential visual arts style of the 20th century that was created principally by the painters Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque in Paris between 1907 and 1914. The Cubist style emphasized the flat, two-dimensional surface of the pictureplane, rejecting the traditional techniques of perspective, foreshortening, modeling, and chiaroscuro and refuting time-honoured theories of art as the imitation of nature. Cubist painters were not bound to copying form, texture, colour, and space; instead, they presented a new reality in paintings that depicted radically fragmented objects, whose several sides were seen simultaneously.

Cubism derived its name from remarks that were made by the painter Henri Matisse and the critic Louis Vauxcelles, who derisively described Braque's 1908 work “Houses at L'Estaque” as composed of cubes. In Braque's work, the volumes of the houses, the cylindrical forms of the trees, and the tan-and-green colour scheme are reminiscent of Paul Cézanne's landscapes, which deeply inspired the Cubists in their first stage of development, until 1909. It was, however, “Les Demoiselles d'Avignon,” a work painted by Picasso in 1907, that forecast the new style; in this work, the forms of five female nudes became fractured, angular shapes. As in Cézanne's art, perspective was rendered by means of colour,the warm reddish browns advancing and the cool blues receding.

The period from 1910 to 1912 often is referred to as that of Analytical Cubism. Paintings executed during this period showed the breaking down, or analysis, of form. Right-angle and straight-line construction were favoured, though occasionally some areas of the painting appeared sculptural, as in Picasso's “Girl with a Mandolin” (1910). Colour schemes were simplified, tending to be nearly monochromatic (hues of tan, brown, gray, cream, green, or blue preferred) in order not to distract the viewer from the artist's primary interest—the structure of form itself. The monochromatic colour scheme was suited to the presentation of complex, multiple views of the object, which was now reduced to overlapping opaque and transparent planes. These planes appear to ascend the surface of the canvas rather than to recede in depth. Forms are generally compact and dense in the centre of the Analytical Cubist painting, growing larger as they diffuse toward the edges of the canvas, as in Picasso's “Portrait of Ambroise Vollard” (1909–10; Pushkin Fine Arts Museum, Moscow). Paintings frequently combine representational motifs with letters, the latter emphasizing the painter's concern with abstraction; favourite motifs are musical instruments, bottles, pitchers, glasses, newspapers, still lifes, and the human face and figure.

Interest in this subject matter continued after 1912, during the phase generally identified with Synthetic Cubism. Works of this phase emphasize the combination, or synthesis, of forms in the picture. Colour assumes a strong role in the work; shapes, while remaining fragmented and flat, are larger and more decorative. Smooth and rough surfaces may be contrasted with one another; and frequently foreign materials, such as newspapers or tobacco wrappers, are pasted on the canvas in combination with painted areas. This technique, known as collage, further emphasizes the differences in texture and, at the same time, poses the question of what is reality and what is illusion in nature and in painting.

While Picasso and Braque are credited with creating the new visual language, it was adopted and further developed by many painters, such as Fernand Léger, Robert and Sonia Delaunay, Juan Gris, Roger de la Fresnaye, Marcel Duchamp, Albert Gleizes, and Jean Metzinger. Though primarily associated with painting, Cubism also exerted a profound influence on 20th-century sculpture and architecture. Chief among Cubist sculptors are Alexander Archipenko, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, and Jacques Lipchitz. The adoption of the Cubist aesthetic by the architect Le Corbusier is reflected in the shapes of the houses he designed during the 1920s.
 

 



 


Raymond
Duchamp-Villon

(b Damville, Eure, 5 Nov 1876; d Cannes, 7 Oct 1918).

French sculptor and draughtsman. The second son of a Normandy notary, he played a central role in the development of modern aesthetics, as did his elder brother JACQUES VILLON and his younger brother MARCEL DUCHAMP. He came from an educated family and was an assiduous student at secondary school in Rouen; in 1894 he registered at the Faculté de Médecine in Paris, where he attended classes for several years. Rheumatic fever forced him to break off his studies in 1898 just before completion and left him immobilized for a considerable length of time; this unforeseen event altered the whole course of his life. During this period of enforced leisure (1899–1900), he modelled small statuettes (of subjects such as familiar animals and female figures), discovering his true vocation as a sculptor. He was essentially self-taught and rapidly attained a high level of mastery and maturity. He settled in Paris c. 1901 and changed his name to Duchamp-Villon at his father’s insistence. As early as 1902 he exhibited a portrait of his future wife (whom he married in 1903) in the Société Nationale, and he exhibited works regularly at the Salon d’Automne from its foundation in 1903. In 1905 he held his first private exhibition with Jacques Villon in the Galerie Legrip, Rouen.
 



