Baroque and Rococo



 

Baroque and Rococo Art Map




Ange-Jacques Gabriel


Lucas von Hildebrandt

Johann Michael Fischer

Filippo Juvarra

Carlo Fontana

Luigi Vanvitelli

 

 

 


Rococo Architecture

Although Rococo architecture originated in France, it was far less pronounced there than it was to be later in Germany and Austria. Few buildings were extravagant in appearance, even among those intended to impress, such as the Petit Trianon, which was designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel (1698-1782) for Louis XV and built in the park at Versailles. There was, however, a more fundamental shift in taste among the autocratic rulers and in the Catholic Church of central Europe. By the 1720s, several architects, including Johann Fischer von Erlach (1656-1723), Lucas von Hildebrandt (1668-1745), and Johann Michael Fischer (1692-1766), were already invoked in the construction of palaces and churches in the new style, notably in Austria, Germany, Bohemia, and Poland. These buildings had a new-lightness to them, and their structures were enhanced by decorative features with curved, elongated lines. The eye was no longer caught by a single, central focal point but by a rhythmic succession of spaces. Leading examples of this style are Vienna's Karlskirche and the Church of St John Nepomuk in Prague, with their very impressive and effective combinations of frescos and sculptural decorations. In Italy, architecture evoked into a High Baroque that came from the legacy of Francesco Borromini (1599-1667), whose style was influenced by Rome rather than by the French Rococo. The most prominent architect of this stylistic era was a Sicilian, Filippo Juvarra (1678-1736). A pupil of Carlo Fontana (1634-1714) in Rome, Juvarra made his name at a comparatively early age in the service of Victor Amadeus II of Savoy in Turin. His works included the King's Palace of Aranjuez, and his most entrancing building, the Basilica of Superga (1716—31) in Turin. Featuring lively verticality in the form of an elongated dome atop a traditional drum base, the design of the basilica rejected old-style features and extravagant shapes in favour of a freer spatial rhythm, giving a dynamic structure to the building. Juvarra's masterpiece is probably his hunting lodge, the Stupinigi Palace (1729-33), near Turin. Designed to be viewed from the end of a long, straight avenue, the building is enlivened by an airy cupola, and the ample light provided by its many windows. Perhaps the greatest exponent of Late Baroque in Italy was the architect, Luigi Vanvitelli (1700-73). who trained under his father and painted accomplished townscapes, which often achieved the effect of theatrical scenes. The combination of courtly elegance and a talent for designing on a monumental scale served him well when building the Palace at Caserta (1752-70) for the King of Naples. Inspired by Versailles, this enormous and imposing building, set in a vast park, combined solemnity with grace and variety. The gardens were embellished with statues, often exuberantly combined with fountains.

 


Baroque and Rococo Architecture


(Encyclopaedia Britannica)

 

During the Baroque period (c. 1600–1750), architecture, painting, and sculpture were integrated into decorative ensembles. Architecture and sculpture became pictorial, and painting became illusionistic. Baroque art was essentially concerned with the dramatic and the illusory, with vivid colours, hidden light sources, luxurious materials, and elaborate, contrasting surface textures, used to heighten immediacy and sensual delight. Ceilings of Baroque churches, dissolved in painted scenes, presented vivid views of the infinite to the worshiper and directed him through his senses toward heavenly concerns. Seventeenth-century Baroque architects made architecture a means of propagating faith in the church and in the state. Baroque palaces expanded to command the infinite and to display the power and order of the state. Baroque space, with directionality, movement, and positive molding, contrasted markedly with the static, stable, and defined space of the High Renaissance and with the frustrating conflict of unbalanced spaces of the preceding Mannerist period. Baroque space invited participation and provided multiple changing views. Renaissance space was passive and invited contemplation of its precise symmetry. While a Renaissance statue was meant to be seen in the round, a Baroque statue either had a principal view with a preferred angle or was definitely enclosed by a niche or frame. A Renaissance building was to be seen equally from all sides, while a Baroque building had a main axis or viewpoint as well as subsidiary viewpoints. Attention was focused on the entrance axis or on the central pavilion, and its symmetry was emphasized by the central culmination. A Baroque building expanded in its effect to include the square facing it, and often the ensemble included all the buildings on the square as well as the approaching streets and the surrounding landscape. Baroque buildings dominated their environment; Renaissance buildings separated themselves from it.

The Baroque rapidly developed into two separate forms: the strongly Roman Catholic countries (Italy, Spain, Portugal, Flanders, Bohemia, southern Germany, Austria, and Poland) tended toward freer and more active architectural forms and surfaces; in Protestant regions (England, the Netherlands, and the remainder of northern Europe) architecture was more restrained and developed a sober, quiet monumentality impressive in its refinement. In the Protestant countries and France, which sought the spirit through the mind, architecture was more geometric, formal, and precise—an appeal to the intellect. In the Roman Catholic south, buildings were more complex, freer, and donewith greater artistic license—an appeal to the spirit made through the senses.

Treatises on the orders and on civil and military architecture provided a theoretical basis for Baroque architects. While many 16th-century architects published treatises on architecture or prepared them for publication, major 17th-century architects published very little. Two fragmentary volumes by Francesco Borromini appeared years after his death, and Guarino Guarini's major contribution (though he brought out two volumes on architecture before he died) did not appear until well into the 18th century. Other Italian publications tended to be repetitions of earlier ideas with the exception of a tardily published manuscript of Teofilo Gallaccini, whose treatise on the errors of Mannerist and early Baroque architects became a point of departure for later theoreticians.

In France, François Blondel and Augustin d'Aviler published notes for lectures given at the Academy of Architecture, but the most important publications were those of Fréart de Chambray and Claude Perrault. Perrault attacked established Italian theory. Other notable French works included writings by René Ouvard, André Félibien, Pierre Le Muet, and Julien Mauclerc. In England, Sir Henry Wotton's book was an adaptation of Vitruvius, and Balthazar Gerbier's was a compendium of advice for builders. Among the notable17th-century German publications were books by Georg Boeckler, Josef Furttenbach, and Joachim von Sandrart.

During the period of the Enlightenment (about 1700 to 1780),various currents of post-Baroque art and architecture evolved. A principal current, generally known as Rococo, refined the robust architecture of the 17th century to suit elegant 18th-century tastes. Vivid colours were replaced by pastel shades; diffuse light flooded the building volume; andviolent surface relief was replaced by smooth flowing masses with emphasis only at isolated points. Churches and palaces still exhibited an integration of the three arts, but the building structure was lightened to render interiors graceful and ethereal. Interior and exterior space retained none of the bravado and dominance of the Baroque but entertained and captured the imagination by intricacy and subtlety.

In Rococo architecture, decorative sculpture and paintingare inseparable from the structure. Simple dramatic spatial sequences or the complex interweaving of spaces of 17th-century churches gave way to a new spatial concept. Byprogressively modifying the Renaissance-Baroque horizontal separation into discrete parts, Rococo architects obtained unified spaces, emphasized structural elements, created continuous decorative schemes, and reduced column sizes to a minimum. In churches, the ceilings of side aisles were raised to the height of the nave ceiling to unify the space from wall to wall (Church of the Carmine, Turin, Italy, 1732, by Filippo Juvarra; Pilgrimage Church, Steinhausen, near Biberach, Ger., 1728, by Dominikus Zimmermann; Saint-Jacques, Luneville, Fr., 1730, by GermainBoffrand). To obtain a vertical unification of structure and space, the vertical line of a supporting column might be carried up from the floor to the dome (e.g., church of San Luis, Seville, Spain, begun 1699, by Leonardo de Figueroa). The entire building was often lighted by numerous windows placed to give dramatic effect (Schloss Brühl, near Cologne, Balthasar Neumann, 1740) or to flood the space with a cool diffuse light (Pilgrimage Church, Wies, Ger., Zimmermann, 1745).


Origins and development in Rome

The work of Carlo Maderno in Rome represented the first pure statement of the principles that became the basis of most of the architecture of the Western world in the 17th century. A northern Italian, Maderno worked most of his life in Rome where, about 1597, he designed the revolutionary facade of the church of Santa Susanna (). Roman church facades in the late 16th century tended to be either precise, elegant, and papery thin or disjointed, equivocal, and awkwardly massive. Maderno's Santa Susanna facade is an integrated design in which each element contributes to the central culminating feature. Precision and elegance were relinquished to gain vitality and movement. Disjointed and ambiguous features were suppressed to achieve unity and harmony. A towering massiveness obtained by an increased surface relief and quickened rhythm of architectural members toward the centre replaced the papery-thin walls and hesitant massiveness of the 16th century. Vertical unification was achieved by breaking the entablature at similar places on both stories and by repeating pilasters and columns at both levels. Maderno also conceived the facade as part of an integrated unit, including the two-story church and one-story associated areas to either side, and thereby gave form to the Baroque desire to associate buildings, street facades, and squares in a continuous whole.

The basic premises of the early Baroque as reaffirmed by Maderno in the facade and nave of St. Peter's, Rome (1607), were: (1) subordination of the parts to the whole to achieve unity and directionality; (2) progressive alteration of pilasterrhythm and wall relief to emphasize massiveness, movement, axiality, and activity; and (3) directional emphasis in interiors through diagonal views and culminating light and spatial sequences.
 

Carlo Maderno

born 1556, Bissone, Milan
died Jan. 30, 1629, Rome


leading Roman architect of the early 17th century, who determined the style of early Baroque architecture.

Maderno began his architectural career in Rome assisting his uncle Domenico Fontana. His first major Roman commission, the facade of Santa Susanna (1597–1603), led to his appointment in 1603 as the chief architect for Saint Peter's. In 1607 he designed the nave and a new facade for Saint Peter's and was made architect to Pope Paul V. Maderno's additions to Saint Peter's were consonant with thespirit of the Counter-Reformation; by adding the nave he transformed Michelangelo's Greek-cross plan into a longitudinal one, thus reverting to the scheme of early Christian and Medieval cathedrals. His facade has been both criticized for impairing the effect of Michelangelo's dome and admired for its forceful grouping of huge engaged columns. The only building completely designed by Maderno is Santa Maria della Vittoria (1608–20); all his other projects, such as San Andrea della Valle and the Palazzo Barberini (1625), were either works he only began or other architects' works he finished. The Palazzo Barberini, which Maderno designed for the family of Pope Urban VIII, was completed byFrancesco Borromini and Gian Lorenzo Bernini, whose works were influenced by Maderno.
 


The three great masters of the Baroque in Rome were Gianlorenzo Bernini, Francesco Borromini, and Pietro da Cortona. Bernini, also a brilliant sculptor, designed both the baldachin(an ornamental canopy-like structure) with bronze spiral columns over the grave of St. Peter (1624–33) and the vast enclosing colonnade (begun 1656) that forms the piazza of St Peter's. He was responsible also for the facade of the Palazzo Chigi-Odescalchi (1664), a model for later urban palaces, and the exquisite oval church of Sant'Andrea al Quirinale (1658–70), the epitome of richly coloured marble-encrusted church interiors.
 

Gian Lorenzo Bernini

born Dec. 7, 1598, Naples, Kingdom of Naples [Italy]
died Nov. 28, 1680, Rome, Papal States


Italian artist who was perhaps the greatest sculptor of the 17th century and an outstanding architect as well. Bernini created the Baroque style of sculpture and developed it to such an extent that other artists are of only minor importance in a discussion of that style.
Early years.

Bernini's career began under his father, Pietro Bernini, a Florentine sculptor of some talent who ultimately moved to Rome. The young prodigy worked so diligently that he earned the praise of the painter Annibale Carracci and the patronage of Pope Paul V and soon established himself as a wholly independent sculptor. He was strongly influenced by his close study of the antique Greek and Roman marbles in the Vatican, and he also had an intimate knowledge of High Renaissance painting of the early 16th century. His study of Michelangelo is revealed in the “St. Sebastian” (c. 1617), carved for Cardinal Maffeo Barberini, who was later Pope Urban VIII and Bernini's greatest patron.

Bernini's early works attracted the attention of Cardinal Scipione Borghese, a member of the reigning papal family. Under his patronage, Bernini carved his first important life-size sculptural groups. The series shows Bernini's progression from the almost haphazard single view of “Aeneas, Anchises and Ascanius Fleeing Troy” (1619; Borghese Gallery, Rome) to strong frontality in “Pluto and Proserpina” (1621–22; Borghese Gallery) and then to the hallucinatory vision of “Apollo and Daphne” (1622–24; Borghese Gallery), which was intended to be viewed from one spot as if it were a relief. In his “David” (1623–24; Borghese Gallery), Bernini depicts the figure casting a stone at an unseen adversary. Several portrait busts that Bernini executed during this period, including that of Cardinal RobertBellarmine (1623–24), show a new awareness of the relationship between head and body and display an ability todepict fleeting facial expressions with acute realism. These marble works show an unparalleled virtuosity in carving that obdurate material to achieve the delicate effects usually found only in bronze sculptures. Bernini's sensual awarenessof the surface textures of skin and hair and his novel sense of shading broke with the tradition of Michelangelo and marked the emergence of a new period in the history of Western sculpture.


Patronage of Urban VIII.

