Baroque and Rococo: the City and the Court

 



The Splendours of the 18th Century



 



Baroque and Rococo

 

Baroque and Rococo Art Map





Joseph Heintz

Philipp Hackert

Giovan Paolo Pannini




see collection:


Jean-Marc Nattier



 

 


The century of the Grand Tour was also the Age of Reason, an era during which
artists throughout Europe adopted a cosmopolitan style, moulded by the influence
of great capital cities such as Vienna, London, and Paris. A taste for all that
was exquisite, vivacious, and charming found expression in a stylistic
blend of elegance, parody, and tenderness.


 



Hithough the term ''the Enlightenment'' refers specifically to the philosophy of the 18th century, it has often been applied more generally to the culture of the age. Faith in the powers of reason and the importance of scientific research was implicit in all intellectual and cultural activities - including the various disciplines of art.
 

 
 

 


From Baroque to Rococo
 

 

 

In such a climate, both the production of and interest in art flourished. As the emphasis on Baroque diminished and became fragmented, the role of art ceased to be seen as a tool of influence and persuasion. Increasingly, art was required to fulfil the purely aesthetic function of translating and communicating thought through beauty. For the Venetian Francesco Algarotti (1712-64) and other 18th-century artistic theorists and patrons, the word "beauty" had the precise meaning of graceful and pleasing forms. This was ideally expressed in elegant and beautifully rendered paintings, exemplified by the vivacious and charming allegorical portraits by Jean-Marc Nattier (1685-1766). Within a comparatively short period, the Baroque evolved into High Baroque, also known as Rococo, especially when applied
to architecture and the decorative arts. The term "Rococo", derived from the French rocaille, was originally applied to a type of decoration with asymmetrical, sinuous, and convoluted lines. Later, the name acquired a deliberately mocking connotation. Strictly speaking, rocaille denoted an agglomeration of stones, whether real or artificial, shells, and other materials that mimicked natural objects and structures. Stylistically, it was inspired by shapes and objects found in nature, usually complementary to Arcadian themes, and congruent with the tastes of the fashionable and elite circles. Through the contribution of Juste-Aurele Meissonnier (1695-1750), an aesthetic theorist and designer, the Rococo style became highly in vogue during the Regency of the Duke of Orleans (1715-23). It reached its peak, however, during the reign of Louis XV (1743-74). when it influenced every form of artistic activity and became synonymous with the Pompadour style, named after the king's famous and highly influential mistress Madame de Pompadour.
 

 

THE GRAND TOUR

Although travelling for pleasure and instruction was already enjoyed by the privileged classes, the 18th century saw a rise in the popularity of the Grand Tour. This was a tour of the chief cities and sights of Europe to complete a young persons education. The favourite destination was Italy, of their travels. They purchased original paintings or less expensive copies and commissioned new works. Venetian townscapes were highly sought after, especially those by Canaletto, as were views of famous cities, Rome and Naples in particular. Heroic-scenes and Arcadian landscapes were also very popular, as were views of contemporary festivals and street scenes, such as those by Joseph Heintz (1600-78), Philipp Hackert (1737-1807), and Giovan Paolo Pannini.

 

 
Joseph Heintz

(b Augsburg, c. 1600; d Venice, 24 Sept 1678).

Painter and etcher, son of Joseph Heintz. He served his apprenticeship (1617–21) as a painter with his stepfather, Matthäus Gundelach, in Augsburg. His artistic beginnings are traceable in drawings produced in Augsburg (e.g. the Painter at his Easel, 1621; Gdansk, N. Mus.), and Venice (e.g. Genius of Painting, 1625; Vienna, Albertina). His great panel painting Christ in Limbo (late 1620s or early 1630s; sold London, Sotheby’s, 6 July 1994, lot 4391) bears witness to his conversion to Catholicism, without which he could hardly have established himself in Venice. He probably spent long periods in Rome in the 1630s or 1640s, and before 1644 Urban VIII made him a Knight of the Golden Spur. Many of his paintings on religious themes, including works supporting the Counter-Reformation, were predominantly for churches in Venice and its dominions. However, his special importance for Venetian painting lies not in the field of religious art but in his depictions (mostly Venice, Bib. Correr) of the city’s festivities and state ceremonies, featuring large numbers of figures, in which he was a direct precursor of Luca Carlevaris and Canaletto, as revealed especially in his Piazza S Marco (after 1640; Rome, Gal. Doria-Pamphili). Presumably he knew of the similar endeavours of his cousin Joseph Plepp (1595–1642) in Berne. He also produced genre paintings, such as the Fishmonger (1650s; Italy) votive pictures, including the Adoration of the Magi (?1669) and Sacra conversazione (1669; both Breguzzo, S Andrea); allegories, for example the Allegory of Venice (1674; Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.); pictures showing the activities of the months and mythological scenes of which there is so far only a literary record.
 


