Gothic Art








 

 

 Gothic Art Map
 
 Gothic Art
 
 Introduction Benedetto Antelami Taddeo Gaddi Vitale da Bologna
 Architecture in France Giovanni di Balduccio Giotto di Bondone Guariento d'Arpo
 Architecture in Germany Jacobello Dalle Masegne Pietro Lorenzetti Giusto de' Menabuoi
 Architecture in Italy Corenzo Maitani Ambrogio Lorenzetti Barnaba da Modena
 Architecture in England Andrea da Firenze Giovanni da Milano Melchior Broederlam
 Stained Glass Filippo Rusiti Gentile da Fabriano Nicolas de Bataille
 Arnolfo di Cambio Ferrer Bassa Pucelle Jean Bayeux Tapestry
 Nicola Pisano Pietro Cavallini Altichiera da Zevio Matthew Paris
 Giovanni Pisano Cimabue Tomasso da Modena Master Boucicaut
 Tino di Camaino Duccio di Buonisegna Traini Francesco Illuminated Manuscripts
 Andrea Pisano Simone Martini Giovannino de' Grassi Master Hohenfurt
 Claus Sluter Maso di Banco Roberto Oderisi Henri Belechose
 
 Exploration: Revelations (Art of the Apocalypse)
 
 Exploration: Gothic Era  (Gothic and Early Renaissance)
 

 


PAINTING
 



Traini Francesco

Giovannino de' Grassi

Roberto Oderisi

 

 

 

Diverging Paths

The Pisan artist Francesco Traini was au courant with the painting of Avignon. In the second half of the 14th century, the subject of death became a focus for artists. Among the works produced was the Triumph of Death, identified by some as by the same Traini. Coastal towns attracted lively exchanges of skills and artistic styles. Of particular interest was the Angevin court of Naples, where Giotto, di Bianco, and Pietro came into contact with the French style that was prominent in the royal palace. The consequences of this are most apparent in the mid-14th century in the activity of Roberto Oderisi (second half of the 14th century), splendidly attested by the decoration of the Incoronata church in Naples. His influence reached as far as Palermo, a port much engaged in the importing of every type of art. In the area around Padua, highly distinctive schools of painting, capable of great expression, joined together and expanded. This was also the case in Bologna, where the university had a continuing relationship with Paris, chiefly by way of manuscripts; this partly explains why Bolognese miniatures met with such success. Highly sensitive to the linear style from France, Vitale da Bologna (c. 1309-60) appeared in about the mid-14th century, the founder of the city's school of painting, and a figurative, intensely expressive interpreter of Gothic composition and colour. Two very different artists from Modena found their way out of the Emilia region. One was Tommaso, who was active mainly in Treviso. He had a courtly taste in painting and a keen eye for costume, which may have earned him the commissions from the court of Prague. The other was Barnaba (active 1367-83). who settled in Genoa to take commissions that still required Byzantine elements - though with a hint of Paduan vitality. The courts of Padua and Verona encouraged the activity of local artists, who, drawing on the impressive landscapes by Giotto, renewed the traditional Byzantine language and achieved results of great formal elegance, as in the Angelic Hierarchies by Guariento di Arpo (active 1338-70). Giusto de' Menabuoi (c. 1330-90) moved in 1370 to Padua, where his virtuosity in depicting throngs of people in dynamic architectural settings using delicate colour was realized. Altichiero was at work here in the same decade, following Giotto's example in creating great narrative cycles, in which dense urban scenes and pictures crammed with crowds of people are set into solid spatial and compositional structures. Lombard painting of the late 13th century reveals a propensity for realism and narrative style, especially in the secular cycle at the castle of Angera. An analogy is to be found in the frescos of Matris Domini in Bergamo, in those of Sant'Abbondio in Como, and in the lively decorative illustration of the Liber Pantheon. The influence of Giotto's stay in Milan (1335-36) was first seen in the Crucifixion of San Gottardo in Milan, in the Storie Mariane in Chiaravalle, and in the abbey of the Humiliati in Viboldone, which was also visited by Giusto de' Menabuoi. In the middle of the century, Giovanni da Milano, who had previously trained in Lombardy, began working in Florence on the frescos in the Rinuccini Chapel of Santa Croce and the exquisite Pieta (1365). The meeting between Tuscan formal strength and Lombard expressiveness is documented in the hagiographic cycles of the oratories of Mocchirolo, Lentate, and Solare.