With the pontificate of Urban VIII (1623–44), Bernini entered a period of enormous productivity and artistic development. Urban VIII urged his protégé to paint and to practice architecture. His first architectural work was the remodeled Church of Santa Bibiana in Rome. At the same time, Bernini was commissioned to build a symbolic structure over the tomb of St. Peter in St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. The result is the famous immense gilt-bronze baldachin executed between 1624 and 1633. Its twisted columns derive from the early Christian columns that had been used in the altar screen of Old St. Peter's. Bernini's most original contribution to the final work is the upper framework of crowning volutes flanked by four angels that supports the orb and cross. The baldachin is perfectly proportioned to its setting, and one hardly realizes that it is as tall as a four-story building. Its lively outline moving upward to the triumphant crown, its dark colour heightened with burning gold, give it the character of a living organism. An unprecedented fusion of sculpture and architecture, the baldachin is the first truly Baroque monument. It ultimately formed the centre of a programmatic decoration designed by Bernini for the interior of St. Peter's.

Bernini next supervised the decoration of the four piers supporting the dome of St. Peter's with colossal statues, though only one of the latter, “St. Longinus,” was designed by him. He also made a series of portrait busts of Urban VIII, but the first bust to achieve the quality of his earlier portraits is that of his great patron, Cardinal Scipione Borghese (1632; Borghese Gallery). The cardinal is shown in the act of speaking and moving, and the action is caught at a moment that seems to reveal all the characteristic qualities of the subject.

Bernini's architectural duties increased after the death of Carlo Maderno in 1629, when Bernini became architect of St. Peter's and of the Palazzo Barberini. By this time he was not only executing works himself but also having to rely on assistance from others as the number of his commissions grew. He was successful in organizing his studio and planning his work so that sculptures and ornamentations produced by a team actually seem to be all of a piece. Bernini's work, then and always, was also shaped by his fervent Roman Catholicism (he attended mass every day and took communion twice a week). He would agree with the formulations of the Council of Trent (1545–63) that the purpose of religious art was to teach and inspire the faithful and to serve as propaganda for the Roman Catholic church. Religious art should always be intelligible and realistic, and, above all, it should serve as an emotional stimulus to piety. The development of Bernini's religious art was largely determined by his conscientious efforts to conform to those principles.

Under Urban VIII Bernini began to produce new and different kinds of monuments—tombs and fountains. The tomb of Urban VIII (1628–47; St. Peter's, Rome) shows the pope seated with his arm raised in a commanding gesture, while below him are two white marble figures representing the Virtues. Bernini also designed a revolutionary series of smalltomb memorials, of which the most impressive is that of Maria Raggi (1643). But his fountains are his most obvious contribution to the city of Rome. The Triton Fountain in the Piazza Barberini (1642–43) is a dramatic transformation of a Roman architectonic fountain—the superposed basins of thetraditional geometric piazza fountain appearing to have come alive. Four dolphins raise a huge shell supporting the sea god, who blows water upward out of a conch.

Bernini's early architectural projects, however, were not invariably successful. In 1637 he began to erect campaniles, or bell towers, over the facade of St. Peter's. But, in 1646, when their weight began to crack the building, they were pulled down, and Bernini was temporarily disgraced.
Later years.

Bernini's late works in sculpture are inevitably overshadowed by his grandiose projects for St. Peter's, but a few of them are of outstanding interest. For the Chigi Chapel in the Church of Santa Maria del Popolo in Rome, he carved two groups, “Daniel in the Lions' Den” and “Habakkuk and the Angel” (1655–61). These works show the beginnings of his late style: elongation of the body, expressive gesture, and simplified yet emphatic emotional expression. The same characteristics are already found in the figures supporting the Throne of St. Peter and culminate in the moving “Angels” for the Sant'Angelo Bridge in Rome, which Bernini redecorated with the help of assistants between 1667 and 1671. Pope Clement IX (1667–69) so prized the “Angels” carved by Bernini that they were never set up on the bridge and are now in the church of Sant'Andrea delle Fratte in Rome.

The redecorated Sant'Angelo Bridge leading across the Tiberforms an introduction to the Vatican, and Bernini's other works—the piazza, Scala Regia, and the baldachin and cathedra within St. Peter's—form progressively more powerful expressions of papal power to support and inspire Roman Catholic pilgrims to the site. Bernini completed one more decoration in St. Peter's in his last years: the altar of the Santissimo Sacramento Chapel (1673–74). The pliant, human adoration of the angels contrasts with the timeless architecture of the bronze tabernacle that they flank and typifies Bernini's late style. In his last years he seems to have found the inexorable laws of architecture a consolingantithesis to the transitory human state.

Bernini's greatest late work is the simple Altieri Chapel in San Francesco a Ripa (c. 1674) in Rome. The relatively deep space above the altar reveals a statue representing the death of the Blessed Ludovica Albertoni. Bernini consciouslyseparated architecture, sculpture, and painting for different roles, reversing the process that culminated in the Cornaro Chapel. In that sense, the Altieri Chapel is more traditional, a variation on his church interiors of the preceding years. Instead of filling the arched opening, the sculpted figure of Ludovica lies at the bottom of a large volume of space, and is illuminated by a heavenly light that plays on the drapery gathered over her recumbent figure. Her hands weakly clutching her breast make explicit her painful death.

Bernini died at the age of 81, after having served eight popes, and when he died he was widely considered not only Europe's greatest artist but also one of its greatest men. He was the last of Italy's remarkable series of universal geniuses, and the Baroque style he helped create was the last Italian style to become an international standard. His death marked the end of Italy's artistic hegemony in Europe. The style he evolved was carried on for two more generations in various parts of Europe by the architects Mattia de' Rossi and Carlo Fontana in Rome, J.B. Fischer von Erlach in Austria, and the brothers Cosmas and Egid Quirin Asam in Bavaria, among others.

Howard Hibbard

 



In contrast to Bernini, Borromini preferred monochromatic interiors. The buildings of Borromini, who came from northern Italy, are characterized by their inventive transformations of the established vocabulary of space, light, and architectural elements in order to increase the content of their work. Borromini's works, composed of fluid and active concave and convex masses and surfaces (San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, 1634–41), contain spaces that areintricate, geometrically derived irregular ovals, octagons, or hexagons (Sant'Ivo della Sapienza, 1642–60). His late palacefacade for the College of the Propagation of the Faith (1646–67) was a bold and vigorous essay that became a major source for Rococo architects in the early years of the 18th century.

 

Francesco Borromini

born Sept. 25, 1599, Bissone, Duchy of Lombardy
died Aug. 2, 1667, Rome


original name Francesco Castelli Italian architect who was a chief formulator of Baroque architectural style. Borromini (who changed his name in about 1627) secured a reputation throughout Europe with his striking design for a small church, S. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome. He differed from Gian Lorenzo Bernini and other contemporaries in basing hisdesigns on geometric figures (modules) rather than on the proportions of the human body.
Youth and education.

Born to Giovanni Domenico Castelli and Anastasia Garogo, Borromini was introduced to the craft specialities of architecture when his father sent him to Milan (1608 or 1614) to learn stonecutting. After several years training in the skills and technology of both architecture and sculpture, he collected a debt owed to his father and, without informing his parents, fled to Rome in 1620. There he became a draftsman and stonemason in the office of his kinsman, Carlo Maderno, who had established himself as the major practicing architect in Italy.

Celibate and irascible, Borromini dedicated himself to the discipline of architecture. Maderno quickly recognized Borromini's potential. The aging master and his young pupil worked together closely on various problems at St. Peter's, whose fundamental plan was revised by Maderno. For the Palazzo Barberini, Maderno determined a basic concept, thenentrusted Borromini with the realization of specifics. A convergence of both talents produced the facade design of S. Andrea della Valle, and Borromini was permitted to undertake the lantern of the church's dome himself. Borromini's personality is apparent in these projects, though Maderno's style dominates them. A facade to be attached to the late 16th-century oval church of S. Anna dei Palafrenieri was Borromini's personal project. His attempt to integrate a five-bay front and two towers with the existing oval dome prefigured his S. Agnese in Agone (in Piazza Navona) in its placement of plastic volumes in space. Equally significant was his transformation of Maderno's plan for S. Ignazio. Through his use of pairs of free-standing columns, he suggested an articulation of space, a major characteristic of his style. Space in his structures is not merely a void but rather something corporeal, an element in itself, molded by the surrounding shell of the building. Later he would develop this concept by replacing the enclosing wall with an extensively penetrated framework, as in the Re Magi chapel.

Maderno died in January 1629, three months after construction had begun at the Palazzo Barberini. The famousGian Lorenzo Bernini was put in charge of this project, though his architectural abilities were underdeveloped. Borromini continued in a key position, working out the specifics of Maderno's plan and collaborating successfully with Bernini. The patron, however, began to draw heavily on the advice of a third designer, Pietro da Cortona, and eventually abandoned Maderno's project for the east facade of the palace. Unable to work with Cortona and despairing of these changes, Borromini left the project in 1631. Together with Bernini he dedicated himself entirely to the task of designing the baldachin in St. Peter's, which was conceived as a monumental canopy raised over the tomb of St. Peter, recalling the canopy that is traditionally supported over the pope when he is carried in state through the church. The enormous bronze baldachin was realized through the closestcooperation between Borromini and Bernini; the huge, S-shaped volutes that crown four corkscrew columns are their most important common creation. Bernini was in command of all enterprises at St. Peter's, but he paid Borromini a substantial sum from 1631 to 1633 for this work, indicating the great importance of his contribution.


An independent architect.

The baldachin was completed in 1633. The year before, on the commendation of Bernini and Cardinal Francesco Barberini, Borromini was awarded the office of university architect. With his new position as support, he began to seek patronage as an independent architect. His first independent commission represented an extraordinary challenge to tradition; it was the Roman church and monastery of S. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, begun in 1638. No larger inside than the dimensions of a single pier at St. Peter's, the small church electrified Rome, and its reputation spread like wildfire through Europe. Borromini began by stacking together three distinct units that normally would have been employed only in separate buildings: a curious, undulating lower zone; a middle one suggesting the standard Greek-cross plan; and an oval dome, a relatively new and still little-used form. This audacious combination of precedent and novelty is integrated by complex, interweaving rhythms. Bold, illusionistic effects, achieved bycalculated lighting, intensify the space. The dome appears tobe floating above the interior of the church like a hallucinatory vision because its springing point and light sources are concealed by the zone below.

Borromini established contacts with the eminent Spada family and was also sponsored by Pope Innocent X for a decade, but his relations with patrons were frequently stormy and at times reached an impasse because of his intransigent, defiant attitude. Though bitterly resentful of what he felt to be a lack of just recognition, he was indifferent toward wealth and rejected the fashions of normal dress. Intractable and melancholic, he was infamous for his fits of rage. On one of his building sites he was infuriated to discover a man damaging some materials and had him so violently beaten that he died.

Given Borromini's gloomy disposition, it is not surprising thata conflict developed with the famous and popular Bernini. While they were working together, the relationship between the two artistic giants had been mutually profitable: Borromini's style was injected with a new vitality under Bernini's influence, and Bernini was strongly impressed by Borromini's novel formulations of architectural detail. Later, however, a bitter conflict arose between them. Perhaps Borromini's subordinate position at St. Peter's sufficiently rankled him to provoke his departure. He definitely felt this way later in life, claiming that Bernini had begged him not to abandon him on the work at St. Peter's and had promised to recognize his many labours with a worthy reward. Borromini said that after he had carried out the work, Bernini withheld the remunerations and rewards and never gave him anythingexcept good words and grand promises.

Divergent characters, disparate backgrounds, and different attitudes toward life presumably provoked the antagonism. Bernini worked easily with the aristocratic and powerful; immensely successful as a sculptor and painter as well as anarchitect, he was outgoing, charming, and witty. Borromini, on the other hand, was a lonely, withdrawn man; he prided himself on his highly specialized training, and he resented his modest degree of recognition. Conflict between the two became public in 1645 over the decision to eliminate the towers Maderno had designed for the facade of St. Peter's. Maderno left them as substructures, and in 1636 Bernini submitted a proposal for completing them. After one was erected, however, technical deficiencies halted further construction in 1641, and four years later a commission decided on its removal. Borromini emerged as Bernini's mosteffective and destructive critic, accusing him of incompetence. Bernini seldom indulged in professional envy, however, but, during his Paris visit of 1665, he accusedBorromini of abandoning the anthropometric basis of architecture. Because the body of Adam was modelled notonly by God but also in his image and likeness, it was argued,the proportions of buildings should be derived from those of the body of man and woman. Borromini, however, based his buildings on geometric configurations in an essentially medieval manner that he probably learned in Lombardy, where medieval building procedures had been handed down from generation to generation. Borromini's approach consisted of establishing a geometric figure for a building or room, then articulating this figure by means of geometric subunits. He thus stood accused of denying the basis of goodarchitecture. He never divorced himself completely from the anthropometric basis of design, however; he insisted, at least once, that his architecture contained human references. The concave facade of St. Philip Neri representedto him the welcoming gesture of outstretched arms: the central unit stood for the chest, the two-part wings for arm and forearm.

