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Wadsworth Edward (1889-1949). British painter. He exhibited Post-Impressionist works (1912), was briefly associated with the *Omega Workshops and then the *Vorticists (1915), and in 1933 with *Unit One.

Wadsworth Edward (2)

Wanderers, The. Group of Russian artists founded in I870 to promote travelling exhibitions with the idea of discovering new sources of patronage outside the normal centres of St Petersburg and Moscow. Tts leaders were Miasoedov, Perov and Ge. The subject matter of their pictures presented common life realistically.

Wappers Gustave (b Antwerp, 23 Aug 1803; d Paris, 6 Dec 1874). Belgian painter and teacher. He studied at the Antwerp Academie under Mathieu Van Brée, from whom he gained a taste for large-scale history painting and an admiration of Peter Paul Rubens. His first subjects were strictly classical (e.g. Regulus, 1823) and, like Van Brée, he illustrated episodes from the life of the great Flemish painters (e.g. Van Dyck and his Model, 1827; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.). He also painted a few portraits (e.g. Portrait of a Lady, 1828; Antwerp, Kon. Mus. S. Kst.). He exhibited his first work at the Salon of 1822 in Ghent. In 1824 he went to the Netherlands to look at works by the Old Masters, and from 1826 to 1829 he lived in Paris, during which time he ceased to exhibit at the Belgian Salons. In Paris he frequented the studios of such Romantic artists as Paul Delaroche and Horace Vernet but felt intimidated by the more audacious manner of Eugène Delacroix. When he reappeared at the Salon of 1830 in Brussels, his Sacrifice of the Burgomaster van der Werff (Utrecht, Cent. Mus.) was received enthusiastically. Although the subject had already been treated by Van Brée, Wappers cast it in a new Romantic light that reflected his time in Paris. This appealed to his Brussels audience, but the weighty, patriotic content of the work also encouraged claims that Wappers was a genius who had rediscovered a distinctively Belgian national art. Since July of that year Paris had been in the throes of revolution, and in Brussels unrest was brewing that finally broke out in September. In this tense atmosphere it was perhaps understandable that even such a mediocre work should have been so enthusiastically misinterpreted as leading the contemporary Belgian revolt against foreign artistic influences. For the same reason François-Joseph Navez, the head of the Belgian Neo-classical school and a disciple of Jacques-Louis David, was widely attacked when his Athalia Questioning Joash (Brussels, Mus. A. Anc.) was hung opposite Wappers’s picture at the Salon of 1830 in Brussels. In the following months Wappers hardened his anti-classical stance and turned Navez (by now his sworn enemy) and his followers into objects of derision.

Warburg Aby (1866—1929). German art historian. His art library founded m Hamburg was moved to Britain m 1933 and became, eventually, the Warburg Institute, University of London. W. encouraged the understanding of works of art in the context of their religious, astrological and hence psychological and superstitious traditions, and their modifications and transformations at any one moment.

Warhol Andy (1928-87). U.S. painter, print and film maker, one of the main exponents of U.S. *Pop art. W. became a cult figure in the 1960s. He began his career as a commercial artist (1949—60) and used such techniques and images in his work. His early paintings were stylized comic strips or advertisements; later he produced works of repeated images using rubber and wooden stamps and stencils which eventually led him to reproductions made with silkscreen on canvas. His work consists mainly of portraits (Elvis Presley, 1962, Marilyn Monroe, 1962, Liz Taylor, 1962—5, etc.), documentary images (car crashes, 1962—3, electric chairs, 1963—7, etc.), consumer goods (Campbell's soup cans, 1962-5, Coca-Cola bottles, 1962, dollar bills, 1962—3) and flowers, 1964—7. From 1963 on he made, or collaborated in, films produced in his 'factory': e.g. Sleep (1963), Umpire (1964), Chelsea Girls (1966), Lonesome Cowboys (1968), Trash (1970).

Washington Color Painters. U.S. group launched by an exhibition of this name at the Washington, D.C., Gal. of Mod. A. in 1965. Principal members were *Louis, *Noland and Gene Davis. The group generally employed acrylic paints — on unprimed canvas — in their exploration of colour qualities and relationships.