 

It was against this background, marked by the presence of Petrarch and by the creation of the extraordinary library of Pavia, that one of the most important schools of illustration came to maturity. Works such as Guiron le Curtois, Lancelot du Lac, and the Messale 757 were produced, as well as illustrations by Giovannino De' Grassi for Gian Galeazzo Yisconti's Book of Hours. Lombard sacred painting favoured frescos to painting on panels; altarpieces were generally sculpted in marble or wood, or were substituted by objects of gold or silver, following the more refined taste of the court. The Lombard influence was soon felt in Piedmont where, from the late 13th to the early 14th century, a strongly expressive Gallic style asserted itself, as in Sant' Antonio in Ranverso.
In France, too. thanks to court patrons, first in Paris then in Burgundy, the elements of renewal in figurative culture were to be found mainly in illustrated books Although the large Parisian frescos disappeared, as in the Sainte-Chapelle and old Louvre palace, important cycles can still be found in the Haute-Loire and at Toulouse, where the close relationship with the art of illumination can be identified, as can Italian influences. Panel painting, much of which has been lost, at least until 1380, centred on Paris, where the aesthetic ideals formulated at the time of Saint Louis IX were developed. New stimuli came from Italian aitists working in Avignon, especially towards the mid-1-tth century, and from Flemish artists based in Paris, Rouiges, and Dijon, who weie more closely involved with book illustration. Evidence of this, towards the end of the century, can be seen in the celebrated Wilton Diptych, painted in Paris for English patrons. Few frescos remain in England, and most painting is preserved in manuscript form - much of it influenced by the earlier Celtic libraries and scholarict in the monasteries. In England, Matthew Paris was a monk of St Albans, a historian and prolific illustrator (active 1217—59). He has left evidence of lively exchanges in court and ecclesiastical circles of borth a literary and graphic kind. His restless line shows amusing, graceful figures full of activity. Another important example of English manuscript art is the Douce Apocalypse painting (late 1260s), which dramatized Revelations and pictured exuberant figures. Executed with linear confidence, they also suggest drawing from life and have a sense of volume. A rare example of English panel painting is the Retable at Westminster Abbev (mid-13th century) made at the time French and Italian artists visited the court of Henry III, bringing the sinuous line and delicate detail of the international style. Melchior Broederlam (active 1381-1409), who painted the altarpiece of the Charterhouse of Champmol, was also influenced by book illustration. In this Charterhouse, Claus Sluter brought Burgundian sculpture to new heights of artistic expression: the Annunciation of the portal and the Muses' Well are remarkable for their strength of composition, finely drawn figures, and deep emotion. Illustration had already begun a process of international renewal, thanks to Jean Pucelle (active c.1319). who incorporated into his delicate yet dynamic linearity a formal solidity and narrative style that were of clear Italian origin. Flemish influence brought an even greater, distinctly bourgeois, realism. The Duc de Berry and Philip the Bold created two of the most refined courts in Europe, attended by great illustrators such as Hainaut and the Master of Boucicaut, who achieved extraordinary power of expression through freedom of design and intensity of colour. In the middle of the 14th century, the imperial court of Charles IV transformed Prague into a great artistic centre. In about 1340. Sienese delicacy arrived in Bohemia with the Master of the Altar of Hohenfurt. In 1357, the castle of Karlstein accommodated artists of varying tastes and backgrounds: alongside the Italian tone introduced by Tommaso da Modena. there were elements of a sharper realism in the Kreuzkapelle. Prague, too, would have a great sculptor and architect in Peter Parler, who, with a new realism, would influence the artistic vision of all Europe.

 
 
 
Traini Francesco

( fl 30 Aug 1321–15 Jan 1345).
Italian painter and illuminator. He was the most accomplished Pisan artist in the second quarter of the 14th century, although his career is controversial. On 20 July and 23 August 1322 he was paid for painting the Palazzo Anziani in Pisa. On 2 December 1337 he took an apprentice, Giovanni, for a three-year period. Documents of 12 December 1340 and 19 February 1341 deal with a dispute over a banner Traini had painted for the confraternity of the Laudi of Pisa Cathedral. Only one signed and documented work survives: the altarpiece of St Dominic (1344–5; Pisa, ), painted for the Dominican church of S Caterina, Pisa.