The Horse
1914



Portrait of Professor Gosset
1917



Femme assise



Torso of a Young Man
1910



The Large Horse
1914



The Lovers
1913




 

The Eight. The Ashcan School


 


 


William J. Glackens

 


Everett Shinn

 


John Sloan

 


Maurice Prendergast

 


Ernest Lawson

 


Alfred Maurer
 

 


The Eight


Group of American painters who exhibited together only once, in New York City in 1908, but who established one of the main currents in 20th-century American painting. The original Eight included
Robert Henri, leader of the group, Everett Shinn, John Sloan, Arthur B. Davies, Ernest Lawson, Maurice Prendergast, George Luks, and William J. Glackens. George Bellows later joined them. The group's determination to bring art into closer touch with everyday life greatly influenced the course of American art.
 


Robert Henri


Reacting against an American academic and aesthetic tradition that was subservient to European aesthetics, the members of The Eight established their own artistic society in the bustling neighbourhoods of New York and set out to create a native American painting. Luks, Sloan, Glackens, and Shinn worked as newspaper illustrator-cartoonists. They and the four other artists used the teeming life they found in New York as the subject of their art, presenting unidealized views of city life in the saloons, tenements, pool halls, and slums. Some members of The Eight adopted a rough, realistic style, utilizing flashy brushwork on a dark ground in a manner reminiscent of Edouard Manet, Gustave Courbet, and the German Dusseldorf school. Other members took different directions: Prendergast utilized the decorative patterns of colour he found in the work of the French Nabi group in his translations of the American landscape; Davies painted dreamy, twilight scenes evolved from lyrical allegories rather than from contemporary life; Lawson adopted a style that was lyrically atmospheric. In spite of such deviations in style, the artists banded together for a group show in 1908 at the Macbeth Gallery, organizing it as a direct reaction against slights by the National Academy of Design. The show was well-attended but received mixed reviews: while some critics admired the daring of the work, more were shocked by what they saw as poor draftsmanship and dreary subject matter.

A few years after their only joint exhibition, the eight painters were absorbed into a larger group called the Ashcan school, which included
Bellows, Edward Hopper, and Jerome Myers. The Ashcan school, whose principles and aims were similar to those of The Eight, further paved the way for the development of a vital and native trend in American painting of the 20th century.

 


George Wesley Bellows

 

 

The Ashcan School
 

The Ashcan School was a small group of artists who sought to document everyday life in turn-of-the-century New York City, capturing it in realistic and unglamorized paintings and etchings of urban street scenes. It largely consisted of Robert Henri and his circle. Henri, an influential teacher, was an admirer of the unpretentious and masculine realism of Thomas Eakins and Thomas Anshutz. In addition to Henri, the Ashcan School consisted of George Wesley Bellows, William J. Glackens, Everett Shinn, George Luks and John Sloan. The spirit of the Ashcan School was continued in the American Scene Painting of the 1920's and 1930's.


 


Arthur B. Davies


George Luks


Artists who have extensively in this group include Arthur B. Davies (1862-1928), Robert Henri (1865-1929), George Luks (1867-1933), William J. Glackens (1870-1938), John Sloan (1871-1951), and Everett Shinn (1876-1953). Others who are considered in the Ashcan school: Alfred Maurer (1868-1932), George Wesley Bellows (1882-1925), Edward Hopper (1882-1967), and Guy Pene Du Bois (1884-1958).

 


Edward Hopper

 



 


Jerome Myers
(1867-1940)



Jerome Myers
The Playground



Jerome Myers
Children at Play



Jerome Myers
Sunday Morning

 

 




 


Guy Pene du Bois
(1884-1958)



Guy Pene du Bois
Studio Window



Guy Pene du Bois
Trapeze Performers
 

 



Guy Pene du Bois
Dining Out



Guy Pene du Bois
Woman Playing Accordion

 



Guy Pene du Bois
Americans in Paris

 

 



 

_____________

Allied Artists’ Association [A.A.A.].

