Art of the 20th Century





A Revolution in the Arts

 


Art Styles in 20th century Art Map

 



Naive art

 

 


Folk Art,
Naive art
 


HISTORY

Edward Hicks (1780-1849)
Ammi Phillips (1788-1865)
Erastus Salisbury Field (1805-1900)

see also
EXPLORATION: Henri Rousseau
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20th CENTURY

EXPLORATION: Naive Art

EXPLORATION: Grandma Moses (1860-1961)

John Kane (1860-1934)
Niko Pirosmani (1862-1918)
Henry Darger (1892-1973)
Maud Lewis (1903-1970)
Nina Barka
(1908-1986)
Ivan Generalic (1914-1992)
Ivan Rabuzin b.1921
Charles Wysocki (1928-2002)
Josip Generalic
b.1936
Adrie Martens  b.1944
 

 
 

 

 


Folk Art



Folk Art is art which does not come out of the fine art tradition. Folk Artists are typically from rural or pre-industrial societies, and are more closely related to craftsmen than they are to fine artists.
Folk Art is characterized by a naive style, in which traditional rules of proportion and perspective are not employed.
Closely related terms are Outsider Art, Self-Taught Art and Naive Art.
Well-known Folk Artists include the American painters Grandma Moses and Edward Hicks, and the Canadian painter Maud Lewis.

 

 


Naive art


 

Term applied to the work of non-professional, self-taught artists who, while lacking orthodox skills, apply themselves to their art in a resolute and independent spirit.

The history of naive art is both the history of the complex evolution of the many art forms lying outside the fine arts tradition and of the critical attempts to disentangle a distinct strand from this broader fabric. In the course of the 19th century in Europe, the arts and crafts of rural peoples (normally termed FOLK ART, or sometimes ‘peasant art’) and the urban traditions of semi-skilled craftsmen gradually faltered in the face of growing industrialization. Factory products enfeebled the individual impulse to fashion handmade artefacts; itinerant portrait painters (‘limners’) found their trade dwindling after the advent of photography; and in general the rise of an industry-based economy and the growth of cities sapped the vitality of vernacular and communally recognized artwork such as embroidery, toymaking, the carving of ships’ figureheads, painted targets and so forth. Similar developments took place in North America, though at a slower pace, partly determined by a wilful defence of inherited models on the part of culture-conscious immigrants.

 

 




Edward Hicks

Ammi Phillips

Henri Rousseau

 


Grandma Moses





Niko Pirosmani

Henry Darger

Ivan Generalic

Ivan Rabuzin



Charles Wysocki

Adrie Martens


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Girl of the Bangs-Phelps Family

Erastus Salisbury Field

(b Leverett, MA, 19 May 1805; d Leverett, 28 June 1900).

American painter. He studied with Samuel F. B. Morse in New York during the winter of 1824–5. On his return to the rural isolation of Leverett, MA, he painted his earliest known work, the portrait of his grandmother Elizabeth Billings Ashley (Springfield, MA, Mus. F.A.). His career as an itinerant portrait painter began in 1826, most of his commissions coming through a network of family associations in western Massachusetts and Connecticut. The portraits of 1836–40 are considered his best. From 1841 he lived mainly in New York, where he expanded his subject-matter to include landscapes and American history pictures. There he presumably studied photography, for on his return to Massachusetts he advertised himself as a daguerreotypist. His few portraits painted after 1841 are copied from his own photographs and lack the expressive characterization and decorative power of his earlier work. From 1865 to 1885 his paintings were based primarily on biblical and patriotic themes. The Historical Monument of the American Republic (1867–88; Springfield, MA, Mus. F.A.) stands alone in American folk art in size, scope and imaginative vision. Inspired by plans for a national celebration of the centennial of the USA in 1876, Field painted an architectural fantasy of eight towers linked by railway bridges and trains at the tops, with the history of the USA in low-relief sculpture on the exterior surfaces of the towers. Field added two more towers to the painting in 1888 and thereafter retired.

 


The Garden of Eden, 1865

 


Pharaoh's Army Marching, 1865


 


Historic Monument of the American Republic

 


Pharaoh's Army Marching, 1865


 


Das Paradies,1860

 


Portrait of Austin Marsh

 


The Death of the First Born

 


Egyptian Scene

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see also:


Edward Hicks

Ammi Phillips

Niko Pirosmani

Henry Darger

Ivan Generalic

Ivan Rabuzin

Charles Wysocki

Adrie Martens

 


EXPLORATION:
 
Grandma
Moses


Naive art


(Encyclopaedia Britannica) 


also spelled Naïf Art, work of artists in sophisticated societies who lack or reject conventional expertise in the representation or depiction of real objects. Naïve artists are not to be confused with hobbyists, or “Sunday painters,” who paint for fun. The naïve creates with the same passion as the trained artist but without the latter's formal knowledge of methods.

Naïve works are often extremely detailed, and there is a tendency toward the use of brilliant, saturated colours rather than more subtle mixtures and tones. There is also a characteristic absence of perspective, which creates the illusion that figures are anchored in the space, with the result that figures in naïve paintings are often “floating.”

The most frequently reproduced examples of naïve art are the works of the French artist
Henri Rousseau , whose portraits, jungle scenes, and exotic vegetation are widely admired. Rousseau's paintings, like many others of this genre, convey a sense of frozen motion and deep, still space, and the figures are always shown either full face or in fairly strict profile (the naïve painter rarely conceals much of a face and almost never portrays a figure completely from the back). Like many naïve painters and sculptors, Rousseau projects his intensity and passion through his figures—especially the staring eyes—and the precision of his line and colour.

