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Hieronymus BOSCH


1450-1516


 

 






 
 



 
   
Gothic Art Map
 
   
   
Exploration:
Albrecht Durer
 
 
    Formative Years: The First Journeys, 1483-1494    
    First Trip to Italy, 1494-1495    
    Durer's Workshop in Nuremberg, 1495-1505    
    Second Trip to Italy, 1505-1507    
    Nuremberg, 1507-1520    
    Journey to the Netherlands, 1520-1521    
    Final Years in Nuremberg, 1521-1528    
    The Self-Portraits    
    Conclusion    
    Chronological Table    
         
    GRAPHICS
 
   
    Exploration: Gothic Era  (Gothic and Early Renaissance)
 
 
 



 

 

 
Between Heaven And Hell
      

 
 



 

 

 

 

   
   
          
     
 


The Triumph of the Saint
 

   
 

Triptych of the Temptation of St Anthony

It is likely that these little pictures of the saints were intended to be contemplated in the quiet of the cloister or private chapel. They present, in terms of the monastic ideal, the arduous path which the Christian pilgrim must climb to regain his lost homeland and achieve union with God. Nowhere, however, were the vicissitudes of the spiritual life more vividly and circumstantially detailed than in the legend of St Anthony the Hermit, founder of Christian monasticism, which Bosch painted on an altarpiece now preserved in Lisbon.
St Anthony is a recurrent figure in Bosch's work. In addition to the left wing of the »Hermit Saints« triptych, his figure appears several times on a drawing in the Louvre. A small panel in the Prado, showing the saint meditating in a sunny landscape, is also generally attributed to him although many details deviate from his usual style. Nevertheless, the Lisbon triptych remains his most comprehensive statement of the theme, the particulars of which he drew from the »Lives of the Fathers« and the »Golden Legend«, both of which were available in contemporary Dutch translations.
As we learn from these medieval compendia of saints' lives, St Anthony passed most of his long life (c. 251 -356) in the Egyptian desert, where his extraordinary piety made him an object of special attention for Satan. Once while praying in the shelter of an old tomb, Anthony was overwhelmed by a horde of devils who beat him so relentlessly that he was left for dead. After several fellow hermits had rescued and revived him, however, he returned to the tomb, where the devils caught him a second time and tossed him high into the air. This time his torments ended only when a Divine light illuminated the tomb and dispersed the devils. Satan then appeared in the guise of a beautiful and saintly queen whom Anthony encountered bathing in a river. Taking the hermit into her city, the Devil-Queen showed him all her supposed works of charity, and it was only when she sought to seduce the bedazzled Anthony that he recognized her true nature and intentions.
Two of these episodes are represented on the left inner wing of the Lisbon altarpiece. In the foreground, the unconscious Anthony is carried across a bridge by two companions dressed in the habit of the Antonite Order, accompanied by a secular figure who has been identified with some plausibility as a self-portrait of Bosch. Anthony appears again in the sky, borne aloft by demons, while other monsters buzz around him like angry insects. These scenes conform fairly closely to the written sources but as in so many other instances, Bosch enriched the original accounts with a wealth of inventive and dramatic detail. Three monsters confer beneath the bridge as an equally grotesque messenger skates towards them on the ice. A bird gulps down its newly hatched young at lower left. On the road ahead of Anthony and his companions, another group of demons approach a kneeling male figure whose body forms the roof and entrance of a brothel; a false beacon lures ships to their destruction in the sea beyond; and the shore is littered with corpses.