Joseph Heintz

Imaginary Scene with Venetian Buildings
Oil on canvas1670-1675
70
3/4 x 111 inches (180 x 282 cm)
Private collection

 


Joseph Heintz

The Bull Hunt in Campo San Polo
Oil on canvas, 1646
Museo Correr, Venice
 


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Philipp Hackert

(b Prenzlau, 1737; dSan Pietro di Careggi, 1807).

 He studied first with his father, Philipp Hackert, then from 1755 with Blaise Nicolas Le Sueur at the Berlin Akademie. There he encountered, and copied, the landscapes of Dutch artists and of Claude Lorrain. The latter influence shows in two works exhibited in 1761, views of the Lake of Venus in the Berlin Zoological Garden (versions of 1764 in Stockholm, Nmus.). These much admired paintings retain a rather rigid late Baroque style. Hackert’s main interest in these early works was to arrive at a special understanding of a place through alternate views, with reverse directions of observation. This systematic documentation bears witness to his interest in the study of nature.

 


Philipp Hackert
Italienische Landschaft


 


Philipp Hackert
Landschaft mit Tempelruinen auf Sizilien


 


Philipp Hackert
Kustenlandschaft


 


Philipp Hackert
Ansicht des Golfes von Baja


 


Philipp Hackert
Die groben Wasserfalle in Tivoli


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Giovanni Paolo Panini

(b Piacenza, 17 June 1691; d Rome, 21 Oct 1765).

Italian painter, architect and stage designer. He was a highly prolific and versatile painter, best known for his numerous vedute of Rome, many of which focused on the remnants of the city’s Classical past. Ceremonies and festivals often feature in his vedute, which thus constitute a lively documentation of contemporary topography, lifestyle and customs. In contrast to Bernardo Bellotto and Gaspar van Wittel, his treatment is picturesque rather than rigorous; he liked to enliven and animate his views by adding numerous figures. He worked exclusively in Rome and by the end of his career was the head of a thriving workshop that included the Frenchman Hubert Robert (in Rome from 1754) and Panini’s son Francesco Panini (b 1738).

 

Giovan Paolo Pannini
Interior of the Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome

c. 1730
Oil on canvas, 78 x 90 cm
The Hermitage, St. Petersburg


 


Giovan Paolo Pannini
Picture Gallery with Views of Modern Rome

1757
Oil on canvas
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston


 


Giovan Paolo Pannini
The Piazza and Church of Santa Maria Maggiore

1744
Oil on canvas
Palazzo Quirinale, Rome


 


Giovan Paolo Pannini
Musical Fete

1747
Oil on canvas, 207 x 247 cm
Musée du Louvre, Paris


 


Giovan Paolo Pannini
Roma Antica

c. 1755
Oil on canvas, 186 x 227 cam
Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart


 


Giovan Paolo Pannini
Apostle Paul Preaching on the Ruins

1744
Oil on canvas, 64 x 83,5 cm
The Hermitage, St. Petersburg


 


Giovan Paolo Pannini
Capriccio of Classical Ruins

1725-30
Oil on canvas, 123 x 132 cm
Private collection


 


Giovan Paolo Pannini
Ideal Landscape with the Titus Arch

Oil on canvas, 73 x 95 cm
Private collection



see collection:

Jean-Marc Nattier


 

 

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