Baroque and Rococo
 


Baroque and Rococo Art Map




Dirck van Baburen

Samuel van Hoogstraten

Carel Fabritius




see collection:


Abraham Bloemaert


Gerrit van Honthorst


Hendrick Terbrugghen


Gerrit Dou


Govaert Flinck


Nicolaes Maes


Emanuel de Witte



 

 


The Netherlands in the 17th Century


This period saw a great flowering of Dutch art. and especially of cabinet and small-scale pictures of all types: portraits, landscapes, marine paintings, domestic interiors, architectural vistas, and still lifes. Official commissions were often for group portraits of civic worthies, such as city guilds and military companies in the United Provinces (now The Netherlands). During the 1620s, the established Utrecht master Abraham Bloemaert (1564-1651) was a late convert to Caravaggism, influenced by one of his pupils, Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). Like Dirck van Baburen (1595-1624) and Hendrick Terbrugghen, van Honthorst had spent time in Rome. The evocative, atmospheric candlelight in many of his paintings earned him the name ''Gerard of the Night Scenes". But the last flicker of Dutch Caravaggism died away with Terbrugghen's death in 1629; van Honthorst abandoned his earlier style in favour of classicism, and went on to work at the English, Danish, and Dutch courts.
Born in Antwerp, the great portraitist Frans Hals (1581/85 -1666) spent most of his life in Haarlem. He left Mannerist convention behind, restoring truth, vigour, and spontaneity of pose and expression to his subjects, and made the most of his skill at capturing a likeness with swift, sure brushstrokes, as can be seen in his "character" portraits painted during the 1630s. Far in advance of contemporary European artists, Rembrandt van Rijn was not only a painter of exceptional originality but also a superb draughtsman and etcher. In about 1625, he set up a workshop in his home town of Leiden and concentrated on examining how light delineates shapes within evocative atmospheres, while also exploring the inner psychology of his subjects. Over the years, his expressive power grew in subtlety and insight, partly as a result of his experience in painting penetrating portraits. Some 80 self-portraits recorded the phases of his life rather like an autobiography, and later they gradually became more introspective. Immediately after moving to Amsterdam in 1631, he became the most sought-after painter of the day for portraits of the city's haute bourgeoisie. His Anatomy Lesson of Dr Tulp dates from this period. With his famous The Night Watch (also known as The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq and Lieutenant Willem van Ruytenhurch), painted in 1642, Rembrandt created a fresh and unusual interpretation of the group portrait by dividing the figures into several smaller groups, and portraying them moving, instead of in static poses, emphasized by his handling of the complex lighting effects. Rembrandt had many pupils in Leiden and Amsterdam, including Gerrit Dou, Govaert Flinck, Samuel van Hoogstraten, Carel Fabritius, and Nicolaes Maes. In 1650, Fabritius (1622-54) moved to Delft and, inspired by his adopted city, gained a reputation for his vibrant, colourful paintings and his exploration of perspective, demonstrated by his View of Delft (1652). Delft was also home to the painter Emanuel de Witte (c.1617-92), famous for his massive and dramatic church interiors, and Jan Vermeer (1632-75), whose later paintings were generally domestic interiors, peopled by calm figures who are usually occupied in leisure or work activities, and which convey feelings of serenity through their purity of colour and an exquisite, sensuous light.

 

 

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Dirck van Baburen

(b Wijk bij Duurstede, nr Utrecht, c. 1594–5; d Utrecht, 21 Feb 1624).

Dutch painter. His father, Jasper van Baburen (d ?1599), had been in the service of Geertruijd van Bronckhorst van Battenburg, Baroness (vrijvrouw) of Vianen, Viscountess (burggravin) of Utrecht, and thus Dirck must have received a better than average education, a fact at least partially confirmed by the innovative and often literary nature of his subject-matter. In 1611 he is recorded as a pupil of the portrait and history painter Paulus Moreelse in Utrecht. It is likely that this was the last year of his apprenticeship. Van Baburen probably left for Italy shortly after 1611, for a document rediscovered in the late 1980s records a signed and dated altarpiece of the Martyrdom of St Sebastian (1615; untraced), executed for a church in Parma. His most important pictures made in Italy were painted in collaboration with David de Haen (d 1622) for the Pietā Chapel of S Pietro in Montorio, Rome, which was decorated between 1615 and 1620. Van Baburen’s paintings for the chapel were mentioned by Giulio Mancini in his manuscript notes, Considerazioni sulla pittura (c. 1619–20); there Mancini claims the artist was 22 or 23 years old when he carried out the commission. One of his best-known works, the Entombment (formerly dated 1617), is still in situ on the altar of the chapel. This much-copied composition reveals van Baburen’s close study of Caravaggio’s famous Entombment (Rome, Pin. Vaticana). In 1619 and the spring of 1620 van Baburen and de Haen were recorded as living in the same house in the Roman parish of S Andrea delle Fratte. Caravaggio’s close follower and presumed student, Bartolomeo Manfredi, was living in the same parish in 1619. Van Baburen must have known the works of Manfredi—if not the artist himself—for both versions of his Christ Crowned with Thorns (c. 1621–2; Utrecht, Catharijneconvent, and Kansas City, MO, Nelson–Atkins Mus. A.) are deeply indebted to Manfredi’s interpretation of Caravaggio’s style and subject-matter. In Rome van Baburen attracted the patronage of Vincenzo Giustiniani, for whom he executed a large Christ Washing the Feet of the Apostles (Berlin, Gemäldegal.), and Cardinal Scipione Borghese, for whom he painted an Arrest of Christ (Rome, Gal. Borghese).