This powerful evocation of a corrupt and stinking world is no less apparent in the right wing, where Bosch used as his starting point the story of the Devil-Queen, a subject he had already depicted in the » Hermit Saints« altarpiece. The Devil-Queen appears in the river before Anthony, shielding her private parts with a false modesty and surrounded by her infernal court. Anthony averts his eyes from this obscene group only to be summoned by a demon-herald to the devilish feast in the foreground. The open-air table, the cloth slung tent-like over the tree stump beside the temptress, and the servants pouring wine seem like a grotesque parody of the traditional Garden of Love. In the background looms the city of the Devil-Queen, its demonic nature betrayed by the dragon swimming in the moat and by the flames erupting from the top of the main gate.
These diabolic enterprises reach a climax in the middle panel. Devils of all species, human and grotesque, arrive from all directions by land, water and air, to converge upon a ruined tomb in the centre. On a platform before the tomb, an elegantly dressed pair have set up a table from which they dispense drink to their companions. Near by, a woman wearing a large headdress and a gown with an extravagantly long train kneels at a parapet to offer a bowl to a figure opposite. Kneeling beside her, almost unnoticed in the midst of this hellish activity, is St Anthony himself; he turns towards the viewer, his right hand raised in blessing. His gesture is echoed by Christ halfhidden in the depths of the tomb, which Anthony has converted into a chapel. The right wall of the sanctuary ends in a decaying tower covered with monochrome scenes. Two of them, the Adoration of the Golden Calf and a group of men making offerings to an enthroned ape, are images of idolatry, while the third, the Israelites returning from Canaan with a bunch of grapes, prefigures Christ carrying the Cross on the outer wings of the triptych.
A burning village illuminates the dusky background, probably a reference to the disease of ergotism or »St Anthony's Fire«, whose victims invoked the name of St Anthony for relief. The ancient association of ergotism with the devil-plagued saint may have been influenced by the fact that one phase of the disease is characterized by hallucinations in which the sufferer believes that he is attacked by wild beasts or demons.
The devils who have gathered around St Anthony display a complexity of form unusual even for Bosch. In the group far right, for example, a blasted tree trunk becomes the bonnet, torso and arms of a woman whose body terminates in a scaly lizard tail; she holds a baby and is mounted on a giant rat. Near by, a jug has been transformed into another beast of burden whose wholly unsubstantial rider bears a thistle for a head. In the water below, a man has been absorbed into the interior of a gondola-fish, his hands thrust helplessly through its sides. An armoured demon with a horse's skull for a head plays a lute at lower left; he sits astride a plucked goose who wears shoes and whose neck ends in a sheep's muzzle. All these shifting forms, moreover, display a richness of colour that confers a visual beauty on even the most disgusting shape. A recent, careful cleaning of the triptych, among Bosch's best preserved works, reveals brilliant reds and greens alternating with subtly modulated passages of blue-greys and browns.
This convocation of fiends ostensibly illustrates the second attack on Anthony described in the literary accounts; the miraculous light which dispersed the devils on this occasion can be seen shining through one of the chapel windows. But the devils do not seem about to scatter »like dust in the wind«, as one version has it, nor are they physically attacking Anthony. Instead, their torments must be understood in a spiritual sense. Like the monstrous creatures who confront Deguilleville's pilgrim, they are incarnations of the sinful urges with which Anthony wrestled in his desert solitude. In a drawing made around 1500, Albrecht Durer similarly illustrated the evil thoughts of a group of people at Mass by means of little devils fluttering about their heads. Bax has identified a number of sins symbolized by Bosch's monsters, chief among which is Lust. Lust is also represented more overtly in the group of buildings at extreme right, where a monk and a prostitute drink together within a tent; there may be a further reference in the dark-skinned devil in the central group: the demon of unchastity, we are told, once appeared to Anthony in the form of a black boy. It should not be surprising that even the most ascetic saints were susceptible to this particular vice: as the »Malleus Maleficarum« informs us, it was through the carnal act that the Devil could most easily assail mankind.