The bizarre quality of Borromini's designs was as unsettling as his departure from anthropomorphism. Even his supporters felt uneasy with his novel creations. Presumably his license departed too far from orthodox interpretations of antiquity, which were accepted at this time as the fundamental standards of form for architecture. This seems paradoxical because he was an avid student of the ancient world: his drawings of antique fragments demonstrate a critical contact with Roman architecture, and his evocations of classical thought on the project for the Villa Pamphili at San Pancrazio are recorded with philological exactness. Nevertheless, the notion was in the air that it was possible to use and then progress beyond the achievements of antiquity, and Borromini strongly identified with this attitude. He said that he certainly would never havegiven himself to architecture with the idea of being merelya “copyist,” and he invoked the example of Michelangelo, who said that he who follows others never goes ahead. Borromini declared antiquity and nature to be his points of departure (although he included the work of Michelangelo aswell), but he actually spurned the regular and orthodox compositional motifs of the ancient world. Instead he turned to novel, curious, and marvelous interpretations, such as could be found in Hadrian's Villa at Tivoli, and to Roman structural achievements, such as their brickwork and their use of bevelled corners for vault supports.

Just as Borromini's attitude toward antiquity was uncommon,so too were his historical roots in medieval architecture in an era that had rejected medieval culture as corrupt. Yet his tendency toward the annulment of the wall, his use of structural ribwork to strengthen vaults, his designs derived from geometric configurations, his use of decorative motifs, and perhaps even his awareness that light can be given major compositional importance, all represent ideas that originated in the medieval experience. Closer to his own time, Borromini investigated certain formal qualities found in both Florentine architecture of the 15th century and Mannerist architecture of the 16th century, especially in that of Michelangelo, whose architecture was of decisive importance and suggested Borromini's still more radical experiments. The manner in which space seemed to expand and contract in a number of Michelangelo's designs indicated to Borromini the dynamic potential of this medium.Responding to the past with greater freedom than his contemporaries, Borromini employed those elements that suited his purposes.

This broad selection of styles was complemented by his understanding of structures and materials. The artisan tradition of Lombardy stressed technical excellence, which provided Borromini with the knowledge to approach a full range of structural problems. It gave him a firm base for his technical virtuosity, which is demonstrated by a long list of achievements. Among these achievements are: the careful balancing of his towers for the facade of St. Peter's; the supporting metal cage for a barrel vault in the Palazzo Pamphili in Piazza Navona; the precise brickwork of the Oratory of St. Philip Neri; and his inventive domes and vaults, such as those of S. Ivo della Sapienza or the Re Magi chapel. He used the building yard as an extension of his drafting table and as a place where he could experiment and improvise to generate a fruitful exchange between design and execution. At S. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, for example, the three-dimensional curve of the arches opening to the chapel vaults, as well as other features, could not have been realized without Borromini's personal guidance of the stonecutters on the site.

Borromini's urban sensibilities were also highly developed, as one of his unexecuted schemes demonstrates. He wished to create a dynamic setting for the facade of S. Giovanni in Laterano by means of a piazza. The street passing through this space was to be surrounded by 24 uniform building fronts, establishing a large-scale, tightly organized arrangement of spaces. Always alert in his commissions to contextual interpretations, he displayed a deep sensitivity to the relationship of his buildings to the surrounding urban fabric. The bell-tower facade of St. Philip Neri, for example, iscomposed to conclude and monumentalize the street running up to it.
Later years and influence.

Even late in his life, Borromini's innovations continued to be as energetic and radical as ever. For the Re Magi chapel in the Collegio di Propaganda Fide, on which he worked until hisdeath, he designed six pairs of colossal pilasters to define a generally rectangular space with bevelled corners.

In the 1660s, Borromini's fortunes tragically declined. He was increasingly frustrated by the fame and success of his rival, Bernini. His only disciple, Francesco Righi, and his mostsympathetic patron, Padre Virgilio Spada, both died early in the decade. His major commission of S. Agnese in Agone, in Piazza Navona, was taken from him; work on another of his projects, S. Andrea delle Fratte, came to a halt; and his facade of St. Philip Neri was disfigured by lateral extensions.Suffering severe melancholia, he travelled to Lombardy, but when he returned to Rome his melancholy returned to him, and he spent whole weeks without ever leaving his house. Borromini burned all of his drawings in his possession. Takenill, his condition was made worse by hypochondriac hallucinations and, when he suffered fits, it was decided that he should be denied all activity so that he might sleep. On a hot summer's night, unable to rest and forbidden to work, he arose in a fury, found a sword, and fell upon it. Borromini recovered a lucid mind after mortally wounding himself, repented, received the last sacraments of the church, and wrote his will before he died. At his own request, he was buried anonymously in the grave of his teacher and friend, Maderno. It has been suggested that Borromini's suicide was the result of an increasing schizophrenia and that this pathological process is reflected in his architecture, but this contention is impossible to demonstrate. His career appears to have been successful until the disillusionments of the last years.

In denying the restrictive, enclosing qualities of wall in order to treat space and light as architectonic components, Borromini confronted his architectural inheritance with its most complete and compelling challenge. Scores of designers would capitalize upon this revolutionary legacy. Borromini's works from the first had created an uproar in Rome, and his influence proved highly suggestive for design in northern Italy and in central Europe over the course of the next century. Later, as Neoclassical attitudes gained force, he was increasingly despised. Largely forgotten during most of the 19th century, Borromini's architecture has again been recognized in the 20th century as the creation of genius.

Christian F. Otto
 


Pietro da Cortona's early design for the Villa del Pigneto, near Rome (before 1630), was derived from the ancient Roman temple complex at Palestrina, Italy, and decisively altered villa design; his San Luca e Santa Martina, Rome (1635), was the first church to exhibit fully developed high Baroque characteristics in which the movement toward plasticity, continuity, and dramatic emphasis, begun by Maderno, achieved fruition. Pietro's reworking of a small square in Rome to include his facade of Santa Maria della Pace (1656–59) as an almost theatrical element is a cogent example of the Baroque insistence on the participation of a work in its environment.
 

Pietro da Cortona

born Nov. 1, 1596, Cortona, Tuscany [Italy]
died May 16, 1669, Rome, Papal States


French Pierre de Cortone, original name Pietro Berrettini Italian architect, painter, and decorator, an outstanding exponent of Baroque style.

Pietro studied in Rome from about 1612 under the minor Florentine painters Andrea Commodi and Baccio Ciarpi and was influenced by antique sculpture and the work of Raphael. Themost important of his earliest paintings were three frescoes (1624–26) in Santa Bibiana, Rome. In the 1620s he designed the Villa del Pigneto near Rome and possibly another villa at Castel Fusano, both for his patrons, the Sacchetti family.

His fame reached its climax in the 1630s with the design of the Church of SS. Luca e Martina, Rome (1635–50), and the ceiling fresco “Allegory of Divine Providence” (1633–39) in the Barberini Palace there. The design of SS. Luca e Martina derives more from Florentine than Roman sources, resulting in a different type of Baroque architecture from that of either Bernini or Borromini. The ceiling of the Great Hall in the Barberini Palace, now the National Gallery, was conceived as a painted glorification of the Barberini pope, Urban VIII, and is treated illusionistically. Its strong colour and steep perspective recall Veronese, whose work Cortona may have seen in Venice in 1637.

Also in 1637 Pietro visited Florence, where he began paintingthe frescoes representing the “Four Ages of Man” for Grand Duke Ferdinand II of Tuscany in the Pitti Palace. In 1640 he returned to finish these and paint the ceilings of a suite of apartments in the palace named after the planets. He treated the entire surface as a single spatial unit, adding a wealth of real stucco decoration, partly gilt, in the carvings. He returned to Rome in 1647, where he painted the vault frescoes of Santa Maria in Vallicella and the ceiling of the long gallery of the Pamphili Palace in Piazza Navona (1651–54) for Pope Innocent X. His chief architectural works of this period were the facades of Santa Maria della Pace (1656–57)—perhaps his most ingenious conception—and Santa Maria in Via Lata in Rome (1658–62). He also produceddesigns for the modernization of the Pitti Palace and the eastfront of the Louvre in Paris (1664). He painted religious and mythological easel pictures throughout his life. From 1634 to1638 he was head of the Academy of St. Luke in Rome. Despite a correspondence in feeling between his architecture and his painting, there is little physical connection between them, and he never decorated one of hisown churches.
 


In the early years of the 18th century in Rome, parallel to the development of Rococo in France, renewed interest in the work of Borromini was shown by Alessandro Specchi in his Ripetta Gate (1704), and by Filippo Juvarra, a gifted, if unorthodox, pupil of Carlo Fontana, in his early architectural projects and scene designs. Italian Rococo developed out ofthis new interest in Borromini. In Rome the Rococo developed further with the so-called Spanish Steps (1723) byFrancesco de Sanctis; the facade of Santa Maria della Quercia (begun 1727) and Piazza Sant'Ignazio (1727) by Filippo Raguzzini; and, in Piedmont, Santa Caterina, Casale Monferrato (1718) by Giovanni Battista Scapitta.
National and regional variations

Italy

Architects in northern Italy, notably Guarino Guarini, Filippo Juvarra, and Bernardo Vittone, developed a Baroque style of great structural audacity. Guarini's San Lorenzo (1668–80) and Palazzo Carignano (1679), both in Turin, have swelling curvilinear forms, terra-cotta construction, exposed structural members, and intricate spatial compositions that show his relation to Borromini and also represent significant developments in the relationship between structure and light. Juvarra's Palazzo Madama, Turin (1718–21), has one of the most spectacular of all Baroque staircases, but the true heir to Guarini was Vittone. To increase the vertical effect and the unification of space in churches such as Santa Chiara, Brà (1742), Vittone raised the main arches, eliminated the drum, and designed a double dome in which one could look through spherical openings puncturing the inner dome and see the outer shell painted with images of saints and angels: a glimpse of heaven.
 

Guarino Guarini

born Jan. 17, 1624, Modena, Duchy of Modena
died March 6, 1683, Milan


also called Camillo Guarini Italian architect, priest, mathematician, and theologian whose designs and books on architecture made him a major source for later Baroque architects in Central Europe and North Italy.

Guarini was in Rome during 1639–47 when Francesco Borromini was most active. Later he taught in Modena, Messina, and Paris and finally, in 1666, went to Turin, where he stayed for the greater part of the remainder of his life.

While in Turin in the service of the dukes of Savoy, Guarini built (or furnished designs for) at least six churches and chapels, five palaces, and a city gate; published six books, two on architecture and four on mathematics and astronomy; and sent palace designs to the Duke of Bavaria and the Margrave of Baden. In San Lorenzo (1668–87) and Santa Sindone (1667–90) in Turin, Guarini, working on a centralized plan, converted domes to an open lacework of interwoven masonry arches. Santa Sindone was damaged byfire in 1997. Guarini's longitudinal churches—of which the most spectacular was Santa Maria della Divina Providenza, in Lisbon, destroyed by earthquake in 1755—with their veiled light sources and interwoven spaces served as models for much of the church development in Central Europe. The Palazzo Carignano, Turin (1679), is Guarini's masterpiece of palace design. With its billowing facade, its magnificent curved double stair, and its astonishing double dome in the main salon, it well deserves to be acclaimed the finest urban palace of the second half of the 17th century in Italy. Guarini's principal architectural treatise, Architettura Civile, was published posthumously in Turin in 1737.

 


Spain

Spanish Baroque was similar to Italian Baroque but with a greater emphasis on surface decorations. Alonso Cano, in hisfacade of the Granada cathedral (1667), and Eufrasio Lopez de Rojas, with the facade of the cathedral of Jaén (1667), show Spain's absorption of the concepts of the Baroque at the same time that it maintained a local tradition. The greatest of the Spanish masters was José Benito Churriguera, whose work shows most fully the Spanish Baroque interest in surface texture and decorative detail. His lush ornamentation attracted many followers, and Spanish architecture of the late 17th century and early 18th century has been labeled Churrigueresque. Narciso and Diego Tomé, in the University of Valladolid (1715), and Pedrode Ribera, in the facade of the San Fernando Hospital (now the Municipal Museum) in Madrid (1722), proved themselves to be the chief inheritors of Churriguera.
 

Alonso Cano

born March 19, 1601, Granada, Spain
died September 3, 1667, Granada


painter, sculptor, and architect, often called the Spanish Michelangelo for his diversity of talents. Although he led a remarkably tempestuous life, he produced religious works of elegance and ease.

Moving to Sevilla (Seville) in 1614, he studied sculpture under Juan Martínez Montanes and painting under Francisco Pacheco. Forced to leave Sevilla in 1637 because of a duel with the painter Llano y Valdés, he fled to Madrid and obtained the favour of the court. His activities as court painter ended in 1644, when, suspected of the murder of his wife, he had to escape to Valencia. He then returned to King Philip IV and successfully solicited a position as canon in the cathedral in Granada in 1652, but hewas expelled for misbehaviour in 1656. Returning to Madrid, he took holy orders and was appointed chief architect of the Granada cathedral, a position he held until his death.