Watercolour. Painting in colours which are soluble in water (bound with gum-arabic or similar substances) on white or tinted paper. W.s were known in 2nd-c. AI) Egypt, but became an important art with Diirer; a tradition of w. painting was created by British painters from the 19th с

Waterhouse John William (b Rome, 6 April 1849; d London, 10 Feb 1917). English painter. His father was a minor English painter working in Rome. Waterhouse entered the Royal Academy Schools in London in 1870. He exhibited at the Society of British Artists from 1872 and at the Royal Academy from 1874. From 1877 to the 1880s he regularly travelled abroad, particularly to Italy. In the early 1870s he had produced a few uncharacteristic Orientalist ‘keepsake’ paintings, but most of his works in this period are scenes from ancient history or classical genre subjects, similar to the work of Lawrence Alma-Tadema (e.g. Consulting the Oracle, c. 1882; London, Tate). However, Waterhouse consistently painted on a larger scale than Alma-Tadema. His brushwork is bolder, his sunlight casts harsher shadows and his history paintings are more dramatic.

Watteau Jean-Antoine (1684—1721). French painter, draughtsman and etcher. His life is well documented since both his dealer, Gersaint, and his friends wrote his biography. From his provincial home in Valenciennes and an apprenticeship to obscure master painters, W. made his way to Paris, where he at first worked as a hack copyist. From 1703 tor 5 years he was assistant to Gillot, the leading painter of fashionable Italian theatrical scenes, painter of the commedia dell'arte. W. now joined Audran the court painter, who was charged with decorations of the royal chateaux. His artistic training was now complete and his social ascendancy just beginning. He became a recorder of the social life of his times, a celebrated painter whose patrons were the richest men of France. He was invited to join the French Academy and in 1717 became a full member.
W.'s work was 'the deification of the ideals of the 18th c, the spirit of the period. ..." His world of reality was the reality of the fairy-story, where women became goddesses and men satyrs in fashionable clothes. He transformed the coarse and earthly into dreams and fantasy.
W. was deeply imbued with the spirit of the great colourists of the past. He had ample opportunity to study the paintings of the masters in the colls of his patrons, and he copied avidly. Rubens and the painters of the Venetian school were the greatest influences on his development. The Harlequin and Columbine (c 1715) shows this influence clearly, but the exquisite delicacy ot the draughtsmanship and the dreamlike sentiment is that of the mature W. His Academy presentation piece, and perhaps his most famous painting, the Umbarkation for Cythera, was painted in 1717. Here the spirit of the French *Rococo found its 1st full expression. Elegant courtiers wend their way to a landing-stage, where cherubs wait to conduct them to the island. One of the last and greatest paintings is the sign of the picture dealer Gersaint. Painted in 1720, it is said in a matter of 8 days, it was a triumph of observation, composition and draughtsmanship. The execution and treatment of colour foreshadows the Impressionists.

Watts George Frederick (1817—1904). British painter. He supported himself by painting portraits now considered among his best works, though W. thought them unimportant compared with his allegorical compositions; in these, e.g. Hope, he aimed to deliver a timeless and universal message based on his own vague moral idealism. W. was also a sculptor, e.g. the huge equestrian statue Physical Energy in Kensington Gardens.

Weber Max (1881-1961), Russian-born U.S. painter who studied in Paris (1905—8), for a time under Matisse, and was a pioneer of avant-garde European art movements in the U.S.A. before World War I. From *Fauvism he turned to *Cubism and in The Geranium (1911) began to evolve a style which combined Cubism and *Expressionism. He attained complete Cubist abstraction in Chinese Restaurant (1915). From 1918 he painted in a representational Expressionist idiom.

Wegener Gerda Gottlieb (1886 - 1940) was a Danish illustrator and painter.

Wen-jen. Chinese scholar-painters of landscapes working m a monochrome tradition of ink on silk (later paper, *Sung). According to the 16th-c. wen-jen *Tung Ch'i-ch'ang, the tradition began with the 7th-c. painter *Wang Wei.

Wesselmann Tom (1931— ). U.S. *Pop artist; studied at Cooper Union, N.Y., 1956—9; included in 'The New Realists' exhibition at the Sidney Jams Gallery, N.Y., 1962; Matisse was one important influence. His works, often assemblages combining oil, enamel, collage, found images and readymades, include the Great American Nudes series of variations on the theme, which began in 1962, Still Life Painting, 30 (1963) and Tit Box (1970).

West Benjamin (1738—1820). American portrait and history painter who settled in London, having studied in Italy, where he was influenced by the *Neoclassicism of *Mengs. He was much favoured by George III, was a founder-member of the R.A. and became its president on the death of Reynolds. His history picture Death of Wolfe is a typical and well-known work.