Anthony, however, has overcome all his temptations through the strength of his faith. This faith is expressed in his gesture of benediction, thought to be particularly efficacious against the Devil; and the steady gaze which the hermit directs towards us is one of comforting assurance, as if he were saying, in the words attributed to him in the »Lives of the Fathers«: »though an host should encamp against me, my heart shall not fear.«(Psalms 27:3.) It is the same gaze which we have encountered in the face of Christ which looks out at us from the Madrid »Christ Carrying the Cross« and the London »Christ Crowned with Thorns«. When Anthony recognized the presence of Christ in the miraculous light, he cried out: »Where wert thou a while ago, 0 good Jesus? Why didst thou not come to me then, to succour me and heal my wounds?« To which Christ replied, »Anthony, I was here, but I wanted to see thee fight, and now that thou hast fought the good fight, I shall spread thy glory throughout the whole world.« While the wings of the Lisbon triptych show Anthony tempted and tormented, the central panel thus shows him triumphant.
This last-mentioned episode of the central panel casts light on a frequently misunderstood aspect of Bosch's art. In representing Anthony and other saints tormented and tempted by the Devil, Bosch did not reflect a Zoroastrian dualism, as some scholars have suggested. He did not view the world as a stage upon which was enacted the struggle between equally powerful forces of good and evil, for this would have denied the omnipotence of God. On the contrary, Bosch and his contemporaries knew that God permitted Satan to send tribulations to men for the good of their souls. God lets the Devil attack the saints, explains St Augustine, »sothat by outward temptation they may grow in grace.«(»City of God«, xx, 8.) In his voluntary submission to these troubles, the man of God achieves the most perfect imitation of Christ.
It is most appropriate, therefore, that Anthony's sufferings are echoed on the exterior of the same altarpiece in two grisaille scenes from Christ's Passion. On the left, soldiers overwhelm Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane as viciously as the devils attack Anthony on the reverse, while Judas hurriedly steals away with his thirty pieces of silver. In the other panel, Christ's collapse beneath the weight of his Cross has halted the procession to Golgotha, allowing St Veronica to wipe the sweat from the Saviour's face. The executioners can hardly restrain their impatience at this delay, and the bystanders look on more with idle curiosity than with sympathy. Below, the two thieves confess to hooded friars whose disreputable characters have been deftly portrayed.
The Lisbon triptych thus sums up the major themes we have encountered in the art of Bosch. The spectacle of sin and folly and the shifting horrors of Hell are joined to the images of the suffering Christ and of the saint firm in his faith against the assaults of the World, the Flesh and the Devil. To an age which believed in the reality of Satan and Hell, and in the imminent appearance of Antichrist with the Last Judgment not far behind, the serene countenance of St Anthony looking at us from his haunted chapel must have offered reassurance and hope.
Yet, even as Bosch painted the Lisbon triptych, men were questioning the values for which St Anthony stood, particularly the cloistered life spent in solitude away from one's fellow men. Erasmus and other humanists were already teaching that salvation could be achieved by living and working in this world, while in 1517, only one year after Bosch's death, Luther nailed his ninety-five theses to the door of a Wittenberg church and thereby initiated the events which completely disrupted the old order. Like Luther, Bosch frequently castigated the corruption of the clergy and the monks, but this was an old complaint and it is difficult to discern in his work any rejection of the medieval Church. His visual images were highly original; but they served to give a more vivid form to religious ideals and values which had sustained Christianity for centuries. In Bosch's art, the dying Middle Ages flared to a new brilliance before disappearing for ever.