Cano painted extensively in Sevilla, Madrid, and Granada. The Sevilla paintings, among them Via Crucis and St. Francis Borgia, are influenced by Zurbarán, monumental and bold, with strong tenebroso (emphasis on darkness). The Madrid paintings, including St. Isidore's Miracle of the Well (1645–46), are more impressionistic, foreshadowing the workof Velázquez. Finally, the last paintings, from his stay in Granada, especially the Mysteries of the Virgin in the Cathedral, are harmonious, with a classic balance and symmetry.

No sculpture from his Seville period has survived, but many of his polychromed wood statues exist from his time in Granada. His finest work of sculpture, San Diego de Alcalá (1653–57), is characteristic in its simplicity of design and its expressive eloquence.

Cano is most famous for his paintings and sculpture, but his facade for the cathedral at Granada is considered one of the most original works of Spanish architecture, bearing Cano's unique personal stamp and executed with remarkableexpressive unity.
 


The outstanding figure of 18th-century Spanish architecture was Ventura Rodríguez, who, in his designs for the Chapel of Our Lady of Pilar in the cathedral of Saragossa (1750), showed himself to be a master of the developed Rococo in its altered Spanish form; but it was a Fleming, Jaime Borty Miliá, who brought Rococo to Spain when he built the west front of the cathedral of Murcia in 1733.


Flanders

Roman Catholicism, political opposition to Spain, and the painter Peter Paul Rubens were all responsible for the astonishing full-bodied character of Flemish Baroque. Rubens' friends Jacques Francart and Pieter Huyssens created an influential northern centre for vigorous expansive Baroque architecture to which France, England, and Germany turned. Francart's Béguinage Church (1629) at Mechelen (Malines) and Huyssens' St. Charles Borromeo (1615) at Antwerp set the stage for the more fully developed Baroque at St. Michel (1650) at Louvain, by Willem Hesius, aswell as at the Abbey of Averbode (1664), by Jan van den Eynde.


Holland

Seventeenth-century architecture in Holland, in contrast, is marked by sobriety and restraint. Pieter Post, noted for the Huis ten Bosch (1645) at The Hague and the Town Hall of Maastricht (c. 1658), and Jacob van Campen, who built the Amsterdam Old Town Hall (1648; now the Royal Palace), were the principal Dutch architects of the 17th century. After the middle of the century, Dutch architecture exerted influence on architecture in France and England. Dutch colonial architecture was especially evident in the 17th and 18th centuries in the Hudson River Valley of North America and the Dutch West Indies (notably Willemstad on the island of Curaçao).
 

Pieter Post

born 1608, Haarlem, Holland
died 1669, The Hague


architect who, along with Jacob van Campen, created the sober, characteristically Dutch Baroque style.

By 1633, in collaboration with van Campen, he designed the exquisite Mauritshuis at The Hague, showing in it his mastery of the Dutch Baroque style. In 1645 he became architect to the stadholder Frederick Henry. With van Campen he designed the House in the Wood (Huis ten Bosch) at The Hague (1645–47) and, independently, Swanenburg House (1645), Nieuwkoop almshouses at The Hague (1658), and theweighhouse in Leiden (1658). Post's town hall at Maastricht (1656) is one of the outstanding buildings of the 17th centuryin the Netherlands. Like van Campen, Post is notable for anticipating some of the architectural refinements of 18th-century France and for the influence he exerted on English architecture.
 



 

Jacob van Campen

born Feb. 2, 1595, Haarlem, Holland [The Netherlands]
died Sept. 13, 1657, Huis Randenbroek, near Amersfoort


Dutch architect, one of the leaders of agroup of architects who created a restrained architectural style that was suited to the social and political climate of the Netherlands.

Van Campen began his career as a painter. He studied the work of Andrea Palladio and others in Italy and introduced a Dutch Classical style to the Netherlands. His domestic style was quiet and unpretentious, and it had considerable influence, especially in England. His masterpiece is considered to be the Mauritshuis (1633–44; now the Royal Picture Gallery) in The Hague, where, with Pieter Post, he also designed the royal palace, Huis ten Bosch (1645). His other important works include the Town Hall (now Royal Palace), Amsterdam (1648–55), and the Baroque Nieuwe Kerk (New Church, or St. Anne's Church), Haarlem (1645–49).

 


France

Salomon de Brosse's Luxembourg Palace (1615) in Paris and Château de Blérancourt (1614), northeast of Paris between Coucy and Noyon, were the bases from which Francois Mansart and Louis Le Vau developed their succession of superb country houses.
 

Salomon de Brosse

born 1571, Verneuil-sur-Oise, Fr.
died Dec. 9, 1626, Paris


most influential French architect of theearly 17th century, whose works facilitated the development of the classical châteaus designed by the generation that followed him.

De Brosse was born into a family of Protestant architects. He trained underhis father and then quickly achieved success on his own. As architect to the queen regent, Marie de Médicis, from 1608, he prepared designs for the Palais du Luxembourg (built c. 1614–30), which featured a rusticated facade influenced by those of Italian Renaissance palazzi. This work and three châteaus—Coulommiers (1613), Montceaux (completed 1615), and especially Blérancourt (completed prior to 1619)—strongly influenced later architects, particularly François Mansart, who worked under de Brosse at Coulommiers.

His two most important public works were the renovation of the hall of the Palais de Justice at Paris and construction of the Palais du Parlement of Brittany at Rennes. In 1623 he rebuilt the Protestant temple at Charenton, but his most influential church design is the novel facade for Saint-Gervais (begun 1616), which combines a lofty Gothic nave with a classical facade.

De Brosse's importance as a designer lay in his bold and simple treatments of elevations, facades, and ground plans. A detailed understanding of his achievements is impossible because of the destruction or heavy alteration of virtually allhis major buildings.
 


Mansart was the more accomplished of the two architects, and his Orléans wing of the Chateau de Blois (1635) in the Loire Valley and Maisons-Laffitte, near Paris (1642), are renowned for their high degree of refinement, subtlety, and elegance. Mansart's church of Val-de-Grace (1645) in Paris and his designs for the Bourbon mausoleum (1665) established the full Baroque in France; it was a rich, subtle Baroque that was quiet in its strength and restrained in its vigour.
 

Francois Mansart

born January 1598, Paris
died September 1666


Mansart also spelled Mansard architect important for establishing classicism in Baroque architecture in mid-17th-century France. His buildings are notable for their subtlety, elegance, and harmony. His most complete surviving work is the château of Maisons.
 


Le Vau was Mansart's only serious competitor, and in 1657, with his Château de Vaux-le-Vicomte, near Paris, he fired the imagination of Louis XIV and of his finance minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert. Vaux, though exhibiting certain Dutch influences, is noted for its integration of Le Vau's architecture with the decorative ensembles of the painter and designer Charles Le Brun and the garden designs of landscape architect Andre Le Notre. By serving as a model for Louis XIV's Palace of Versailles, the complex at Vaux was perhaps the most important mid-century European palace. Le Vau showed a sensitivity to Italian Baroque architecture that was unusual in a French architect, and his College of Four Nations (1662; now the Institute of France) in Paris owes much to the Roman churches of Santa Maria della Pace by Pietro da Cortona and Sant'Agnese in Agone (1652–55) in the Piazza Navona by Borromini and Carlo Rainaldi. Le Vau, Le Nôtre, and Le Brun began working at Versailles within a few years of their success at Vaux, but the major expansion of the palace did not occur until after the end of the Queen's War (1668). At Versailles, Le Vau showed his ability to deal with a building of imposing size. The simplicity of his forms and the rich, yet restrained, articulation of the garden facade mark Versailles as his mostaccomplished building. Le Nôtre's inventive disposition of ground, plant, and water forms created a wide range of vistas, terraces, gardens, and wooded areas that integrated palace and landscape into an environment emphasizing the delights of continuity and separation, of the infinite and the intimate. Upon Le Vau's death, Jules Hardouin-Mansart, grandnephew of François, succeeded him and proved himselfequal to Louis XIV's desires by more than trebling the size of the palace (1678–1708). Versailles became the palatial idealand model throughout Europe and the Americas until the endof the 18th century. A succession of grand palaces was built, including the following: Castle Howard and Blenheim Palace (see ) by Sir John Vanbrugh in England; the Residenz of Würzburg, Ger. (1719), by Neumann; the Zwinger in Dresden, Ger. (1711), by Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann; the Belvedere,Vienna (1714), by Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt; the Royal Palace at Caserta, Italy (1752), by Luigi Vanvitelli; and the Royal Palace (National Palace) at Madrid (1736), by GiovanniBattista Sacchetti.
 

Andre Le Notre

born March 12, 1613, Paris, Fr.
died Sept. 15, 1700, Paris


one of the greatest French landscape architects, his masterpiece being the gardens of Versailles.

Le Nôtre grew up in an atmosphere of technical expertise;his father, Jean Le Nôtre, was the master gardener of King Louis XIII at theTuileries. At the studio of painter François Vouet he studied the laws of perspective and optics,which he meticulously followed in his plans, and from François Mansart, uncle of Jules Hardouin-Mansart, the principal architect of Versailles, he learned the principles of architecture. Succeeding his father (1637), Le Nôtre redesigned the Tuileries gardens, revealing his genius for expansive vistas. He continued the main avenue, later calledthe Champs-Élysées, as far as the eye could see.

Le Nôtre was subsequently named to a succession of official posts. For finance minister Nicolas Fouquet he designed the château grounds of Vaux-le-Vicomte, near Melun (1656–61), suiting his layout to the relief of the ground. He extended from the parterres great blocks of trees, contracting progressively to accentuate the perspective, and related them to fountains, waterworks, and statuary, obtaining the maximum reflection by attention to water levels. So delighted with the result was Louis that he charged Le Nôtre with planning the gardens at Versailles, where the grounds covered more than 15,000 acres (6,000 hectares). Transforming a muddy swamp into a park of magnificent vistas, he extended and enhanced the architecture of the palace, and his monumental style reflected and heightened the splendour of Louis XIV's court.

Le Nôtre's other designs include the gardens of the Trianon, Saint-Cloud, and Chantilly and the parks of Saint-Germain-en-Laye and Fontainebleau. His genius was indemand throughout the capitals of Europe. He visited London (1662), where he is believed to have been responsible for St. James's Park, and Italy (1679). His students and collaborators, working in Germany, Austria, andSpain, spread his style of landscape planning and garden design across the European continent. A century later Pierre-Charles L'Enfant's plan for the U.S. capital at Washington, D.C., was influenced by Le Nôtre's design for thegrounds of Versailles.

 



 

Jules Hardouin-Mansart

born , c. April 16, 1646 Paris, Fr.
died May 11, 1708, Marly-le-Roi


French architect and city planner to King Louis XIVwho completed the design of Versailles.

Mansart in 1668 adopted the surname of his granduncle by marriage, the distinguished architect François Mansart. By 1674, when he was commissioned to rebuild the château of Clagny for Louis XIV's mistress Madame de Montespan, he was already launched on a brilliant career. Among his earlier achievements were many private houses, including his own, the Hôtel de Lorges, later the Hôtel de Conti.

In 1675 Mansart became official architect to the king and from 1678 was occupied with redesigning and enlarging the palace of Versailles. He directed a legion of collaborators and protégés, many of whom became the leading architects of the following age. Starting from plans of architect Louis LeVau, Mansart built the new Hall of Mirrors, the Orangerie, the Grand Trianon, and the north and south wings. At the time of his death he was working on the chapel. The vast complex, with an exquisite expanse of gardens designed by André Le Nôtre, was a harmonious expression of French Baroque classicism and a model that other courts of Europe sought to emulate.

Although occupied with this enormous project for much of hislife, Mansart built many other public buildings, churches, and sumptuous houses. Thought to be most reflective of his individual ability to combine classical and Baroque architectural design is the chapel of Les Invalides, Paris. Admirable contributions to city planning include his Place deVendôme and Place des Victoires, Paris.

 


Hardouin-Mansart's Dôme des Invalides, Paris (c. 1675), is generally agreed to be the finest church of the last half of the 17th century in France (). The correctness and precision of its form, the harmony and balance of its spaces, and the soaring vigour of its dome make it a landmark not only of the Paris skyline but also of European Baroque architecture.

After Nicolas Pineau returned to France from Russia, he, with Gilles-Marie Oppenordt and Juste-Aurele Meissonier, with their increasing concern for asymmetry, created the full Rococo. Meissonier and Oppenordt should be noted too for their exquisite, imaginative architectural designs, unfortunately never built (e.g., facade of Saint-Sulpice, Paris, 1726, by Meissonier).
 

Nicolas Pineau

born Oct. 8, 1684, Paris
died April 24, 1754, Paris


French wood-carver and interior designer, a leader inthe development of interior decorating in the light, asymmetric, lavishly decorated Rococo style.

After study with the architects François Mansart and Germain Boffrand, Pineau began his career as a carver of woodwork. His father, Jean-Baptiste Pineau, was a sculptor in wood, and his son, Dominique (1718–86), also became a wood sculptor.

One of a group of French artisans who were visiting the newly established city of St. Petersburg in 1716 at the invitation of Peter the Great, Pineau remained in Russia until about 1728, carving the tsar's cabinet in the Peterhof palace and also serving as an architect and interior designer. Returning to Paris, he became an important designer, launching the vogue for Rococo rooms in private dwellings.

