The 18th and 19th Centuries


 



Neoclassicism and Romanticism

 



(Neoclassicism, Romanticism and Art Styles in 19th century - Art Map)

 




 


Orientalism


 



Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps


Eugene Flandin



Emile-Jean-Horace Vernet

see also collectnon: Horace Vernet



see collection:



Theodore Chasseriau



David Roberts "A Journey in the Holy Land"



Eugene Fromentin


Mariano Fortuny y Carbo


John Frederick Lewis


Jean-Leon Gerome


Gustave Boulanger


Georges Clairin


Hans Makart




see also collection:

The Harem

Odalisque




 

   
 


The Romantic Orient


Major historical events in the East contributed greatly to its increased topicality in the West: Egypt gained independence from the Ottoman sultans in 1805: the Greek War of Independence against the Turks took place between 1821 and 1830. during which Lord Byron died at Missolonghi (1824); and the French conquered Algeria in 1830. The Orient, as it was perceived by Europeans, included such countries as Greece and Algeria; although technically outside the geographical area of the Orient, they were nevertheless categorized with Egypt as exotic, Eastern lands. A single trip to the East was sufficient to provide many painters. Eugene Delacroix (1798-1863). Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps (1803-60), and Theodore Chasseriau (1819-56) among them, with a new and inexhaustible-aesthetic vocabulary. Others undertook lengthy tours, familiarizing themselves with different aspects of the culture of the indigenous populations, which they faithfully reproduced in small-scale genre scenes. The Scotsman David Roberts (1796-1864) and the Frenchmen Eugene Flandin (1809-76) and Eugene Fromentin (1820-76) illustrated their travels in paintings and diaries. Emile-Jean-Horace Vernet (1789-1863) brought to his paintings his experience of travelling in Algeria, Morocco, Egypt, Syria, Palestine, and the Crimea. Primarily a military painter, Vernet is best-known for his imposing battle scenes, but he also painted animal subjects inspired by his travels. The Spanish artist Mariano Fortuny y Carbo (1838-74), who visited Morocco twice, was another notable producer of battle paintings. The English painter John Frederick Lewis (1805-76) recorded his ten-year sojourn in Egypt on canvases notable for their meticulous precision and attention to detail. For many of the Romantic artists, the "journey to the Orient" was essentially a voyage to a place beyond reality, a haven for the soul and a refuge from everyday life. These exotic lands served as a kind of multicoloured, alluring mask of the more mysterious side of the human psyche. Many artists who succumbed to this allure never actually set foot in the East, including Ingres (1780-1867), John Martin (1789-1854), and Francesco Hayez (1791-1882). In some cases, literary sources proved as inspirational as first-hand experience. Lord Byron's series of Oriental poems. Victor Hugo's Les Orientates, the Itineraire de Paris a Jerusalem by Chateaubriand, and works by Heinrich Heine, Dumas Pere, Alphonse de Lamartine and Theophile Gautier were among the sources widely enjoyed. For the Romantics, the exotic was often explicitly linked with the erotic, founded on the myth that the Levant (modern-day Lebanon, Syria, and Israel) enjoyed a laxity of morals quite unthinkable in Europe. Eroticism became an area free from moral conventions; bodily sensations were no longer idealized, but seen in all their carnal and sensual reality. The link between eroticism and the female nude was developed further in the second half of the 19th century, when the so-called pompiers (the humorous name given to artists seen as having little talent) in France and the Victorian painters in England created images more overtly erotic than had ever been seen before in the history of painting.
 

 

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David Roberts

(b Stockbridge, nr Edinburgh, 24 Oct 1796; d London, 25 Nov 1864).

Scottish painter. The son of a shoemaker, he was apprenticed to a house-painter. From 1816 until 1830 he was employed in the theatre to design and paint stage scenery, first in Edinburgh and Glasgow and after 1822 in London. While in Scotland he met and worked with Clarkson Stanfield and later collaborated with him in London on dioramas and panoramas. Among Roberts’s commissions from Covent Garden were the sets for the first London performance of Mozart’s Die Entführung aus dem Serail in 1827.