The appreciation of naïve art has been a fairly recent phenomenon: many of the artists still living never expected their work to be so eagerly collected. By the mid-20th century most developed nations had naïve artists who had risen to some prominence. While some naïve painters consider themselves professional artists and seek public recognition of their work, others refuse to exhibit for profit and paint only for their families or for religious institutions.

 

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Garden Spray
 


John Kane


born August 19, 1860, West Calder, Scotland
died August 10, 1934, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.

original name John Cain Scottish-born American artist who painted primitivist scenes of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Scotland.
In 1879, after working in a coal mine since childhood, John Cain immigrated to the United States (where a banker's misspelling changed his name to Kane). He worked as a steelworker, gandy dancer (railroad man who stamps gravel between the ties), street paver, house painter, carpenter, andamateur boxer. After losing a leg in a railroad accident, he became a watchman and a boxcar painter. For his own pleasure he would paint landscapes on boxcars during his lunch break, covering them over with regulation flat paint in the afternoon. After losing his job in 1900, he continued painting landscapes and made a modest living colouring portrait photographs. He left his wife and home after the death of an infant son in 1904 and began to paint on beaverboard landscapes of the Pennsylvania countryside and cityscapes of Pittsburgh. He lived apart from his wife for the next 23 years.
Although he attempted to enter art schools on a number of occasions, Kane was unable to pay tuition. About 1908 he served, for a short period, as a studio assistant to the artist John White Alexander. His works were discovered in 1927, when his Scene from the Scottish Highland was accepted by the Carnegie International Exhibition in Pittsburgh. He won a prize at the Carnegie two years later, and museums began seeking his works. His autobiography, Sky Hooks, was published posthumously in 1938. An intense self-portrait (1929) in the collection of the Museum of Modern Art in New York City is his best-known work.


Balmoral Castle
 


Farm scene with three horses, 1931
 


Touching Up, 1927
 


Girl on a Park Bench with Cat and Dog

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Maud Lewis

(Canadian Folk Artist, 1903-1970)
 


Seagulls

 


 


Covered Bridge


Covered Bridge In Winter

 


The Wharfs at Digby, Nova Scotia


Team With Sled And Logs

 


Three Black Cats


Schoolyard

 


Carriage Crossing Ford

 


Skiers


Boats in Harbor

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Nina Barka
 
(1908-1986)
was an important female naive
artist whose real name was Marie Smirsky.


Caroline cherie, 1968

 

 


The judgment of Paris


Orphee

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see also

EXPLORATION:

 
Grandma
Moses













 

Grandma Moses

(Encyclopaedia Britannica) 

born September 7, 1860, Greenwich, New York, U.S.
died December 13, 1961, Hoosick Falls

byname of Anna Mary Robertson Moses , original name Anna Mary Robertson American folk painter who was internationally popular for her naive documentation of rural life in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Anna Robertson had only sporadic periods of schooling during her childhood. At age 12 she left her parents' farm and worked as a hired girl until she married Thomas Moses in 1887. They first farmed in the Shenandoah Valley near Staunton, Virginia, and in 1905 moved to a farm at Eagle Bridge, New York, near her birthplace. Thomas died in 1927, and Anna continued to farm with the help of her youngest son until advancing age forced her to retire to a daughter's home in 1936.
As a child the artist had drawn pictures and coloured them with the juice of berries and grapes. After her husband died she created worsted-embroidery pictures, and, when her arthritis made manipulating a needle too difficult, she turned to painting. At first she copied illustrated postcards and Currier & Ives prints, but gradually she began to re-create scenes from her childhood, as in Apple Pickers (c. 1940), Sugaring-Off in the Maple Orchard (1940), Catching the Thanksgiving Turkey (1943), and Over the River to Grandma's House (c. 1944). Her early paintings were given away or sold for small sums. In 1939 Louis Caldor, an engineer and art collector, was impressed when he saw several of her paintings hanging in a drugstore window in Hoosick Falls, New York. He drove to her farm and bought herremaining stock of 15 paintings. In October of that year three of those paintings were exhibited at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City in a show titled “Contemporary, Unknown Painters.”
From the beginning Grandma Moses's work received favourable criticism. In October 1940 a one-woman show of 35 paintings was held at Galerie St. Etienne in New York. Thereafter her paintings were shown throughout the United States and Europe in some 150 solo shows and 100 group exhibits. Throughout her lifetime Grandma Moses produced about 2,000 paintings, most of them on masonite board. Her naive style (labeled “American Primitive” by art historians) was acclaimed for its purity of colour, its attention to detail, and its vigour. Her other notable paintings include Black Horses (1942), Out for the Christmas Trees (1946), The Old Oaken Bucket (1946), From My Window (1949), and Making Apple Butter (1958). From 1946 her paintings were often reproduced in prints and on Christmas cards. Her autobiography, My Life's History, was published in 1952.
 


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Josip Generalic

b. 1936

 

 


The Hlebine Jadwiga

 

 

 

 

 

 


see also:


Edward Hicks

Ammi Phillips

EXPLORATION:  Grandma Moses

Niko Pirosmani

Henry Darger

Ivan Generalic

Ivan Rabuzin

Charles Wysocki

Adrie Martens



 

 

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