 

   
   
   
 

 

 


Triptych of Temptation of St Anthony (central panel)
1505-06
Oil on panel, 131,5 x 119 cm
Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon

 


Triptych of Temptation of St Anthony (central panel - detail)
1505-06
Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon

 


Triptych of Temptation of St Anthony (central panel - detail)
1505-06
Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon

 


Triptych of Temptation of St Anthony (central panel - detail)
1505-06
Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon

 


Triptych of Temptation of St Anthony (central panel - detail)
1505-06
Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon

 


Triptych of Temptation of St Anthony (central panel - detail)
1505-06
Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon

 


Triptych of Temptation of St Anthony (central panel - detail)
1505-06
Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon

 


Triptych of Temptation of St Anthony (central panel - detail)
1505-06
Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon

 

 

 

 

 
 
  Ecce Homo (detail)
1475-80
Tempera and oil on oak panel
Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt
 
4 Ecce Homo
1490s
Oil on panel, 52 x 54 cm
Museum of Art, Philadelphia
 
5 Crucifixion with a Donor
1480-85
Oil on oak, 74,7 x 61 cm
Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels
 
6  
7
 
8 The Magician
1475-80
Oil on panel, 53 x 75 cm
Musée Municipal, Saint-Germain-en-Laye
 
9
 
10
 

 

 
The Seven Deadly Sins (c. 1480)
by Hieronymus BOSCH

The Seven Deadly Sins is one of Bosch's earliest known works and reflects the style and preoccupation which would later come to be considered characteristic of him. He designed this painting to be walked around in order to view the seven deadly sins of anger, envy, avarice, gluttony, sloth, lust and pride. Even in this early picture, Bosch's comic and moralizing genius is evident.

 

11 The Seven Deadly Sins
c. 1480
Oil on panel, 120 x 150 cm
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
12 The Seven Deadly Sins (detail)
c. 1480
Oil on panel, diameter of detail: 36,3 cm
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
13 The Seven Deadly Sins (detail)
c. 1480
Oil on panel, width of detail 49 cm
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
14 The Seven Deadly Sins (detail)
c. 1480
Oil on panel, width of detail 43,5 cm
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
15 The Seven Deadly Sins (detail)
c. 1480
Oil on panel, width of detail 23 cm
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 

 

 
Garden of the Earthly Deligths (c. 1500)
by Hieronymus BOSCH

Bosch's most famous and unconventional picture is The Garden of Earthly Delights which, like most of his other ambitious works, is a large, 3-part altarpiece, called a triptych. This painting was probably made for the private enjoyment of a noble family. It is named for the luscious garden in the central panel, which is filled with cavorting nudes and giant birds and fruit. The triptych depicts the history of the world and the progression of sin. Beginning on the outside shutters with the creation of the world, the story progresses from Adam and Eve and original sin on the left panel to the torments of hell, a dark, icy, yet fiery nightmarish vision, on the right. The Garden of Delights in the centre illustrates a world deeply engaged in sinful pleasures.

The enigmatic and strange fantasies that people the work of Bosch earned him enormous fame even in his own lifetime, and his creations were widely imitated. But nothing either in his own or in his contemporaries' work equals the invention of the Garden of Earthly Delights triptych, justly his most famous painting.

Various attempts have been made to relate these fantasies to the realities of his own day. For instance, some of the sexually related visions have been related to the creed of the Adamites, a hereticel sect of the day advocating, at least in theory, sexual freedom like that in Eden. But the most promising line has been to recognize many of them as illustrations of proverbs: for instance, the pair of lovers in the glass bubble would recall the proverb 'Pleasure is as fragile as glass'. This approach also provides a link between these fantasies and Bosch's other work, such as the Cure of Folly or Haywain, and between Bosch's later work and Bruegel's in the middle of the sixteenth century: though without Bosch's satanic profusion, Bruegel also made illustrations of proverbs in this way.

 

16
 
17  

 

 
18
 
19
 
20 Triptych of Garden of Earthly Delights (detail)
c. 1500
Oil on panel
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
21 Triptych of Garden of Earthly Delights (detail)
c. 1500
Oil on panel
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
22 Triptych of Garden of Earthly Delights (detail)
c. 1500
Oil on panel
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
23 Triptych of Garden of Earthly Delights (detail)
c. 1500
Oil on panel
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
24 Triptych of Garden of Earthly Delights (detail)
c. 1500
Oil on panel
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
25 Triptych of Garden of Earthly Delights (detail)
c. 1500
Oil on panel
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
26 Triptych of Garden of Earthly Delights (detail)
c. 1500
Oil on panel
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
27 Triptych of Garden of Earthly Delights (detail)
c. 1500
Oil on panel
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
28 Triptych of Garden of Earthly Delights (detail)
c. 1500
Oil on panel
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 

 