Organization established in London in 1908, dedicated to non-juried exhibitions of international artists’ work. The main impetus for the A.A.A. came from Frank Rutter (1876–1937), art critic of the Sunday Times, and the first exhibition was held at the Albert Hall, London. Inspired by the Salon des Indépendants in Paris, Rutter wanted to set up an exhibiting platform for the work of progressive artists. On payment of a subscription, artists were entitled to exhibit five works (subsequently reduced to three) and over 3000 items were included in the first show. Rutter also wanted the A.A.A. to have a foreign section and for the first exhibition collaborated with Jan de Holewinski (1871–1927), who had been sent to London to organize an exhibition of Russian arts and crafts.
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Noucentisme

Cultural movement that influenced all areas of artistic activity in Catalonia between 1908 and 1923. The term was coined by the philosopher EUGENIO D’ORS, who used it to refer to a new ‘20th-century’ spirit that he perceived in Catalan art at the beginning of the century. In a series of articles in periodicals d’Ors qualified as Noucentistes those artists and writers whose work in his opinion was characterized by a new sensibility, and the designation was established in 1911 with the publication of the Almanac dels Noucentistes, a collection of drawings and poems that had in common a reversion to classicism, a particular interest in urban life and a special concern for the determining aspects of private life. Noucentisme was influential in Catalan art for more than two decades and constituted a parallel movement to that of avant-garde art, towards which, however, it showed only a detached curiosity. Noucentisme encouraged a return to order and normality after the radicalism, bohemianism and individualism that had characterized some of the major figures of modernism. Among painters, its leading exponents were JOAQUÍM SUNYER, Jaume Mercade (1887–1967), Francesc Gali (1880–1965) and (in their early work) Josep Torres Garcia (1874–1949) and JOAN MIRÓ, while in sculpture the leading figures were ARISTIDE MAILLOL, MANOLO, JOSEP CLARÀ, Fidel Aguilar and, to some extent, PABLO GARGALLO. In architecture, the classicizing aspects of the Vienna Secession influenced Rafael Massó and Joseph Maria Pericas, while a stricter classicism marked the work of Adolf Florensa (1889–1968), Francesc Folquera (1891–1960), the brothers Ramón (1887–1935) and Josep (1886–1937) Puig Gairalt and Nicolau Maria Rubio i Tuduri (1891–1981). Other influences derived from Modernisme, the Catalan version of Art Nouveau, were introduced by such architects as J. PUIG I CADAFALCH and J. Torres Grau (1879–1945). Noucentisme also inspired the foundation of such cultural institutions as the Universitat Industrial, the Escola Nova, the Bernat Metge Foundation (for the translation into Catalan of Greek and Latin classics) and the Institut d’Estudis Catalans.
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Vasily Kandinsky
 

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THE NEW ARTISTS' ASSOCIATION
 

Alexei von Jawlensky, Alfred Kubin, and Gabriele Munter, along with other artists who no longer wanted to work within the Munich Secession movement, founded the New Artists' Association of Munich in 1909. Led by Wassily Kandinsky as president, the group met to discuss the need to make art less bound by realism and more inspired by emotions, and to express this "inner world" directly with "necessary" forms rather than in the hackneyed "secondary" forms of existing artistic styles.

The association held its first two shows in 1909 and 1910. including work by many French Fauves and Cubists, which provoked strong criticism. Such hostility, together with the rejection from the group's exhibition of Kandinsky's Composition V, which marked his turn towards abstraction, caused the group to break up.
 


Alfred Kubin



Neue Kunstlervereinigung (New Artists' Association group)

English New Artists' Association group founded in 1909 by
Wassily Kandinsky, Alexei von Jawlensky, Gabriele Munter, and numerous others who were united by opposition to the official art of Munich rather than by similarity of style. Joined by Adolf Erbsloh, Alexander Kanoldt, Alfred Kubin, Marianne von Werefkin, Karl Hofer, and several other artists as wellas lay people, the group held its first exhibition in December 1909, at Moderne Galerie Tannhäuser, Munich. The works exhibited, which primarily reflected Jugendstil and Fauvist styles, were not favourably received by the critics or the public. Their second exhibition, held September 1910 at Tannhäuser, was international in scope, including, in addition to their works. The exhibition was denounced for, among other things, including foreign artists, especially Russians, who were considered dangerous to Bavarian culture.
While preparing for their third exhibition, held December 1911 at Tannhäuser, differences in aesthetic outlook caused a split in the group, partially brought on by the jury's rejection of Kandinsky's large, rather abstract painting, “Last Judgment.” Franz Marc (the last painter to join the group) and Kandinsky, favouring freedom of expression, were aligned against the more conservative art historian Otto Fischer (who later became the group's spokesman), Kanoldt, and Erbslöh.
Kandinsky left the association (as did Munter and
Kubin) and together formed Der Blaue Reiter, exhibiting their works that same month at Tannhäuser, in rooms adjoining those of the Neue Künstlervereinigung.
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Adolf Erbsloh
(1881-1947)