Weston Edward, was born in 1886 in Highland Park, Illinois. When he was sixteen years old his father gave him a Kodak Bulls-Eye #2 camera and he began to photograph at his aunt's farm and in Chicago parks. In 1903 Weston first had his photographs exhibited at the Chicago Art Institute. Soon after the San Francisco earthquake and fire on April 19, 1906, Weston came to California to work as a surveyor for San Pedro, Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad. For a short while Weston returned to Chicago and attended the Illinois College of Photography, but came back to California to live in 1908 where he became a founding member of the Camera Pictorialists of Los Angeles. He married Flora Chandler in 1909 and they soon gave birth to two sons: Edward Chandler Weston, in 1910 and Theodore Brett Weston in 1911. Weston had his own portrait studio in Tropico, California and also began to have articles published in magazines such as American Photography, Photo Era and Photo-Miniature where his article entitled "Weston's Methods" on unconventional portraiture appeared in September, 1917. Weston's third son, Laurence Neil Weston, was born in 1916 and his fourth, Cole Weston, in 1919. Soon after Weston met Tina Modotti which marked the starting point of their long relationship, photographic collaborations in Mexico and later much publicized love affair. Modotti's husband, a political radical in Mexico, died in 1922. That same year Weston traveled to Ohio to visit his sister and there took photographs of the Armco Steel Plant. From Ohio he went to New York and met Alfred Stieglitz, Paul Strand, Charles Sheeler and Georgia O'Keefe. At this time Weston renounced Pictorialism and began a period of transition, self-analysis and self-discipline while making voyages to Mexico, often with Modotti and one of his sons. Some of the photographs that he and Modotti made in Mexico were published in Anita Brenner's book Idols Behind Altars. Weston began photographing shells, vegetables and nudes in 1927. Weston kept very detailed journals or "Day Books" of his daily activities, thoughts, ideas and conversations. His first publication of these writings "From My Day Book" appeared in 1928 - others were published after his death. Two years later he had his first New York exhibit at Alma Reed's Delphic Studios Gallery and later exhibited at Harvard Society of Contemporary Arts with Walker Evans, Eugene Atget, Sheeler, Stieglitz, Modotti and others. Weston was a Charter member of the "Group f/64" that was started in 1932 and included Ansel Adams, Imogen Cunningham, Consuelo Kanaga and others. They chose this optical term because they habitually set their lenses to that aperture to secure maximum image sharpness of both foreground and distance. Weston went even further toward photographic purity in 1934 when he resolved to make only unretouched portraits. Even though several large exhibitions followed, he was still of modest means and in 1935 initiated the "Edward Weston Print of the Month Club" offering photographs at $10 each. In 1937 he was the first photographer to be awarded a Guggenheim fellowship taking his assistant Charis Wilson along on his travels whom he married the next year. In 1940 the book California and the West was published with text by Charis and photographs by Edward. The same year he participated in the U.S. Camera Yosemite Photographic Forum with Ansel Adams and Dorthea Lange. In 1941 he was commissioned by Limited Editions Club to illustrate a new edition of Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass. Weston started experiencing symptoms of Parkinson's disease in 1946 and in 1948 made his last photographs at Point Lobos. In 1952 his Fiftieth Anniversary Portfolio was published with his images printed by Brett. In 1955 Weston selected several of what he called "Project Prints" and began having Brett, Cole and Dody Warren print them under his supervision. Lou Stoumen released his film The Naked Eye in 1956 of which he used several of Weston's print as well as footage of Weston himself. Edward Weston died at home on January 1, 1958.

Westwood Cynthia, figurative painter.

Weyden Rogier van der , or Rogier de la Pasture (c. 1400—64). The most important early Netherlands painter after the death of Van Eyck. The identity of his work is disputed and he may be identical with Rogelet, Roger of Bruges and others. No signed paintings have survived and very little is known about his life. He is believed to have been apprenticed to Roger Campin and is known to have lived in Brussels from 1435 to 1449, when he was appointed painter to the city. A probable visit to Italy in 1450 resulted m the Entombment which shows Italian influence, and the Madonna with Four Saints which carries the Medici arms and patron saints. He painted for several members of the Burgundian court including Chancellor Rolin, for whose foundation he painted the Last Judgement. The Descent from the Cross is stylistically his most important work. The action has the quality of a relief set against a flat background, and conveys the deep pathos of suffering. His works show a feeling for the significance of the action rather than realistic representation. A fine example of this is the Adoration of the Magi, known as the St Columba altarpiece, and such portraits as Portrait of a Lady and Le Grand Batard, which skilfully capture the subjects' emotions.