 
29
 
30 Triptych of Garden of Earthly Delights (detail)
c. 1500
Oil on panel
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
31 Triptych of Garden of Earthly Delights (detail)
c. 1500
Oil on panel
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
32 Triptych of Garden of Earthly Delights (detail)
c. 1500
Oil on panel
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
33 Triptych of Garden of Earthly Delights (detail)
c. 1500
Oil on panel
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
34 Triptych of Garden of Earthly Delights (right wing)
c. 1500
Oil on panel, 220 x 97 cm
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
35 Triptych of Garden of Earthly Delights (detail)
c. 1500
Oil on panel
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
36 Triptych of Garden of Earthly Delights (detail)
c. 1500
Oil on panel
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
37 Triptych of Garden of Earthly Delights (detail)
c. 1500
Oil on panel
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
38 Triptych of Garden of Earthly Delights (detail)
c. 1500
Oil on panel
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
39 Triptych of Garden of Earthly Delights (detail)
c. 1500
Oil on panel
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
40 Triptych of Garden of Earthly Delights (detail)
c. 1500
Oil on panel
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
41 Triptych of Garden of Earthly Delights (detail)
c. 1500
Oil on panel
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
42 Triptych of Garden of Earthly Delights (detail)
c. 1500
Oil on panel
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 

 

 
Haywain (1500-02)
by Hieronymus BOSCH

The Haywain triptych exists in two versions, one in the Escorial, the other in the Prado, Madrid. Both are in poor condition and have been heavily restored, and scholars disagree as to which is the original. The left inner wing presents the Creation and Fall of Man, and the expulsion of the rebel angels, the right wing is occupied by a view of Hell. The central panel presents a new image: a curious vehicle, a great haywain lumbering across a vast landscape, being pulled by devils towards Hell and damnation.

 

43  
44
 
45
 
46
 
47  
48
 
49  
50 Triptych of Haywain (detail)
1500-02
Oil on panel
Monasterio de San Lorenzo, El Escorial
 
51 Triptych of Haywain (detail)
1500-02
Oil on panel
Monasterio de San Lorenzo, El Escorial
 
52 Triptych of Haywain (left wing)
1500-02
Oil on panel, 140 x 66 cm
Monasterio de San Lorenzo, El Escorial
 
53 Triptych of Haywain (right wing)
1500-02
Oil on panel, 140 x 66 cm
Monasterio de San Lorenzo, El Escorial
 

 

 
Various panels
by Hieronymus BOSCH
54  
55  
56
 
57
 
58
 
59  
60 The Temptation of St Anthony
-
Oil on panel, 70 x 51 cm
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
61
 
62 St Jerome in Prayer (detail)
c. 1505
Oil on panel
Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Ghent
 
63 Death and the Miser
c. 1490
Oil on wood, 93 x 31 cm
National Gallery of Art, Washington
 
64 The Ship of Fools
1490-1500
Oil on wood, 58 x 33 cm
Musée du Louvre, Paris
 
65 Christ Crowned with Thorns
-
Oil on panel, 165 x 195 cm
Monasterio de San Lorenzo, El Escorial
 
66 Christ Carrying the Cross
1515-16
Oil on panel, 74 x 81 cm
Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Ghent
 
67 Christ Carrying the Cross
-
Oil on panel, 150 x 94 cm
Palacio Real, Madrid
 
68 Adoration of the Child
-
Oil on wood, 66 x 43 cm
Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne
 
69  
70
 
71
 

 

 
Panels in the Palazzo Ducale, Venice
by Hieronymus BOSCH
72 Paradise: Terrestrial Paradise
-
Oil on panel, 86,5 x 39,5 cm
Palazzo Ducale, Venice
 
73 Paradise: Ascent of the Blessed
-
Oil on panel, 86,5 x 39,5 cm
Palazzo Ducale, Venice
 
74 Hell: Fall of the Damned
-
Oil on panel, 86,5 x 39,5 cm
Palazzo Ducale, Venice
 
75 Hell
-
Oil on panel, 86,5 x 39,5 cm
Palazzo Ducale, Venice
 
76 Hermit Saints Triptych
c. 1505
Oil on panel, 86 x 60 cm
Palazzo Ducale, Venice
 
77
 
78
 

 

