Baroque and Rococo
 


     

Baroque and Rococo Art Map






Carlo Lurago

Agostino Barelli

Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach


 

 


The Hapsburgs and the 17th Century


In the 16th century, an irreparable schism developed in Central Europe: the north espoused the Protestant cause while the south, on the whole, remained Roman Catholic. During the Thirty Years' War (1618-48) this " split deepened, ending with the Peace of Munster under which the German nation was no longer a political unity - over 300 small states were recognized - and the House of Austria tightened its grip on Bohemia, which lost all political autonomy. The country had come under the control of the Hapsburgs in 1526, and by the turn of the century the presence of Rudolph II's court in Prague had transformed the city into a lively centre of international culture. From 1581 to l6ll, Bartholomaeus Spranger (1546-1611), one of the greatest pre-Baroque Mannerist artists, was active in Prague. He is best known for his mythological pictures such as Minerva Conquering Ignorance (c. 1591). Although the Thirty Years' War blighted artistic activity in Central Europe until the mid-century, the larger cities. Vienna and Prague, soon recovered their ascendancy and the southern zones began to flourish. With the Hapsburg dynasty and the Catholic religion established,many Italian architects were attracted to the empire, particularly during the first phase of building activity. As early as 1621, Count Wallenstein entrusted his magnificent new palace in Prague to Andrea Spezza (died 1628). In the same city, the Jesuit College (Klementinum) and the Leopold Gate (c.1670) were designed by Carlo Lurago , and the Czernin Palace (begun 1668) by Francesco Caratti and church of the Crusader Knights (1679-88) by the French architect Jean-Baptiste Mathey (c. 1630-95) were also built. In Munich, Agostino Barelli (1627-99) was responsible for the Church of the Theatines (1663) and for beginning the Nymphenburg Palace (1664), which was completed by Enrico Zuccalli (1642-1724). In Vienna, Carlo Antonio Carlone designed the Jesuit church of the Nine Angelic-Choirs (1662) and Filiberto Lucchese the Leopold wing of the Hofburg Palace (1661-68). The great era of Austrian Baroque only began after 1683, the year the Turks were defeated and Hapsburg power assured. The concentrated urban development in Vienna did not, however, destroy the ancient plan of the city. The new districts effectively encircled the old nucleus. The ring-road on the site of the old city walls was lined with palaces and gardens, many designed by Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach (1656-1723), the leading Austrian architect, between 1690 and 1700.

 

Carlo Lurago

(1615-1684)
Italian architect, active in Prague.
 


Carlo Lurago
St. Stephan's Cathedral, Passau
      

 

 

Francesco Caratti

(1620-1677)


Francesco Caratti
Czernin Palace, Prague, detail of the facade, begun 1668.
Appointed architect to Prince Czernin in 1668, Caratti held the post until his death in 1677.

 

Agostino Barelli

(1627-1699)


Agostino Barelli
Facade and dome of the Church of the Theatines, Munich, 1663-74.

Barelli spent many years working for the religious order founded by St Gaetano of Thiene.
 


Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach

(1656-1723)

Austrian  architect. Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach (the honorific was granted by the emperor in 1696 when Fischer was ennobled) was the son of Johann Baptist Fischer, a sculptor and decorator active in Graz, near the Austrian border with Italy. Johann Bernhand became the last great architect of the Renaissance and Baroque periods, occupying a central role in the buildings of the imperial court circle in Vienna. His eclectic approach was adopted as the official style of the Habsburg court. His second son, Joseph Emanuel Fischer von Erlach, was trained by his father as his successor and completed his unfinished work after his death.

 


Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach
Kollegienkirche in Salzburg (1696-1707)
 


Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach
Karlskirche, Vienna, 1716.

The church was commissioned by Emperor Karl VI in fulfilment of his vow made during the 1713 plague.
The life of St Charles Borromeo, Archbishop of Milan and patron saint of the plague,
is illustrated on the columns.
 


Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach
Karlskirche, Vienna, 1716
 


Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach
Palais Lobkowitz

 


ROYAL PALACES IN VIENNA AND BERLIN


Begun in 1695 to a design by Fischer von Erlach, the construction of the Schonbrunn Palace was not complete until the mid-18th century. This was Vienna's answer to Versailles, an expression of Austria's leading status as a European monarchy. The architect's original plans had been even more ambitious, fusing elements of Roman architecture with massive and imposing French models, such as Bernini's project for the Louvre and Hardouin-Mansart's Palace of Versailles, and also perhaps making reference to ancient architecture in the east. In 1698. another grandiose building project was launched: the Royal Palace in Berlin, designed by the architect and sculptor Andreas Schluter for the Elector of Brandenburg, who became the first king of Prussia in 1701. The palace was destroyed in 1945.
 


Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach
Schonbrunn Palace, Vienna, 1695

 

    

 

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