Pineau's works are characterized by shallow recesses with rounded corners and ornamentation employing shell motifs, leafy scrolls, and classical busts in medallions. Later interior designers and architects were influenced by his engravings.

 



 

Juste-Aurele Meissonier

born 1693/95, Turin, Savoy
died July 31, 1750, Paris


French goldsmith, interior decorator, and architect, often considered the leading originator of the influential, though short-lived, Rococo style in the decorative arts.

Early in his career Meissonier migrated to Paris, receiving his warrant as master goldsmith from King Louis XV in 1724 and his appointment as designer for the King's bedchamber and cabinet in 1726. He had a powerful and fertile imagination; his fantastic grottoes and swirling, animated, asymmetrical metalwork designs combined contrasting and original motifs.As a goldsmith, he was remarkable for the boldness of his conceptions for such objects as snuffboxes, watch cases, sword hilts, and tureens. He prepared three fine sets of sketches for interior decoration, furniture, and goldsmith designs. He also developed a plan for the facade of the church of Saint-Sulpice, Paris, in 1726, but few of his architectural ideas were realized.
 


The early years of the 18th century saw the artistic centre of Europe shift from Rome to Paris. Pierre Lepautre, working under Hardouin-Mansart on the interiors of the Château de Marly (1679), invented new decorative ideas that became the Rococo. Lepautre changed the typical late 17th-century flat arabesque, which filled a geometrically constructed panel, to a linear pattern in relief, which was enclosed by a frame that determined its own shape. White-and gold-painted 17th-century interiors (the central salon of the palace at Versailles) were replaced by varnished natural-wood surfaces (Château de Meudon, Cabinet à la Capucine) or by painted pale greens, blues, and creams (Cabinet Vert, Versailles, 1735). The resulting delicate asymmetry in relief and elegant freedom revolutionized interior decoration and within a generation exerted a profound effect on architecture. Architects rejected the massive heavy relief of the Baroque in favour of a light and delicate, but still active, surface. Strong, active, and robust interior spaces gave way to intricate, elegant but restrained spatial sequences.


England

The late designs of Inigo Jones for Whitehall Palace (1638) and Queen's Chapel (1623) in London introduced English patrons to the prevailing architectural ideas of northern Italyin the late 16th century. Although he was influenced heavily by 16th-century architects such as Palladio, Serlio, and Vincenzo Scamozzi, Jones approached the Baroque spirit in his late works by unifying them with a refined compositional vigour. Sir Christopher Wren presented English Baroque in itscharacteristic restrained but intricate form in St. Stephen's, Walbrook, London (1672), with its multiple changing views and spatial and structural complexity. Wren's greatest achievement, St. Paul's Cathedral, London (1675–1711), owes much to French and Italian examples of the Baroque period; but the plan shows a remarkable adaptation of the traditional English cathedral plan to Baroque spatial uses. Wren is notable for his large building complexes (Hampton Court Palace, 1689, and Greenwich Hospital, 1696), which, in continuing the tradition of Inigo Jones, paved the way for the future successes of Sir John Vanbrugh. Vanbrugh's Castle Howard in Yorkshire (1699) and Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire (1705; see ) mark the culmination of the Baroque style in England.
 

Inigo Jones

born July 15, 1573, Smithfield, London, Eng.
died June 21, 1652, London


British painter, architect, and designer who founded the English classical tradition of architecture. The Queen's House (1616–19) at Greenwich, London, his first major work, became a part of the National Maritime Museum in1937. His greatest achievement is the Banqueting House (1619–22) at Whitehall (see photograph). Jones's only other surviving royal building is the Queen's Chapel (1623–27) at St. James's Palace.

Jones was the son of a cloth worker also called Inigo. Of the architect's early life little is recorded, but he was probably apprenticed to a joiner. By 1603 he had visited Italy long enough to acquire skill in painting and design and to attract the patronage of King Christian IV of Denmark and Norway, at whose court he was employed for a time before returning to England. There he is next heard of as a “picture maker” (easel painter). Christian IV's sister, Anne, was the queen of James I of England, a fact that may have led to Jones's employment by her in 1605 to design the scenes and costumes of a masque, the first of a long series he designed for her and later for the king. The words to these masques were often supplied by Ben Jonson, the scenery, costumes, and effects nearly always by Jones. More than 450 drawings by him, representing work on 25 masques, a pastoral, and two plays ranging in date between 1605 and 1641, survive at Chatsworth House, Derbyshire.

From 1605 until 1610 Jones probably regarded himself as primarily under the queen's protection, but he was patronized also by Robert Cecil, 1st earl of Salisbury, for whom he produced his earliest known architectural work, a design for the New Exchange in the Strand (c. 1608; demolished in the 18th century). Though a somewhat immature design, the work was more sophisticated than anything being done in England at the time. Some designs (later superseded) for the restoration and improvement of Old St. Paul's Cathedral also date from this period, and in 1610 Jones was given an appointment that confirmed the direction of his future career. He became surveyor of works to the heir to the throne, Henry, prince of Wales.

This appointment, with all its promise, was short-lived, and Jones did little or nothing for the prince before the latter's death in 1612. In 1613, however, he was compensated by the guarantee of still higher office on the death of the king's surveyor of works, Simon Basil. To this office Jones succeeded in 1615, in the meantime having taken the opportunity offered him by Thomas Howard, 2nd earl of Arundel, to revisit Italy. Arundel and his party, including Jones, left England in April 1613 and proceeded to Italy, spending the winter of 1613–14 in Rome. In the course of the visit Jones had ample opportunity to study works by modern masters as well as antique ruins. Of the masters, the one to whom he attached the greatest importance was Andrea Palladio, the Italian architect who had gained wide influence through his The Four Books of Architecture (1570; I quattrolibri dell'architettura), which Jones took with him on his tour. Returning to England in the autumn of 1614, Jones had completed his self-education as a classical architect.

Jones's career as surveyor of works to James I and Charles I lasted from 1615 to 1643. During most of those 28 years he was continuously employed in the building, rebuilding, or improvement of royal houses. His first important undertaking was the Queen's House at Greenwich, based to some extent on the Medici villa at Poggio a Caiano, near Florence, but detailed in a style closer to Palladio or Vincenzo Scamozzi (1552–1616). Work there was suspended on the death of Queen Anne in 1619 and completed only in 1635 for Charles's queen, Henrietta Maria. The building, considerably altered, now houses part of the National Maritime Museum.

In 1619 the Banqueting House at Whitehall was destroyed by fire; and between that year and 1622 Jones replaced it with what has always been regarded as his greatest achievement. The Banqueting House consists of one great chamber, raisedon a vaulted basement. It was conceived internally as a basilica on the Vitruvian model but without aisles, the superimposed columns being set against the walls, which support a flat, beamed ceiling. For the main panels of this ceiling, allegorical paintings by Peter Paul Rubens were commissioned by Charles I and set in place in 1635. The exterior echoes the arrangement of the interior, with pilasters and regular columns set against rusticated walling.

The Banqueting House has only two complete facades. The ends were never completed, and this has given rise to the supposition that the building was intended to form part of a larger whole. This may have been so, and it is certain that Charles I, nearly 20 years after the Banqueting House was built, instructed Jones to prepare designs for rebuilding the whole of Whitehall Palace. These designs exist (at WorcesterCollege, Oxford, and at Chatsworth House) and are among Jones's most interesting creations. They owe something to the palace of El Escorial near Madrid but are worked out in terms deriving partly from Palladio and Scamozzi and partly from Jones's own studies of the antique.

Jones's work was not confined to royal palaces. He was muchinvolved in the regulation of new buildings in London, and out of this activity emerged the project that he planned in 1630 for the 4th earl of Bedford on his land at Covent Garden. This comprised a large open space bounded on the north and east by arcaded houses, on the south by the earl's garden wall, and on the west by a church with flanking gateways connecting to two single houses. The design probably derives partly from the piazza in Livorno, Italy, and partly from the Place Royale (now the Place des Vosges) in Paris. None of the original houses survive, but the church of St. Paul still stands, though much altered. Its portico is an instance, unique in Europe at its date of construction, of the use of the primitive Tuscan order of architecture.

With Covent Garden, Jones introduced formal town planning to London—it is the first London “square.” He was probably instrumental, from 1638, in creating another square by planning the layout of the houses in Lincoln's Inn Fields, one of the houses (Lindsey House, still existing at No. 59 and 60) being attributed to him.

The most important undertaking of Jones's later years in office was the restoration of Old St. Paul's Cathedral in 1633–42. This included not only the repair of the 14th-century choir but the entire recasing, in rusticated masonry, of the Romanesque nave and transepts and the building of a new west front with a portico (56 feet [17 metres] high) of 10 columns. This portico, among Jones's most ambitious and subtly calculated works, tragically vanished with the rebuilding of the cathedral after the Great Fire of London in 1666. (In 1997 more than 70 carved stones from the portico were excavated from the building's foundations.) Jones's work at St. Paul's considerably influenced Sir Christopher Wren and is reflected in some of his city churches as well as in his early designs for rebuildingthe cathedral.

At the outbreak of the English Civil Wars in 1642, Jones was compelled to relinquish his office as surveyor of works and left London. He was captured at the siege of Basing House in 1645. His estate was temporarily confiscated, and he was heavily fined. In the following year, however, his pardon was confirmed by the House of Lords and his estate restored. In the year of Charles I's execution, 1649, he was doing work at Wilton for the earl of Pembroke, but the great double-cube room there is probably mostly the work of his pupil John Webb, who survived to reestablish something of the Jones tradition after the Restoration in 1660. Jones was buried withhis parents in the church of St. Benet, Paul's Wharf, in London.

Sir John Summerson
 


 

Sir Christopher Wren

born Oct. 20, 1632, East Knoyle, Wiltshire, Eng.
died Feb. 25, 1723, London


designer, astronomer, geometrician, and the greatest Englisharchitect of his time.Wren designed 53 London churches, including St. Paul's Cathedral, as well as many secular buildings of note. Hewas a founder of theRoyal Society (president 1680–82), and his scientific work was highly regarded by Sir Isaac Newton and Blaise Pascal. He was knighted in 1673.
Early academic career and scientific pursuits

Wren, the son of a rector, was the youngest child, the only boy, and delicate in health. Before Christopher was three, hisfather was appointed dean of Windsor, and the Wren family moved into the precincts of the court. It was among the intellectuals around King Charles I that the boy first developed his mathematical interests. The life at Windsor was rudely disturbed by the outbreak of the English Civil Wars in 1642. The deanery was pillaged and the dean forced to retire, first to Bristol and then to the country home of a son-in-law, William Holder, in Oxfordshire. Wren was sent to school at Westminster but spent much time under Holder's tuition, experimenting in astronomy. He translated William Oughtred's work on sundials into Latin and constructed various astronomical and meteorological devices. If the general direction of his studies was toward astronomy, however, there was an important turn toward physiology in 1647 when he met the anatomist Charles Scarburgh. Wren prepared experiments for Scarburgh and made models representing the working of the muscles. One factor that stands out clearly from these early years is Wren's disposition to approach scientific problems by visual means.His diagrams that have survived are beautifully drawn, and his models seem to have been no less elegant.

In 1649 Wren went to Wadham College, Oxford, as a “gentleman commoner,” a status that carried certain privileges, and graduated with a B.A. in 1651. Oxford at that time had passed through a rigorous purgation of its more conservative elements by the parliamentary government. New men had been introduced, some of whom possessed great ability and had a special interest in the “experimental philosophy” so eloquently heralded by the scientific philosopher Sir Francis Bacon.

Receiving his M.A. in 1653, Wren was elected a fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, in the same year and began an active period of research and experiment, ending with his appointment as Gresham professor of astronomy in Gresham College, London, in 1657. In the following year, withthe death of Oliver Cromwell and the ensuing political turmoil, the college was occupied by the military, and Wren returned to Oxford, where he probably remained during the events that led to the restoration of Charles II in 1660. He returned to Gresham College, where scholarly activity resumed and an intellectual circle proposed a society “for the promotion of Physico-Mathematicall Experimental Learning.” After obtaining the patronage of the restored monarchy, this group became the Royal Society, Wren being one of the most active participants and the author of the preamble to its charter.

In 1661 Wren was elected Savilian professor of astronomy at Oxford, and in 1669 he was appointed surveyor of works to Charles II. It appears, however, that, having tested himself successfully in so many directions, he still, at 30, had not found the one in which he could find complete satisfaction.


Turn to architecture

One of the reasons why Wren turned to architecture may have been the almost complete absence of serious architectural endeavour in England at the time. The architect Inigo Jones had died about 10 years previously. There were perhaps half a dozen men in England with a reasonable grasp of architectural theory but none with the confidence to bring the art of building within the intellectual range of Royal Society thought—that is, to develop it as an art capable of beneficial scientific inquiry. Here, for Wren, was a whole field, which, given the opportunity, he could dominate—a field in which the intuition of the physicist and the art of a model maker would join to design works of formidable size and intricate construction.