 
Various triptychs
by Hieronymus BOSCH
79  
80  
81  
82
 
83 Paradise and Hell
c. 1510
Oil on wood, 135 x 45 cm (each panel)
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
84 Last Judgment (fragment of Paradise)
-
Oil on panel,
Private collection
 
3 85 Last Judgment (fragment of Hell)
-
Oil on panel,
Private collection
 
86 Last Judgement
-
Oil on panel, 99,5 x 60,3 cm (central panel), 99,5 x 29 cm (each wing)
Groeninge Museum, Bruges
 

 

 
Last Judgment (Vienna)
by Hieronymus BOSCH

While sin and folly occupy a prominent place in Bosch's art, their significance can be fully appreciated only within the context of a larger medieval theme, the Last Judgment. The preparation for this Final Day was one of the chief concerns of the medieval Church. In Bosch's days the terrors of the Final Reckoning were intensified by a general sense of its imminence. Nowhere, however, was this chronic anxiety of the age given more vivid expression than in Bosch's imposing Last Judgment triptych in Vienna, executed probably during his middle period.

 

87
 
88  
89  
90 Triptych of Last Judgement (left outer wing)
-
Grisaille on panel, 167 x 60 cm
Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna
 
91 Triptych of Last Judgement (right outer wing)
-
Grisaille on panel, 167 x 60 cm
Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna

 

 
Triptych of the Temptation of St Anthony
by Hieronymus BOSCH

Bosch often represented saints in landscapes charged with evil. Nowhere, however, were the vicissitudes of the spiritual life more vividly and circumstantially detailed than in the legend of St Anthony the Hermit, founder of Christian monasticism, which Bosch painted on an altarpiece now preserved in Lisbon.

Bosch was preoccupied with themes of torment and the sinfulness of man, which replaced earlier, more optimistic visions of Christ and the Virgin with feelings of anxiety, fear, and guilt. His sources for such unusual images were the dark corners of the medieval imagination, the gargoyles and monsters of cathedral decoration, and the marginal illustrations of books and popular prints.

The Lisbon triptych sums up the major themes we encounter in the art of Bosch. The spectacle of sin and folly and the shifting horrors of Hell are joined to the images of the suffering Christ and of the saint firm in his faith against the assaults of the World, the Flesh and the Devil. To an age which believed in the reality of Satan and Hell, and in the imminent appearance of Antichrist with the Last Judgment not far behind, the serene countenance of St Anthony looking at us from his haunted chapel must have offered reassurance and hope.

 

92
 
93
 

 

 
Temptation of St Anthony (central panel)
by Hieronymus BOSCH
94
 
95 Triptych of Temptation of St Anthony (detail)
1505-06
Oil on panel
Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon
 
96 Triptych of Temptation of St Anthony (detail)
1505-06
Oil on panel
Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon
 
97 Triptych of Temptation of St Anthony (detail)
1505-06
Oil on panel
Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon
 
98 Triptych of Temptation of St Anthony (detail)
1505-06
Oil on panel
Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon
 
99 Triptych of Temptation of St Anthony (detail)
1505-06
Oil on panel
Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon
 
100 Triptych of Temptation of St Anthony (detail)
1505-06
Oil on panel
Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon
 
101 Triptych of Temptation of St Anthony (detail)
1505-06
Oil on panel
Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon
 
102 Triptych of Temptation of St Anthony (detail)
1505-06
Oil on panel
Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon
 

 

 
Temptation of St Anthony (wings)
by Hieronymus BOSCH
103
 
104 Triptych of Temptation of St Anthony (detail)
1505-06
Oil on panel
Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon
 
105 Triptych of Temptation of St Anthony (detail)
1505-06
Oil on panel
Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon
 
106 Triptych of Temptation of St Anthony (detail)
1505-06
Oil on panel
Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon
 
107
 
108 Triptych of Temptation of St Anthony (detail)
1505-06
Oil on panel
Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon
 