 


Dirck van Baburen
The Procuress

1622
Oil on canvas
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

 


Dirck van Baburen
San Sebastian atendido por Santa Irene y su criada


 


Dirck van Baburen
Christ Washing the Apostles' Feet


 


Dirck van Baburen
Concert
1623


 


Dirck van Baburen
Prometheus Being Chained by Vulcan

1623
Oil on canvas, 202 x 184 cm
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
 

 

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Samuel van Hoogstraten
View of a Corridor

1662
Oil on canvas, 260 x 140 cm
National Trust, Dyrham Park

Samuel van Hoogstraten

(b Dordrecht, 2 Aug 1627; d Dordrecht, 19 Nov 1678).

Dutch painter, draughtsman, engraver and writer. His multi-faceted art and career testify amply to the unflagging ambition attributed to him as early as 1718 by his pupil and first biographer, Arnold Houbraken. During his lifetime van Hoogstraten was recognized as a painter, poet, man of letters, sometime courtier and prominent citizen of his native city of Dordrecht, where he served for several years as an official of the Mint of Holland. Today he is remembered not only as a pupil and early critic of Rembrandt, but also as a versatile artist in his own right. His diverse oeuvre consists of paintings, drawings and prints whose subjects range from conventional portraits, histories and genre pictures to illusionistic experiments with trompe-l’oeil still-lifes, architectural perspectives and perspective boxes. He also wrote the major Dutch painting treatise of the late 17th century, the Inleyding tot de hooge schoole der schilderkonst, anders de zichtbaere werelt (‘Introduction to the academy of painting, or the visible world’; Rotterdam, 1678).

 


Samuel van Hoogstraten
Still-life

 

  


Samuel van Hoogstraten
Still-life

1666-68
Oil on canvas, 63 x 79 cm
Kunsthalle, Karlsruhe

 


Samuel van Hoogstraten
Self-Portrait

Oil on canvas
The Hermitage, St. Petersburg

 


Samuel van Hoogstraten
Tobias' Farewell to His Parents
oil on canvas
The Hermitage, St. Petersburg


 


Samuel van Hoogstraten
The Virgin of the Immaculate Conception
oil on canvas
Private Collection, New York

 

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Carel Fabritius
The Goldfinch

1654
Oil on panel, 33,5 x 22,8
Mauritshuis, The Hague

Carel Fabritius

(bapt Midden-Beemster, nr Hoorn, 27 Feb 1622; d Delft, 12 Oct 1654).

Painter. His oeuvre consists of a scant dozen paintings, since research has rigorously discounted many previously attributed works. These few paintings, however, document the painter’s unique development within his brief 12-year career. He is often mentioned as being the link between Rembrandt and the Delft school, particularly Pieter de Hooch and Jan Vermeer, whose depiction of light owes much to Fabritius’s late works in which his use of cool silvery colours to define forms in space marks a radical departure from Rembrandt’s use of chiaroscuro.

 


Carel Fabritius
Self-Portrait

Oil on panel, 62 x 51 cm
Alte Pinakothek, Munich

 

 


Carel Fabritius
Self-Portrait

c. 1645
Oil on panel, 65 x 49 cm
Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam

 

 


Carel Fabritius
Self-Portrait

1654
Oil on canvas, 70,5 x 61,5 cm
National Gallery, London

 


Carel Fabritius
View of the City of Delft

1652
Oil on canvas, 15,4 x 31,6 cm
National Gallery, London

The unusual composition of this painting has a collection of objects and a figure in the left foreground,
and a view of the church surrounded by a low boundary.
 


Carel Fabritius
The Beheading of St. John the Baptist

c. 1640
Oil on canvas, 149 x 121 cm
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
     

see collection:


Abraham Bloemaert

Gerrit van Honthorst

Hendrick Terbrugghen

Gerrit Dou

Govaert Flinck

Nicolaes Maes

Emanuel de Witte



 

 

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