Opportunity came, for in 1662 he was engaged in the design of the Sheldonian Theatre at Oxford. This, the gift of Bishop Gilbert Sheldon of London to his old university, was to be a theatre in the classical sense, where university ceremonies would be performed. It followed a classical form, inspired by the ancient Theatre of Marcellus in Rome, but was roofed with timber trusses of novel design, thereby combining the classical point of view with the empirical modern in a way entirely characteristic of a Royal Society mind. At the same time, Sheldon probably was consulting Wren about London's battered—and in parts nearly derelict—St. Paul's Cathedral. So Wren was drawn, deeply and immediately, into building problems. What he desperately needed at that moment was contact with the European tradition of classicism, and he seized a chance to join an embassy proceeding to Paris.

By 1665 architecture at the court of Louis XIV had reached a climax of creativity. The Louvre Palace was approaching completion, and the remodeling of the Palace of Versailles had begun. Gian Lorenzo Bernini, the great sculptor and architect, was in Paris making designs for the Louvre's east front, and the aged Italian allowed Wren to peruse his drawings. There was considerably more for Wren to see in the French capital, including the domed churches of the Val-de-Grâce and the Sorbonne and a marvelous array of chateaus within easy range of Paris.

At Oxford in the spring of 1666, he made his first design for a dome for St. Paul's. It was accepted in principle on August 27,1666. One week later, however, London was on fire. The Great Fire of London reduced two-thirds of the City to a smoking desert and old St. Paul's Cathedral to a ruin. Wren was most likely at Oxford at the time, but the news, so fantastically relevant to his own future, drew him at once to London. Between September 5 and 11 he ascertained the precise area of devastation, worked out a plan for rebuilding the City on new and more regular lines, and submitted it to Charles II. His plan reflected both his familiarity with Versailles and his acquaintance, through engravings, with the Rome of Pope Sixtus V. Others also submitted plans, and the king proclaimed on September 13 that a new plan for London would be adopted. No new plan, however, proceeded any further than the paper on which it was drawn. The problems of survey, compensation, and redistribution were too great. A rebuilding act was passed in 1667. It allowed only for the widening of certain streets, laid down standards of construction for new houses, levied a tax on coal coming into the Port of London, and provided for the rebuilding of a few essential buildings.

In 1669 the king's surveyor of works died, and Wren was promptly installed. In December he married Faith Coghill andmoved into the surveyor's official residence at Whitehall, where he lived, so far as is known, until his dismissal in 1718.

In 1670 a second rebuilding act was passed, raising the tax on coal and thus providing a source of funds for the rebuilding of St. Paul's Cathedral and several churches withinthe City of London and the erection of a column (The Monument) to commemorate the Great Fire. The city was now being rebuilt at a considerable pace. Wren himself had nothing to do with the general process. He did give occasional advice to the City authorities on their major projects but designed no houses or City companies' halls. Hewas the king's surveyor operating from Whitehall, not an official of the City of London. St. Paul's and the City churches did not fall automatically within the sphere of the royal works, though there was a long tradition of royal responsibility for St. Paul's.

In 1670 the first churches were rebuilt. Eighty-seven churches had been destroyed in the fire, but some parishes were united so that only 52 were rebuilt. Although Wren was personally responsible for all these, it is not to be supposed that each of them represents his own fully developed design.That there was much delegation is shown by the surviving drawings. Only a few are in Wren's hand. There is no doubt, though, that Wren approved the design in every case, and in certain churches the impress of his personality is distinct.
Construction of St. Paul's

While the churches were being built, Wren was slowly and painfully evolving designs for St. Paul's. The initial stage is represented by the First Model of 1670, now in the trophy room at the cathedral. This plan was approved by the king, and demolition of the old cathedral began. By 1673, however, the design seemed too modest, and Wren met his critics by producing a design of spectacular grandeur. A wooden model was made of this, and the Great Model, as it iscalled, is still preserved at St. Paul's. It failed to satisfy the canons of St. Paul's and clerical opinion generally, however, and Wren was compelled to withdraw from the ideal and compromise with the traditional. In 1675 he proposed the rather meagre Classical-Gothic Warrant Design, which was atonce accepted by the king, and within months building started.

What happened then is something of a mystery. The cathedral that Wren started to build bears only a slight resemblance to the Warrant Design. A mature and superbly detailed structure began to rise. In 1694 the masonry of the choir was finished and the rest of the fabric well in hand. In 1697 the first service was held in the cathedral. There was still, however, no dome. Building had been in progress for 22 years, and some restless elements in the government seemed to think this too long. As an incentive for more rapid progress, half of Wren's salary was suspended until the cathedral would be complete. Wren was now 65. Construction was completed in 1710, and in 1711 the cathedral was officially declared to be finished. Wren, 79, petitioned for the withheld moiety of his salary, which was duly paid. The cathedral had been built in 35 years under onearchitect. (See also Saint Paul's Cathedral and related classicarticles from the 2nd (1777–84) and 3rd (1788–97) editions ofEncyclopædia Britannica.)


Concurrent projects

Through all those years Wren was not only the chief architect of St. Paul's and the City churches but also the headof the King's Works and thus the responsible officer for all expenditure on building issuing from the royal exchequer. He had an able staff to look after routine maintenance, but much business passed through his hands, including the control of building developments in and around Westminster. About 1674 the University of Cambridge considered building a Senate House for purposes similar to those for which the Sheldonian Theatre had been built. Wren made designs, but the project was abandoned. The master ofTrinity College, who had promoted the scheme, was disappointed, but he persuaded his own college to undertakethe erection of a new library (1676–84) and to employ Wren to design it. Wren's classicism here is impressive. There is nohint of the Baroque style prevalent in Europe at the time, andthe building could well be mistaken for a Neoclassical work of a century later.

At Oxford in 1681 the dean of Christ Church invited Wren to complete the main gateway of the college. The lower part of Tom Tower, as the gateway was called, had been built by Thomas Cardinal Wolsey in a richly ornamental Gothic style. The octagonal tower that Wren imposed illustrates both his respect for Gothic and his reservations about it. His attitude toward Gothic design was consistent and influenced Gothic construction in England well into the 18th century. In 1682 Charles II founded the Royal Hospital at Chelsea for the reception of veterans superannuated from his standing army. The idea doubtless derived from Louis XIV's Hôtel des Invalides (1671–76) in Paris, but Wren's building, completed about 1690, is very different from its prototype. Charles II died in 1685. In the short reign of his brother, James II, Wren's attention was directed mainly to Whitehall. The new king, a Roman Catholic, required a new chapel; he also ordered a new privy gallery and council chamber and a riverside apartment for the queen. All these were built by Wren but were destroyed in the Whitehall fire of 1698.

There is not much information about Wren's personal life after 1669. He was knighted in the year of the Great Model, 1673. His first wife died of smallpox in 1675, leaving him withone young son, Christopher (another had died in infancy). His second wife, Jane Fitzwilliam (Fitz William), by whom he had a daughter, Jane, and a son, William, died in 1679. In these years he never wholly abandoned his scientific pursuits. He was still at the centre of the Royal Society and was its president from 1680 to 1682. He was sufficiently active in public affairs to be returned as member of Parliament for Old Windsor in 1680 and, although he did not again take his seat, in 1689 and 1690.

With the Glorious Revolution of 1688, which drove James II from the throne, Wren found himself chief architect to William of Orange. William III and Mary II proved to be the most active builders of them all. They disliked Whitehall Palace, and in 1689 Wren was at work reconstructing two palaces: one at Kensington on the outskirts of London and the other at Hampton Court, 15 miles (24 km) away, up the River Thames. Kensington Palace was a piecemeal conversion of an older house, with new courts and galleries added. It is not a totally satisfactory composition, but the south front is a noble piece of brickwork. Hampton Court Palace, on the other hand, started as a project of huge dimensions—nothing less, in fact, than a rebuilding of the entire palace begun by Wolsey. Wren's first designs have survived, and in these he is seen, for the first time, spreadinghis wings as a palace architect. It was decided to demolish only half of the old palace, however, and Wren's design was reduced considerably. Nevertheless, he brought to it many innovations and a unique use of English building materials. Hampton Court is a mixture of red and brown brick and Portland stone combined in masterly equilibrium.

Queen Mary died in 1694. The king lost heart, and building at Hampton Court was suspended; the palace was not completed until 1699. Two years before her death the queen had initiated a scheme for the building of a royal hospital for seamen at Greenwich. For this Wren made his first plans in 1694. The work began in 1696, but the whole group of buildings was not completed until several years after his death. Greenwich Hospital (later the Royal Naval College) was Wren's last great work and the only one still in progress after St. Paul's had been completed in 1710.

Queen Anne granted him a house at Hampton Court. He had, besides, a London house on St. James's Street, and it was there that a servant, noticing that he was taking an unusually long nap after dinner one evening, found him deadin his chair. Wren was buried with great ceremony in St. Paul's Cathedral, the tomb covered by a simply inscribed slab of black marble. On a nearby wall his son later placed a dedication, including a sentence that was to become one of the most famous of all monumental inscriptions: “Lector, si monumentum requiris, circumspice” (“Reader, if you seek a monument, look about you”).
Assessment

At his death Wren was 90. He had far outlived the age to which his genius belonged. Even the men he had trained and who owed much to his original and inspiring leadership were no longer young. The Baroque school they had created was already under fire from a new generation that brushed Wren's reputation aside and looked back beyond him to InigoJones. Architects of the 18th century could not forget Wren, but they could not forgive those elements in his work that seemed to them unclassical. The churches left the strongest mark on subsequent architecture. In France, where Englisharchitecture rarely made much impression, St. Paul's Cathedral could not be easily ignored, and the Church of Sainte-Geneviève (now the Panthéon) in Paris, begun about 1757, rises to a drum and dome similar to St. Paul's. Nobody with a dome to build could ignore Wren's, and there are myriad versions of it, from St. Isaac's Cathedral (dome constructed 1840–42; completed 1858) in St. Petersburg to the U.S. Capitol at Washington, D.C. (dome built 1855–63).

It was only in the 20th century that Wren's work ceased to be a potent and sometimes controversial factor in English architectural design. The last major architect to have been confessedly dependent on him was Sir Edwin Lutyens, who died in 1944. The Wren Society, founded at the bicentenary of Wren's death in 1923, published 20 volumes of Wren material (1924–43), edited by A.T. Bolton and H.D. Hendry.

Sir John Summerson

 



 

Sir John Vanbrugh

baptized January 24, 1664, London, England
died March 26, 1726, London


British architect who brought the English Baroque style to its culmination in Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire. He was also one of the dramatists of the Restoration comedy of manners.

Vanbrugh's grandfather was a Flemish merchant, and his father was a sugar baker in Chester, Cheshire, England, where the young Vanbrugh (by tradition) went to the King's School. In 1686 he was commissioned in a regiment of foot soldiers and in 1690, while visiting Calais, France, was arrested as a suspected English agent. While imprisoned in the Bastille, he wrote the first draft of a comedy. After his release in 1692, he was a soldier again for six years but appears to have seen no active service.

Vanbrugh's first comedy, The Relapse: Or Virtue in Danger , was written as a sequel to Colley Cibber's Love's Last Shift. Itopened in 1696 and was highly successful. His next important piece, The Provok'd Wife (1697), was also a triumph. In 1698 the churchman Jeremy Collier published an attack on the immorality of the theatre aimed especially at Vanbrugh, whose plays were more robust than those of such contemporaries as William Congreve. Vanbrugh and others retaliated, but to little effect, and he kept silent until 1700. Then came a sequence of free and lively adaptations from the French, more farce than comedy, including The Country House (first performed 1703) and The Confederacy (1705).

In 1702 Vanbrugh entered another field; he designed Castle Howard, Yorkshire, for Lord Carlisle. His first design was far simpler than the richly articulated palace that resulted. Probably he was untrained, but aptly at hand was Nicholas Hawksmoor, the accomplished clerk of the great architect SirChristopher Wren. Hawksmoor played the assistant to Vanbrugh but was in effect the partner. These two men brought to its peak English Baroque—an architecture concerned with the rhythmic effect of diversified masses, using classical architectural elements to that end. The Vanbrugh-Hawksmoor Baroque manner is often called “heavy,” but the heaviness is in the service of the dramatic. The style they evolved was a joint creation: Hawksmoor had already begun to develop it in the 1690s and acted as draftsman, administrator, and architectural detailer, while Vanbrugh is credited with the buildings' general plan and heroic scale.

Through Lord Carlisle, who was head of the Treasury, Vanbrugh became in 1702 comptroller of the queen's works. In 1703 he designed the Queen's Theatre, or Opera House, in the Haymarket. Though a magnificent building, it proved a failure, partly because of its poor acoustics, and he lost considerable money in the venture.

In 1705 Vanbrugh was chosen by John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, to design the palace at Woodstock, Oxfordshire, which was the nation's gift to that hero of many campaigns. Blenheim Palace, named for Marlborough's most famous victory, was the architectural prize of Queen Anne's reign. Again Hawksmoor was indispensable to Vanbrugh: Blenheim (1705–16) is their joint masterpiece. Any one of its powerful components may have been of Hawksmoor's shaping, but the planning and broad conception were surely Vanbrugh's, and the massive effect was the result of the hero-worshiping soldier-architect. Though the duke approved the plans, the duchess did not; there was trouble over costs and payments, and she caused Vanbrugh's dismissal. He continued to design country houses, however, and in such buildings as Kimbolton Castle, Huntingdon (1707–10), and Kings Weston, Gloucestershire (now in Bristol; c. 1710–14), his style became simpler in its use of decoration and of starkly geometric masses of masonry.