 

see collection:



David Roberts



"A Journey in the Holy Land"

 

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Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps

(b Paris, 3 May 1803; d Fontainebleau, 23 Aug 1860).

French painter, draughtsman and printmaker. With his brother Maurice-Alexandre (1804–52), the art critic and essayist, he spent some years of his youth at Orsay, in Picardy, ‘in order to learn to rise early and know the hard life of the fields’. The artwork of the peasants stimulated an interest in drawing. He entered the atelier of Etienne Bouhot (1780–1862) in 1816. Towards the end of 1818 he left Bouhot to study under Alexandre-Denis Abel de Pujol, quitting his studio in 1819–20 in order to embark upon a career as an independent professional artist. He had been an inattentive student, who thought that ‘the formula of instruction of the academic doctrine reduced the least examination almost to the proportions of silliness’. Memories of Orsay remained his point of departure throughout his working life, and in this sense he was a self-trained artist. Nevertheless, he admired, and learnt from, the art of such diverse artists as Raphael, Titian, Giovanni da Bologna, Poussin, Rembrandt, Géricault and Léopold Robert.

 


Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps
Turkish Children Playing with a Tortoise

 


Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps
The End of a Turkish Schol Day

 

 


Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps
The Turkish Patrol

 


Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps
Turkish Bodyguards on the Road from Magnesia to Meander

 


Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps
The Defeat of the Cymbrians

 

 


Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps
Before a Mosque (Cairo)

 

 

Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps
Woman in Oriental Dress

 

 


Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps
Young Oriental woman in an interior

 

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Eugene Flandin

(1809-1876)
 

 


Eugene Flandin

Scutari

 

 


Eugene Flandin
Constantinople

 

 


Eugene Flandin

Caravanserail de Kachan Perse
 

 

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Images of Emile-Jean-Horace Vernet courtesy of

www.jennmaur.com
 



see collectnon:
 

Horace Vernet


Emile-Jean-Horace Vernet

(b Paris, 30 June 1789; d Paris, 17 Jan 1863).

Painter, son of Carle Vernet. He was born in his father’s lodgings at the Palais du Louvre, where his grandfather Joseph Vernet also lived; his maternal grandfather was Jean-Michel Moreau. To these antecedents and influences are ascribed the supreme ease of his public career, his almost incredible facility and his fecundity. His early training in his father’s studio was supplemented by formal academic training with François-André Vincent until 1810, when he competed unsuccessfully for the Prix de Rome. He first exhibited at the Salon in 1812. In 1814 Vernet received the Légion d’honneur for the part he played in the defence of Paris, which he commemorated in the Clichy Gate: The Defence of Paris, 30 March 1814 (1820; Paris, Louvre;), a spirited painting that represented a manifesto of Liberal opposition to Restoration oppression.
 


Emile-Jean-Horace Vernet

Judas und Tamar
 

 

 

 


Emile-Jean-Horace Vernet
The Duke of Chartres Saves the Engineer Siret from Drowning in August of 1791 in Vendome

1847

 

 

 

 


Emile-Jean-Horace Vernet
At the Tomb of Colonel Mouginot
, 1817

 

 

 

 


Emile-Jean-Horace Vernet
Leonilla Furstin

 

 

 


Emile-Jean-Horace Vernet
Study of Olympe Pelissier as Judith

1830
 

 
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INGRES AND ORIENTALIST EROTICISM

 












 


Francesco Hayes
Ruth
1835


Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
Turkish Bath
1859
 

With Ingres' late work, Turkish Bath, the role of the pure, chaste, Neoclassical nude as an expression of moral dignity gave way to that of the Romantic nude as an expression of wantonness and hedonism. Turkish Bath positively exudes steamy air. heavy scents, and the languid laziness of the w omen's bodies. Following Ingres' sensuous vision, any feminine form shown in an Oriental setting - whether mythological, biblical, or real-life — was portrayed as an icon. La Toilette d'Esther Theodore Chasseriau, a pupil of Ingres', and Ruth by Hayez are just two examples of biblical subjects imbued with a powerful atmosphere of desire and melancholy. Such sentiments had been conveyed with a sense of modesty by Delacroix (1798-1863) in The Women of Algiers, a rich and exotic work inspired by his trip to Morocco in 1832.
 