Whistler James Abbott McNeill McNeill (1834-1903). U.S. painter, a notable dandy and wit. W. was a cadet at West Point (1851—4), failed to qualify for the army and came to Europe, studying painting in Paris under Gleyre. He settled in London (1859), introducing the cult of the Japanese, which had already arrived m Pans. The famous libel action against Ruskin (1878) ruined W. and he lived abroad for some years. His painting theories and doctrine of 'Art for Art's sake' found expression m the witty and vitriolic Ten O'Clock Leclure (1885) and The Gentle Art of Making Enemies (1890).
The early influence of Courbet was later modified by a greater emphasis on surface arrangement, abstract harmonies, and close colour and tonal relationships. In the 1860s W. sought greater delicacy of colour and form, e.g. 'The white girl' (Symphony in White Number 2, 1864); in the 1870s the influence of Velazquez led to greater robustness, as m the Portrait of the Artist's Mother (1872) and 'Thomas Carlyle. The Nocturnes depicting the blurred atmosphere of London fuse Japanese decorative qualities with the ideas of the French Impressionists. W. was also a fine engraver.

Whittredge Worthington, born May 22, 1820, Springfield, Ohio, U.S. died February 25, 1910, Summit, New Jersey. In full Thomas Worthington Whittredge American landscape painter associated with the Hudson River school. Whittredge, originally a house painter, took up portraiture and landscape painting about 1838. Beginning in 1849 he spent five years in Düsseldorf, Germany, and five years in Rome, where he posed for Emanuel Leutze, who used him as the model for George Washington in Washington Crossingthe Delaware (1851). In 1856 he spent time sketching in Switzerland with the painter Albert Bierstadt.
On his return to the United States in 1859, Whittredge became inspired by the varied and rich American landscape. He settled inNew York City, renting a space in the famous Tenth Street Studio, and gained almost immediate recognition. In 1860 he was elected an associate of the National Academy of Design, becoming a full member two years later. In 1866 he went on a 2,000-mile government inspection tour of the Rocky Mountains with the landscape painters John Frederick Kensett and Sanford R. Gifford. His experiences onthis journey inspired huge canvases of vast, panoramic views such as Crossing the Platte (1870). His most characteristic works are poetic forest scenes featuring depths of feathery fern and mossy rocks, infused with leaf-filtered light, e.g., Forest Interior (1881). Whittredge did not paint landscapes for nature's sake alone but rather chose places he loved, giving his works a personal sensibility. By the late 1870s, Whittredge's style changed under the influence of the then popular Hudson River school painters. He continued painting until age 83, experimenting with various styles as new fashions took hold of the New York art world. His autobiography (The Autobiography of Worthington Whittredge, 1820–1910) was first published in the Brooklyn Museum's journal and was reissued in 1969.

Wiertz Antoine (1806—65). Belgian painter of melodramatic compositions such as Triumph of Christ (1848) in which he aimed to combine the characteristics of Michelangelo and Rubens. He also painted portraits and morbid scenes depicting premature burial, suicide, madness, etc. After his death his studio in Brussels was turned into a mus. of his work.

Wilde John(1919-2006). John Wilde was one of the most influential Wisconsin artists of the last half-century, a leading practitioner of a style of American surrealism that veered from the traditions of Salvador Dali. After being diagnosed with cancer last summer, Wilde died Friday afternoon at his home in the Rock County community of Evansville. He was 86.

Williams Robert Dale. Born 1972 in Reading, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Willis Fritz. Pin -Up Art.

Wilson Richard (1714—82). Landscape painter of the English school, born in Wales. In 1729 he was a pupil of Thomas Wright in London and from 1735 was working on his own. He had turned to landscape before going to Italy (1750—с 1757) where he was influenced by the work of Poussin and Claude, and the picturesque landscapes of Vernet and Zuccarelli. He later painted landscapes m England and Wales, and reminiscences of Italian scenes, works full of serenity, light and the nuances of atmosphere. Although his work was not popular, he had considerable influence on Turner, Cotman, Constable and Crome, and started the cult for Welsh mountain landscapes.