 

 

Traini Francesco
Triumph of St Thomas Aquinas
c. 1340
Santa Caterina, Pisa

 

Traini Francesco
Triumph of Death (detail)
c. 1350
Campo Santo, Pisa

 

Traini Francesco
Italian, Pisa, active 1321 - 1363
Christ Blessing
tempera and gold on wood panel, about 1335
 

Traini Francesco
Virgin, Child, and Saint Anne



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 




 

 

 










 

 

Roberto Oderisi

( fl Naples, c. 1330–82). Italian painter. He was one of the foremost artists of 14th-century Naples, and the only named south Italian painter active in the mid-14th century whose artistic personality can be reconstructed. He is known from a single documentary reference, when he was appointed ‘magistrum pictorium regium’ by Charles III, King of Naples, on 2 February 1382, and from his signature, ROBERTUS DE ODERISIO DE NEAPOLI, on the foot of a Crucifixion from S Francesco, Eboli (Salerno, Mus. Duomo). The earliest panel paintings attributed to Oderisi include the polyptych of the Dormition and Coronation of the Virgin, with SS Nicholas, James, Julian and Anthony Abbot, executed for the Coppola family for Scala Cathedral, near Amalfi (Lombardy, priv. col.), the smaller Coronation of the Virgin (Milan, priv. col.) and the Crucifixion (Naples, Capodimonte). Associated with these paintings are some badly preserved frescoes, for example those in the cathedral at Amalfi, which appears to have been the region of Oderisi’s early activity. Despite being extremely rough and schematic, the style of these works reveals a thorough grounding in Tuscan figure painting that can be linked to the presence in Naples, between 1328 and 1333, of Giotto and some of his assistants , among them Maso di Banco and the so-called Master of the Vele from Assisi. The iconography of the frescoes was also clearly inspired by Tuscan works in Naples, such as the Giotto panel painted for the palatine chapel at Castel Nuovo, and the fresco of the Crucifixion by his shop in the convent of S Chiara.


Roberto Oderisi
Coronation of the Virgin, detail from fresco,
c. 1360-70.
The scene may refer to the court of Joan I

 

 




 

Giovannino de' Grassi

Italian miniaturist, Lombard school (active 1389-1398 in Lombardy)

( fl from 1380s; d 5 July 1398).
Draughtsman, painter and architect. In contrast to his documented career, Giovannino’s 20th-century reputation is as one of the most innovative and inventive of manuscript illuminators, despite the fact that his only documented illumination is ‘tabulla una a grammatichi’ (a grammar table/tablet; 1395), made for the seven-year-old son of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, 1st Duke of Milan. His reputation rests instead on the inscription ‘Johininus de grassis designavit’ on a folio of wash drawings of animals in a sketchbook (Bergamo, Bib. Civ. A. Mai, MS. delta vii. 14, fol. 4v). Some of the late 14th-century drawings in this sketchbook are closely related to those of the Psalter–Hours begun for Gian Galeazzo (Florence, Bib. N. Cent., MS. Banco Rari 397 and MS. Landau Finaly 22) and completed some decades later for his son Filippo Maria. A change in the type of subsidiary decoration and variations in style show that the illumination for Giangaleazzo was undertaken in two campaigns. The two styles, however, are closely related, and a precise division between them is difficult to make. The earliest work on the manuscript, the first volume and the opening folios of the second volume, is generally attributed to Giovannino and was probably painted in the late 1380s, before he joined the payroll of the Milan Cathedral works. The light, bright colours, richly gilded with liquid and burnished gold, give the pages a scintillating appearance. Each border is of an individual design; in addition to conventional foliage, some include birds or animals and many have a resourceful incorporation of the emblems, arms, mottoes and even portraits of the owner.

 

Giovannino de' Grassi

Gothic letters from a model book
1390
Biblioteca Civica, Bergamo

 

Giovannino de' Grassi

Stag (from a sketch-book)
1380-90
Biblioteca Civica, Bergamo

 
 
 

Giovannino de' Grassi

Bergamo, Civic Library

 

 
 

Giovannino de' Grassi
1396

 

 
 

Giovannino de' Grassi
1396

 

 

Discuss Art

Please note: site admin does not answer any questions. This is our readers discussion only.

 
| privacy