109 Triptych of Temptation of St Anthony (detail)
1505-06
Oil on panel
Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon
 
110 Triptych of Temptation of St Anthony (detail)
1505-06
Oil on panel
Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon
 
111  
112
 

 

 
Adoration of the Magi (c. 1510)
by Hieronymus BOSCH
113 Triptych of the Adoration of the Magi
c. 1510
Oil on wood, 138 x 72 cm (central), 138 x 34 cm (each wings)
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
114 Triptych of the Adoration of the Magi (closed)
c. 1510
Oil on wood, 138 x 72 cm
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
115 Adoration of the Magi (central panel)
c. 1510
Oil on wood, 138 x 72 cm
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
116 Adoration of the Magi (detail)
c. 1510
Oil on wood
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
117 Adoration of the Magi (detail)
c. 1510
Oil on wood
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
118 Adoration of the Magi (detail)
c. 1510
Oil on wood, width of detail 28,6 cm
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
119 Adoration of the Magi (detail)
c. 1510
Oil on wood, width of detail 28,6 cm
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
120 Adoration of the Magi (detail)
c. 1510
Oil on wood, width of detail 33,6 cm
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
121 Adoration of the Magi (detail)
c. 1510
Oil on wood
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
122 St Peter with the Donor (left wing)
c. 1510
Oil on wood, 138 x 33 cm
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
123 St Peter with the Donor (detail)
c. 1510
Oil on wood, width of detail 23 cm
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
124 St Agnes with the Donor (right wing)
c. 1510
Oil on wood, 138 x 33 cm
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 
125 St Agnes with the Donor (right wing, detail)
c. 1510
Oil on wood
Museo del Prado, Madrid
 

 

Graphics

126  
127
 
128 Christ Carrying the Cross
-
Pen, 236 x 198 mm
Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam
 
129 Mary and John at the Foot of the Cross
-
Brush, 302 x 172 mm
Kupferstichkabinett, Dresden
 
130 Temptation of St Anthony
-
Pen and bistre, 257 x 175 mm
Staatliche Museen, Berlin
 
131 The Ship of Fools in Flames
-
Pen and bistre, 176 x 153 mm
Akademie der bildenden Künste, Vienna
 
132 Death and the Miser
-
Drawing, 256 x 149 mm
Musée du Louvre, Paris
 
133 The Hearing Forest and the Seeing Field
-
Pen and bistre, 202 x 127 mm
Staatliche Museen, Berlin
 
134 Nest of Owls
-
Pen and bistre, 140 x 196 mm
Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam
 
135 Beggars
-
Pen and bistre, 285 x 205 mm
Albertina, Vienna
 
136 Beggars and Cripples
-
Pen and bistre, 264 x 198 mm
Bibliotheque Royale Albert I, Brussels
 
137 The Ship of Fools (study)
c. 1500
Wash on gray paper
Musée du Louvre, Paris
 
138
 
139
 
140  

 

 
141 Beehive and Witches
-
Pen and bistre, 192 x 270 mm
Albertina, Vienna
 
142 Witches
-
Pen and bistre, 203 x 264 mm
Musée du Louvre, Paris
 
143 Studies of Monsters
-
Pen drawing, 86 x 162 mm
Staatliche Museen, Berlin
 
144 Animal studies
-
Pen drawing, 86 x 182 mm
Staatliche Museen, Berlin
 
145 Scenes in Hell
-
Pen and bistre, 163 x 176 mm
Staatliche Museen, Berlin
 
146  
147
 
148 Two Monsters
-
Pen and bistre, 164 x 116 mm
Staatliche Museen, Berlin
 
149 Two Monsters
-
Pen and bistre, 164 x 116 mm
Staatliche Museen, Berlin
 
150 Studies
-
Pen and bistre, 205 x 263 mm
Musée du Louvre, Paris
 
151 Two Witches
-
Pen and bistre, 125 x 85 mm
Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam
 
152
 
153
 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

   
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