Adolf Erbsloh
Germany
Gebirge, Brannenburg, 1911

 



Adolf Erbsloh
Badende Frauen, 1913



Adolf Erbsloh
Schlafende Frau, Akt, 1913

 
 



 


Alexander Kanoldt

(1881-1939)



Still Life


Marianne von Werefkin

(1860-1938)


Self-Portrait


Karl Hofer

(1878 - 1955)


Wopan

 
 





 

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The Eight  (Hung. Nyolcak
)

Hungarian avant-garde group founded in early 1909 and consisting of the painters Róbert Berény, Béla Czóbel, Dezso Czigány, Károly Kernstok, Odon Márffy, Dezso Orbán (1884–1986), Bertalan Pór and Lajos Tihanyi. Later the sculptors Márk Vedres (1870–1961) and Vilmos Fémes Beck and the industrial designer Anna Lesznai (b 1885) also became members. The group was originally called the Searchers (Keresok) and had formed the most radical section within MIENK (Hungarian Impressionists and Naturalists), a broad-based group of artists. They left MIENK in order to develop a more modern aesthetic. The name the Eight was adopted on the occasion of the second exhibition in 1911, and its leader and organizer was Kernstok. Unlike the earlier Nagybánya school or other contemporary Western movements, the Eight had no homogeneous style, individual artists being influenced by a variety of sources ranging from Cézanne to Cubism. Though unified by a sense of the social function of art, the details of this belief again varied with each artist.
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Robert Bereny

(1887- 1953)


Woman in a Red Dress
1908


Dezso Orban
(1884–1986)


Still-life with Green Pear
1909

 
 





 

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Septem group

Finnish group of painters founded in 1909 and named after the number of its co-founders. The leaders were Alfred William Finch and Knut Magnus Enckell, and the other members were Yrjö Ollila (1887–1932), Mikko Oinonen (1883–1956), Juho Rissanen, Ellen Thesleff and Verner Thomé (1878–1953). The formation of the group was prompted by the poor reception of a Finnish exhibition in Paris in 1908, with critics claiming that Finnish art was dull and gloomy. Its inspiration came from a Franco-Belgian exhibition held in Helsinki in 1904. This comprised Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist works by Paul Signac, Henri Edmond Cross, Théo Van Rysselberghe and Finch among others, these styles being virtually unknown in Finland at the time. Finch himself had been one of the co-founders of Les XX in Belgium and had since 1897 been living in Finland, where he had been invited to run the ceramics department of the Iris factory at Porvoo. He had also been a friend of Signac and Georges Seurat and was therefore well placed to introduce these artistic innovations into Finland.
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Alfred William Finch

(1854-1930)


Kew Bridge
1919


Knut Magnus Enckell

(1870-1925)


Riviergezicht met boerderij en enkele
aangemeerde schepen

 
 





 

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Neukunstgruppe

Name given to a group of Austrian artists formed in Vienna in 1909. They exhibited together at the Gustav Pisko Galerie, Vienna, in December 1909 as the Neukünstler. The application of the term Neukunst may have been influenced by Ludwig Hevesi’s book Altkunst–Neukunst (Vienna, 1909). Egon Schiele is credited with inventing the name ‘Neukünstler’. He was not only one of the exhibitors but also author of an untitled manifesto (published in Die Aktion, 1914) that demanded the complete independence of the artist from tradition, and that preached subjective creativity as an absolute: ‘The "Neukünstler" is and must be his unlimited self, he must be a creator, he must be able to build his foundations completely alone, directly, without all the past and the traditional.... Each one of us must be—himself’. The other artists who participated in the Neukünstler exhibition included Anton Faistauer (whose poster for the exhibition was derivative of Schiele), Franz Wiegele, Rudolf Kalvach, Albert Paris von Gütersloh and Hans Böhler (1884–1961). Like Schiele and Faistauer, Gütersloh was fascinated at that time by the gestural language of thin, young, male figures. Kalvach and Gütersloh, as far as can be seen from their few extant graphic works, shared a preference at the time of this exhibition for small-scale narratives similar to caricature.
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Franz Wiegele

(1887-1944)


Akte im Walde
1910

Rudolf Kalvach

(1883-1932)


Fantasy
1908
 
 
 

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