Under George I, Vanbrugh was knighted in 1714 and made comptroller again in 1715. Influenced by the art of fortification and Elizabethan building, Vanbrugh's great last works were Eastbury, Dorset (1718–26); Seaton Delaval, Northumberland (1720–28); and Grimsthorpe Castle, Lincolnshire (1722–26). Without Hawksmoor, he adopted a simple style in these designs, using a few elementary forms with increasing audacity, until in Seaton Delaval he achieved the height of drama with a comparatively small house.
 


Even in England, reflections of an interest in continuous curvilinear form inspired by Borromini and Bernini may be seen in isolated examples such as St. Philip, Birmingham (1710), by Thomas Archer.

Central Europe

A stable political situation in central Europe and the vision of Rudolf II in Prague in the late 16th and early 17th centuries created an intellectual climate that encouraged the adoption of new Baroque ideas. The Thirty Years' War and the defense against the encroachments of the expanding French and Ottoman empires, however, absorbed all the energies of central Europe. The fully developed Baroque style appeared in Germany, Austria, Bohemia, and Poland after 1680 but flourished only after the end of the debilitating War of the Spanish Succession (1714). In the late 17th and early 18th centuries, Germany and Austria turned for their models principally to Italy, where Guarini and Borromini exerted an influence on Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach and Johann Lucas von Hildebrandt. The third Austrian master, Jakob Prandtauer, on the other hand, came from a local stonemason tradition and worked primarily for monastic orders. Fischer von Erlach's University Church in Salzburg (1696) is particularly noteworthy and shows direct Italian inspiration, while the Karlskirche, Vienna (1715), demonstrates his original, mature phase. Hildebrandt's Belvedere palace in Vienna and Prandtauer's superbly sited Abbey of Melk overlooking the Danube (1702) are among their most notable works.
 

Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach

(baptized July 20, 1656, Graz, Austria—d. April 5, 1723, Vienna), Austrian architect, sculptor, and architectural historian whose Baroque style, a synthesis of classical, Renaissance, and southern Baroque elements, shaped the tastes of the Habsburg empire. Fischer's works include the Dreifaltigkeitskirche (1694–1702) and the Kollegienkirche (1696–1707), both in Salzburg, and the Winter Palace of Prince Eugene of Savoy (1695–1711) in Vienna. His Entwurf einer historischen Architektur (1721; A Plan of Civil and Historical Architecture) was the first successful comparative study of architecture.


Early career in Italy and Austria.

The son of a provincial sculptor and turner, Fischer was trained in his father's workshop. He went to Rome at about age 16 and had the good fortune to enter the studio of the great Baroque sculptor and architect Gian Lorenzo Bernini. InRome he acquired considerable knowledge of ancient art and of the scientific methods then beginning to be used in archaeology—methods that formed the basis for his own later archaeological reconstructions. He also studied ancient Roman, Renaissance, and Baroque art and architecture. About 1684 he went to Naples, then under Spanish rule, probably in the service of the Spanish viceroy. He is reported to have been ambitious and even to have acquired considerable wealth.

After some 16 successful years in Italy, Fischer returned to his homeland at an opportune time; after the imperial victories over the Turks, the Habsburg empire was emerging as a great European power, and the Holy Roman emperor Leopold I wished to emulate King Louis XIV of France by representing his power as an absolute monarch visibly in magnificent buildings. The aristocracy followed his example by erecting splendid palaces, and the Roman Catholic clergy, too, wanted to glorify, in ecclesiastical architecture, the victory over the infidel as well as that over the Protestant Reformation. Moreover, the Turks had destroyed many country seats of the aristocracy and had severely damaged the suburbs of Vienna during the siege of 1683. The need for new buildings as well as the quick economic recovery following the victories brought about a great increase in building and a resultant flowering of art andarchitecture.

In 1687 Fischer embarked on a brilliant career as court architect to three successive emperors, Leopold I, Joseph I, and Charles VI, and also designed buildings for the aristocracy and the archbishop of Salzburg. In 1689 Leopold Iappointed him to teach his elder son, Joseph, perspective and the theory and history of architecture. In 1690 Fischer won public recognition with two temporary triumphal arches erected in Vienna to celebrate Joseph's entry into the city after his coronation in Frankfurt am Main as king and future ruler of the Holy Roman Empire. During the next 10 years, Fischer was much sought after as an architect in Vienna and Salzburg and in the Habsburg lands. In 1693 alone he was commissioned to design 14 important buildings.

During these years he created a new type of country house, combining the most important achievements in suburban architecture since the 16th century. He united the ideas of the French Baroque country palace made up of many joined pavilions with that of the classically inspired Renaissance villa, typical of Andrea Palladio, surrounded by low detached wings. By using the powerful curving forms of the Roman Baroque architects, especially Bernini, he gave his villas a more dynamic form. One of their outstanding features is the spacious oval hall in the centre of the plan, as in Schloss Neuwaldegg (1692–97), near Vienna, and in Schloss Engelhartstetten (c. 1693), in Lower Austria. Fischer's country house designs had a decisive influence on the architects of his time. In a similar synthesis of Roman and French Baroque seasoned with Palladian elements, he also created a new type of town palace characterized by impressive form, structural clarity, and the dynamic tension of its decoration. The Winter Palace of Prince Eugene of Savoy, begun in 1695, and the palace of the ban of Croatia, Count Batthyány (1699–1706), both in Vienna, are notable examples of this type.

As architect to Johann Ernst, Count von Thun, the archbishop of Salzburg, Fischer displayed his talent in church architecture and town planning. The domes and towers of his churches changed the whole appearance of Salzburg. In their exquisitely proportioned, lofty interiors he tried to achieve a balance between the longitudinal and central schemes, a problem all great church architects had been faced with since Michelangelo's projects for St. Peter's in Rome. All of Fischer's churches have two-towered facades accented by dynamic curves and elegant decoration, but each has its own special quality, determined by its location and by its particular function, as attached to a seminary, a university, or a nunnery. The elegant concave facade of the Dreifaltigkeitskirche (Church of the Holy Trinity), for example, contrasts to and heightens the effect of the sober front of the adjoining seminary buildings. The almost geometric forms of the Kollegienkirche (University Church) surmounted by the undulating forms of its towers crown the university complex, providing a new architectural and symbolic accent to a city dominated by its massive cathedral, as Salzburg had been. Fischer also designed a newfacade for the archbishop's stables and laid out a square in front of it. He changed an old quarry into a summer riding school and built the archbishop's summer residence, Schloss Klesheim (1700–09), outside Salzburg.


Foreign travels and change of style.

At the turn of the 18th century, Fischer was at the height of his career. In a visible sign of his success as a court architect,he was raised to the nobility in 1696. The imperial alliance with Prussia, Holland, and England during the War of the Spanish Succession enabled Fischer, in 1704, to visit those countries and to study their architecture, particularly in relation to Palladio. The result was a remarkable change in his architectural style. In 1707 he went to Venice to study Palladian architecture at its source. The result was his development of a new type of “Palladian” palace facade, classical in its proportions but enlivened with richly sculptured decoration. It consists of a central projection accentuated by a giant order and surmounted by a triangularpediment and of relatively unarticulated lateral sections. Its models were English and North German Baroque interpretations of Palladian architecture as well as the works of Palladio himself and of his Italian followers. Fischer's major achievements in this field are the facades of the Bohemian Chancellery (1708–14) and Trautson Palace (1710–16), both in Vienna, and of the Clam-Gallas Palace (begun 1713), in Prague, which were imitated by architects all over the Habsburg empire.

During the first 10 years of the 18th century, however, Fischer designed fewer buildings than in the years before. His time was taken up by his administrative duties as chief inspector of court buildings and his work on a great history ofarchitecture, Entwurf einer historischen Architektur. His book, which reveals the wide range of his learning, was the first comparative history of the architecture of all times and all nations; it included significant specimens of Egyptian, Persian, Greek, Roman, Muslim, Indian, and Chinese architecture, illustrated by engravings with explanatory notes. Some of the archaeological reconstructions that appeared in the book were among the best of Fischer's time. At the end of the historical survey he placed his own achievements, which he saw as a logical continuation of the Roman tradition of architecture. The book was published in 1721.


Final projects.

When his second imperial patron, Joseph I, died in 1711, Fischer's position as the principal architect at the Viennese court was no longer uncontested. Many preferred the more pleasing and less demanding architecture of his rival Johann Lucas von Hildebrandt to Fischer's lofty conceptions. Yet he was also able to gain the favour of Charles VI, to whom he dedicated his history of architecture in manuscript in 1712, and to obtain the commission for the building of the Karlskirche (Church of St. Charles Borromeo; begun 1715).

Charles had vowed to build the Karlskirche as an offering to his patron saint for the city's deliverance from an epidemic of the plague. In its imperial grandeur the building Fischer conceived not only glorified St. Charles but was also a monument to the emperor himself. In this church he attempted to incorporate and harmonize the main ideas contained in the most important sacred buildings of past and present, beginning with the Temple of Jerusalem and including the Pantheon and St. Peter's in Rome, the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, and also the Dôme des Invalides in Paris and St. Paul's in London. The relatively independent parts of the building—a pair of Roman triumphal columns, low towers,a high oval dome, a central portico modeled after a Roman temple facade, a transept and presbytery—are harmonized to form a visual unity from whatever point they are seen. Thecomplex formal and symbolic structure of the building is the result of its twofold function. For example, the most striking feature of the church—the pair of giant triumphal columns oneither side of the portico—is decorated with spiral reliefs glorifying the life of St. Charles. The pair of columns, however, also alludes to the emperor's emblem, the “pillars of Hercules.”

Fischer did not live to see his masterpiece completed, but hisson Joseph Emanuel Fischer von Erlach completed the churchwith some alterations. Joseph Emanuel also completed the Imperial Stables (1719–23) and built, according to his father'sdesigns, the Imperial Library (designed 1716, built 1723–37), the interior of which was the most imposing library hall of its time.


Assessment.

In a highly idealistic formal synthesis, Fischer tried to combine the achievements of past and present, mixing forms from ancient Roman, Renaissance, Italian Baroque, and French Baroque architecture to find a new and unique solution for each architectural problem. The leading principleof his building was the integration of various plastically conceived elements, complete in themselves, by dynamic contrast.

Hans Aurenhammer

 



 

Johann Lucas von Hildebrandt

born Nov. 14, 1668, Genoa
died Nov. 16, 1745, Vienna


Austrian Baroque architect and military engineer whose work strongly influenced the architecture of central and southeastern Europe in the 18th century. The types of buildings he developed for parish churches, chapels, villas, garden pavilions, palaces, and houses were much imitated, spreading his architectural principles throughout and beyond the Habsburg empire.

Born in Italy of German parents, Hildebrandt studied architecture, town planning, and military engineering in Rome. He joined the Austrian Imperial Army as a fortificationengineer and participated (1695–96) in three Piedmontese campaigns under Prince Eugene of Savoy, afterward moving to Vienna and turning to civil architecture. In 1700 he was appointed court engineer and employed as an architect by Prince Eugene and other Austrian aristocrats, in Vienna, in Salzburg, and in southern Germany.

After the death of the Baroque architect Johann Fischer von Erlach, a strong influence on Hildebrandt, the younger man became the leading court architect. The main elements of hisstyle were derived from the French architectural era of Louis XIV and from north Italian late-Baroque models, particularly the undulating walls of the Italian architect Guarino Guarini. He became famous for his architectural decoration, articulating the surface of his buildings with quasipictorial effects and introducing new motifs of decoration.

Of Hildebrandt's numerous works some of the most outstanding are the Belvedere in Vienna, summer residence of Prince Eugene of Savoy (1700–23); Schönborn Castle near Göllersdorf, northwest of Vienna (1710–17); the Mirabell Palace (1721–27) in Salzburg; and the episcopal residence atWürzburg, Ger. (1729–37).

 


In Bohemia the developed, or high, Baroque was heralded by the work of a French architect, Jean-Baptiste Mathey, who carried both Roman and French ideas to Prague from Rome in 1675. The Bavarian Christoph Dientzenhofer, however, transformed architecture in Prague and Bohemia with his boldly conceived buildings in the high Baroque style (Prague, nave of St. Nicholas, 1703, and Brevnov, Benedictine church, 1708).
 

Christoph Dientzenhofer

born July 7, 1655, Rosenheim, Bavaria
died June 20, 1722, Prague

born Sept. 1, 1689, Prague
died Dec. 18, 1751, Prague


father and son, members of a large family of German architects, who were among the leading builders in Bohemian Baroque. Among their joint works are the Church of St. Nicholas (1703–11, 1732–52) and the Břevnov Monastery (1708–21), both in Prague. K.I. Dientzenhofer built the churches of St. Thomas (1725–31; a Gothic structure reworked into Baroque) and St. John on the Rock (1730–39; including the Vyšehrad Steps), both in Prague, and St. Mary Magdalene, Karlsbad(now Karlovy Vary; 1733–36); he also built the Villa Amerika (1712–20; afterward the Antonin Dvořák Museum), Prague.
 