Theodore Chasseriau
La Toilette d'Esther
1841
 


Eugene Delacroix
The Women of Algiers

1834

 

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EUROPEAN INFLUENCE IN THE ORIENT

In a kind of reverse form of Orientalism, Western influences often combined with indigenous styles to create hybrid strains of decoration and design in the East. In China, the Western style arrived during the Manchu period. During the reign of Emperor Ch'ien-lung (1736-95), the Jesuit missionary Giuseppe Castiglioni (1698-1768) became a court favourite through his paintings, which combined Chinese brushwork with traditional European perspective. In 1747, he also planned Neo-Baroque-style buildings on the site of the ancient Ming palace. In Turkey, in the middle of the 18th century a new movement from the West led to the development of Turkish Rococo. The decoration and furnishings of the royal palace in Dolmabahce (1843-56) in Istanbul reflected a combination of styles: huge crystal chandeliers from Bohemia or Baccarat and murals by Russian and Italian artists.
In the 19th century, the royal palace at Bangkok, the P'ra T'inang Chakkri, incorporated a room built by English architects inspired by the Italian Renaissance. Sculptors from Southeast Asian Buddhist countries copied the clothes and physical features of the Dutch and Portuguese to give the dvarapala, the divine guardians of the temple doors, a sterner aspect. Finally, in Japan, with the opening up of markets in the Meiji period (1868-1911), the upper classes began to favour Western dress, and their furniture also displayed Western influences.
 

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The End of the Dream



With the development of steamships and the railways, the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. and the increasingly widespread use of photography, the East became more accessible and familiar. Likewise, the influence of Western customs and costumes spread to the East, even leading some local ladies in Turkey to discard their traditional garments in favour of crinolines from the House of Worth in Paris. Gradually, the Orient was stripped of its mythological aura. In 1826, in Istanbul, Mahmud II suppressed the janissaries, and Western reforms were introduced to the capital by various organizations, including those devoted to law. education, and the economy. Some artists now began to represent a harsher vision of the Orient - blind beggars, cripples, filthy streets, and peeling plaster - that was at variance with earlier, idealized images. The French poet Gerard de Nerval was to tell Theophile Gautier that he regretted having formed his own idea of Egypt in his imagination. The real Egypt having been "bitterly impressed on my memory", de Nerval had lost an imaginary, wonderful place in which he could take refuge with his dreams. Large numbers of Europeans now beat a path to exotic locations. Merchant adventurers, missionaries, and. above all, soldiers, all brought back objects from the Old World. These became a source of inspiration for the production and wide availability of a range of goods: furniture, clothing, trinkets, and even games displayed the Oriental stamp, while interior and garden design were both strongly influenced by the styles of the East. At the end of the century, the mythical Orient enjoyed a final season of splendour, corresponding with the demise of the odalisque. Artists from vastly differing schools were united by the liveliness of treatment that they brought to Oriental themes: they included the French sculptor and painter Jean-Leon Gerome (1824-1904), Gustave Boulanger (1824-88), Georges Clairin (1843-1919), Mariano Fortuny y Carbo, and Hans Makart (1840-84). In 1873, Jules-Antoine Castagnary wrote: "Orientalism is dead", yet twenty years later, the Societe des Peintres Orientalistes was founded, with Gerome as the honorary president of the society.
 

 


Jean-Leon Gerome
Harem Pool
Hermitage, St. Petersburg



see collection:


Theodore Chasseriau

David Roberts "A Journey in the Holy Land"

Eugene Fromentin

Mariano Fortuny y Carbo

John Frederick Lewis

Jean-Leon Gerome

Gustave Boulanger

Georges Clairin

Hans Makart

 
 

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