The spectacular Rococo of central Europe, Germany, and Austria, which by 1720 had begun to influence Italian architecture, grew out of a fusion of Italian Baroque and French Rococo. Its chief monuments are to be found in the Roman Catholic regions. Johann Michael Fischer, Balthasar Neumann, the brothers Cosmas Damian and Egid Quirim Asam, and Dominikus Zimmermann were the most accomplished of the native architects, while the Frenchmen François de Cuvilliés, Philippe de La Guêpière, and Nicolas de Pigage made the most important foreign contributions to mid-century architecture in Germany.
 

Johann Michael Fischer

born 1692, Burglengenfeld, Bavaria [Germany]
died May 6, 1766, Munich


German architect, one of the most creative and prolific designers of late Baroque and Rococo churches in southern Germany.

Fischer was trained by his father, a mason. As an apprentice in Bohemia and Moravia beginning in 1713, he became familiar with the churches of the Dientzenhofer family and returned to Munich in 1718 to become foreman of city architecture. One of his earliest independent projects was the renovation of the Premonstratensian abbey church of Osterhofen (1726–29). The major elements of Fischer's churches are a centralized ground plan, with rounded-off interior angles, interconnecting spaces, and rhythmically undulating patches of lush decoration, the whole being brilliantly lit by large windows. His productivity was astounding; in 1735 alone he planned three outstanding churches—St. Michael's in Berg-am-Laim, the pilgrimage church at Aufhausen, and the Augustinian church at Ingolstadt.

Fischer's greatest work is generally considered to be the Benedictine abbey church at Ottobeuren (1748–55), a vast Rococo structure centred on three successive cupolas and lavishly—but elegantly—decorated with sculpture, stuccowork, and paint. The Benedictine abbey church of St. Marius and St. Arianus at Rott-am-Inn (1759–62) may be stylistically more significant, as its relative simplicity heralds the approach of Neoclassicism.
 



 

Balthasar Neumann

born 1687, Eger, Bohemia, Austrian Habsburg domain [now Cheb, Czech Republic]
died Aug. 19, 1753, Würzburg [Germany]


in full Johann Balthasar Neumann German architect who was the foremostmaster of the late Baroque style.

Neumann was apprenticed to a bell-founder and in 1711 emigrated to Würzburg, where he gained the patronage of that city's ruling prince-bishop, a member of the Schönborn family, after working on military fortifications. In 1719 Neumann began directing construction of the first stage of the new Residenz (palace) for the prince-bishop in Würzburg,and he was soon entrusted with the planning and design of the entire structure. Work on the Residenz continued at intervals after Neumann's own death in 1753, though by the 1740s it had advanced far enough for the painter G.B. Tiepoloto decorate the palace's enormous ceilings.

Neumann began designing other buildings as well, starting inthe 1720s with the Schönborn Chapel (1721–36) in Würzburg Cathedral, the priory church at Holzkirchen (1726–30) outside Würzburg, and the abbey church at Münsterschwarzach (1727–43). He did buildings for other members of the Schönborn family and was eventually put in charge of all major building projects in Würzburg and Bamberg, including palaces, public buildings, bridges, a water system, and more than a dozen churches. Neumann designed numerous palaces for the Schönborns, including those for the prince-bishops at Bruchsal (1728–50) and Werneck (c. 1733–45). In the 1740s he designed his masterpiece, the pilgrimage church at Vierzehnheiligen (1743–53), as well as the pilgrimage church known as the Käppele (1740–52) near Würzburg and the abbey church at Neresheim (1747–53).

Neumann showed himself a great master of composition in the interiors of his churches and palaces. The walls and columns in his buildings are diminished, disguised, or opened up to create startling and often playful effects while nevertheless retaining a sense of symmetry and harmony. Neumann made ingenious use of domes and barrel vaults to create sequences of round and oval spaces whose light, airy elegance is highlighted by the daylight streaming in through huge windows. The free and lively interplay of these elements is accented by a lavish use of decorative plasterwork, gilding, and statuary and by wall and ceiling murals.

 


Fischer's austere, dignified facade of the church at Diessen (1732) and his masterpiece of integrated painting, decorative stucco, sculpture, and architecture, the Benedictine abbey of Ottobeuren (1744), are landmarks of the Bavarian Rococo. Neumann's joyous, airy Rococo Pilgrimage Church at Vierzehnheiligen (1743) and his later, more restrained Benedictine abbey at Neresheim (1745) characterize the increasing influence of classicism in Germany. In the north, in Berlin, Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff alternated between Rococo (Potsdam, Sanssouci, 1745) and neo-Palladian classicism (Berlin, OperaHouse, 1741). Two influential country houses, La Guêpière's Solitude, near Stuttgart (1763), and Cuvilliés's Amalienburg, Munich (1734), exquisitely graceful and refined, are examples of French influence in Württemberg and Bavaria.

Henry A. Millon

David John Watkin


Russia

The Baroque appeared in Russia toward the end of the 17th century. The Russians imaginatively transformed its modes into a clearly expressed national style that became known as the Naryshkin Baroque, a delightful example of which is the Church of the Intercession of the Virgin at Fili (1693) on the estate of Boyarin Naryshkin, whose name had become identified with this phase of the Russian Baroque.

Western Europeans brought the prevailing Baroque styles characteristic of their own countries, but the very different artistic and physical setting of St. Petersburg produced a new expression, embodying Russia's peculiar sense of form, scale, colour, and choice of materials. The transformed Baroque eventually spread all over Russia and, with its vast register of variations, developed many regional idioms.

A French architect, Nicolas Pineau, went to Russia in 1716 and introduced the Rococo style to the newly founded city of St. Petersburg (e.g., Peter's study in Peterhof, before 1721). The Rococo in Russia flourished in St. Petersburg under the protection of Peter I and Elizabeth. Peter's principal architect, Gaetano Chiaveri, who drew heavily on northern Italian models, is most noted for the library of the Academy of Sciences (1725) and the royal churches of Warsaw and Dresden. Bartolomeo Rastrelli was responsible for all large building projects under the reign of Elizabeth, and among his most accomplished designs in St. Petersburg are the Smolny Cathedral and the turquoise and white Winter Palace.
 

Bartolomeo Franchesko (Varfolomei Varfolomeevich) Rastrelli

1700-1771

Count, an Italian by birth. Born in Paris. Son of architect and sculptor Carl-Bartolomeo Rastrelli. Studied under his father. In 1716 came to St. Petersburg with his father, who had concluded an agreement with Emperor Petr I, and assisted him. Beginning in 1722 worked independently as an architect. Between 1722 and 1730 traveled twice to Italy and France to improve his knowledge of architecture (one time for 5 years). Carried out private orders in Saint Petersburg and Moscow. When Elizabeth ascended the throne in 1741, he became her favorite court architect. He bore the rank of major general, the title of cavalier of the Order of St. Anne, and was an academician of architecture (1770). He had a number of students and followers. When Empress Catherine II ascended the throne in 1762 Bartolomeo Francesco Rastrelli went into temporary retirement, in 1763 he was dismissed completely and left for Switzerland.

Most of Rastrelli's work has survived. This architect is often referred to as the "master of Elizabeth an Baroque." Most of his buildings are in Saint Petersburg: the Smolny Monastery, Vorontsov Palace, Stroganov Palace, Summer Palace of Elizabeth I (located at the site of present Mikhailov or Engineer Palace), the Large Peterhof Palace, the Winter Palace (interiors reconstructed following the fire) and other buildings.

Between late 1748 and 1756 during the reign of Empress Elizabeth I, Bartolomeo Francesco Rastrelli headed the construction of the Tzarskoje Selo residence. During this period he rebuilt the entire Large (Catherine) Palace. He also designed the Hermitage (1746 - 1752) and the Grotto (1755 - 1756) in the regular part of the Catherine Park. Between 1754 and 1757 the Slide Hill, disassembled in 1792-1795, was constructed according to Rastrelli's designs. Later the Granite Terrace still in existence today was constructed on this hill according to plans by the architect Luigi Rusca. In 1750 - 1752 the Mon Bijou pavilion of Rastrelli's design was erected in the center of the Menagerie, in place of which the landscape part of the Alexander Park was later planned. The Arsenal designed by Adam Menelaws was later built in place of the Mon Bijou hunting lodge, which had been partially dismantled during the early 19 century.

 


Arthur Voyce

Henry A. Millon
 

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see also:


Ange-Jacques Gabriel


 

Ange-Jacques Gabriel

(born Oct. 23, 1698, Paris, France
died 1782, Paris)

French architect who built or enlarged many chateaus and palaces during the reign of Louis XV. He was one of the most important and productive French architects of the 18th century.

 

 


Place de la Concorde, Paris, designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel, 1766-1755
 

 


Le Petit Trianon, by Ange-Jacques Gabriel, at Versailles, France, 1762 to 1768
 

 


Chateau of the Petit Trianon, Versailles, Ange-Jacques Gabrie
 

 

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Lucas von Hildebrandt

(1668-1745)

 

 

Lucas von Hildebrandt
Upper Belvedere, Vienna
1721-22
 

 

Lucas von Hildebrandt
Upper Belvedere, Vienna
1721-22
 

 

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Johann Michael Fischer (1692-1766)

 

 


Johann Michael Fischer
Basilika St. Alexander und Theodor der Benediktinerabtei Ottobeuren
1737-66

 

 


Johann Michael Fischer
Sankt Bonifazkirche
1727-33

 

Johann Michael Fischer
Klosterkirche St.Anna, München
1727-1733
 


Johann Michael Fischer
Rott-am-Inn
Bavaria, Germany

 


Johann Michael Fischer
Kirche St. Elisabeth
Munchen

 

 

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Filippo Juvarra

(b Messina, 16 June 1678; d Madrid, 31 Jan 1736).

 Italian architect, draughtsman and designer. His work reinforced a Late Baroque classical tradition while also drawing on the leavening criticism of that tradition by Francesco Borromini. His work is characterized by clarity and directness, his architectural conceptions defined by a drastically reduced structure and complex conglomerate spaces; his surfaces were adorned with elaborate decorative systems the originality of which pointed the way to a light-hearted Rococo. In 1714 he became first architect of Victor-Amadeus II of Savoy, King of Sicily. Juvarra’s mandate was to accomplish the transformation of Turin begun in the 17th century. During a 20-year residence in Turin he built sixteen palaces and eight churches, and designed numerous church ornaments. He also designed furniture, theatre scenery and urban complexes.

 

 

Filippo Juvarra
Basilica della Nativia di Maria
1717-1731

 

 

Filippo Juvarra
Palazzina di Caccia

 

 

Filippo Juvarra
Palazzo Madama

 

 

Filippo Juvarra
San Filippo Neri
 

 

 

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Carlo Maderno,
Carlo Rainaldi,
Carlo Fontana

St. Andrea della Valle
1665

Carlo Fontana (1634-1714)
 

(Fontana - Italian family of architects and engineers. They were distantly related to Domenico Fontana, and were mainly active in Rome. The family’s fame was largely based on the work of Carlo Fontana, who continued the traditions laid down by the great masters of the High Baroque (Bernini, Borromini, Pietro da Cortona) and passed them on to his students, who included Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt, Domenico Martinelli, Nicodemus Tessin, James Gibbs and Filippo Juvarra. The essential conservatism of this tradition was particularly obvious in the work of Mauro Fontana, which, although it does not offer genuine highlights or new directions for future development, nonetheless concludes the architectural mission of the family in a coherent and dignified fashion.)

 


Carlo Fontana
San Marcello
 

 


 

 

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Gaetano Salmone, Fountains,
1783.
Park of Royal Palace of Caserta.

NEW STYLES IN GARDEN DESIGN

Keeping apace with the prevailing trend in 18th-century architecture and the decorative-arts, garden design adopted a more picturesque style than had been employed in the previous century. Extensive tapis verls or lawns replaced the rigid, ordered avenues, and formal flower beds. As a result, gardens became more romantic and less rigid. The park and palace of Caserta, near Naples, was built and designed by Luigi Vanvitelli, and they epitomized at its best the spirit of the Italian Baroque. They also echo the designs at Marly, near Versailles, designed for Louis XIV by the more conservative Antoine Coysevox. They have in common the same impressive scale, but the plans and styles of the gardens could not be more different. Coysevox kept the ornate rocaille motifs to a minimum, preferring a more restrained and linear classical style.
 

 


Alfonso Parigi the Younger, Bacino dell'lsolotto (ornamental island in small lake),
Boboli Gardens, Florence, 1618

 

 

Luigi Vanvitelli (1700-1773)


 

Luigi Vanvitelli
Diana and Acteon
Fountain, Palazzo Reale
Marble, 1770

Great Cascade with Goddess Diana Bathing
 

Luigi Vanvitelli
Basilica della Santa Casa
Loreto, Marche, Italy


Luigi Vanvitelli
Lazzaretto

Ancona, Marche, Italy
1732-1738

 

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