Wilson Scottie
(1888-1972). Scottie Wilson spent much of his childhood in Glasgow. He ran away from school at the age of nine, unable to write anything more than his name. At sixteen he joined the Scottish Rifles and fought on the Western Front during the first world war. In 1931 Wilson moved to Toronto where he ran a junk shop and where he first began to draw. 'One day I was listening to some music by Mendelssohn', he recalls, 'and I was looking at one of my pens looking like a bulldog, with a nib as thick as my finger - I dipped it into a bottle of ink to try it out, doodling on the surface of the table'. He did this for two days until the tabletop was completely covered in designs. His pictures are characterized by their intricacy, and are filled with strange, mythical creatures. André Breton and Picasso were great admirers, and Wilson is represented in most major museum collections around the world.

Wilson Will born 1957, Baltimore, Maryland.

Witte Emanuel de (b Alkmaar, c. 1617; d Amsterdam, 1691–2). Dutch painter. He was one of the last and, with Pieter Saenredam, one of the most accomplished 17th-century artists who specialized in representing church interiors. He trained with Evert van Aelst (1602–57) in Delft and in 1636 joined the Guild of St Luke at Alkmaar, but he was recorded in Rotterdam in the summers of 1639 and 1640. In October 1641 his daughter was baptized in Delft, where he entered the Guild of St Luke in June 1642 and lived for a decade, moving to Amsterdam c. 1652. He began his long career as an unpromising figure painter, as can be seen in the Vertumnus and Pomona (1644) and two small pendant portraits (1648; all Rotterdam, Mus. Boymans–van Beuningen). Jupiter and Mercury in the House of Philemon and Baucis (1647) and a Rembrandtesque Holy Family (1650; both Delft, Stedel. Mus. Prinsenhof) presage de Witte’s interpretation of architectural interiors predominantly in terms of light and shade, and—in their casual drawing, comparatively broad brushwork and uncertain articulation of space—are stylistically consistent with the unsigned Nieuwe Kerk, Delft (c. 1651; Winterthur, Stift. Briner), showing the tomb of William the Silent. The latter picture is based directly on Gerrit Houckgeest’s church interiors of the same years, as is de Witte’s version of the Nieuwe Kerk, Delft (1650–51; Hamburg, Ksthalle), with the tomb seen from the rear. Like Hendrick van Vliet, de Witte turned from figure painting to a subject that had always been a perspectivist’s speciality. It can be assumed, and there is evidence in inventories, that a mostly local demand in traditionally royalist Delft encouraged de Witte and Hendrick van Vliet to concentrate on national monuments and the churches that enshrined them.

Witz Konrad (b Rottweil, Württemberg, c. 1400–10; d Geneva or Basle, 1445–6). German painter. One of the great innovators in northern European painting, he turned away from the lyricism of the preceding generation of German painters. His sturdy, monumental figures give a strong impression of their physical presence, gestures are dignified and the colours strong and simple. Even scenes with several figures are strangely undramatic and static. The surface appearance of materials, especially metals and stone, is intensely observed and recorded with an almost naive precision. Powerful cast shadows help to define the spatial relationships between objects. His fresh approach to the natural world reflects that of the Netherlandish painters: the Master of Flémalle and the van Eycks. He need not, however, have trained in the Netherlands or in Burgundy as knowledge of their style could have been gained in Basle. He remained, however, untouched by the anecdotal quality present in their art, while Witz’s pure tempera technique differs emphatically from the refined use of oil glazes that endows Netherlandish pictures with their jewel-like brilliance.

Winterhalter Franz Xavier (1806—73). German portrait painter famous as the portrayer of European royalty, including Queen Victoria, Prince Albert and their children.

Withers Ted. Pin -Up Art.

Wolf Caspar (b Muri im Aargau, bapt 3 May 1735; d Heidelberg, 6 Oct 1783). Swiss painter and draughtsman. His Alpine canvases and studies are the most important achievements of 18th-century Swiss landscape painting. Coming from a family of cabinet makers in the village of Muri, he went to Konstanz in 1749 to study under Johann Jakob Anton von Lenz (1701–64), the episcopal court painter. From this period date four figure studies in a sketchbook (1751). Wolf then worked as an itinerant painter in South Germany (?1753–9), being recorded in Augsburg, Munich and Passau. In 1760 he was back in Muri, painting landscapes, altarpieces and decorations on wallpaper and stoves, notably the Landscapes with Biblical Stories and Parables, the Episodes from the History of the Habsburgs, and the Legend of St Benedict (1762–3) on the wallpaper and panels of two rooms of the Schloss Horben near Muri. Predominant among the paintings and drawings of the 1760s were landscapes with wild rock formations, clearly showing his training in South German Rococo.

Wolfli Adolph
(1864 - 1930) (occasionally spelt Adolf Woelfli or Adolf Wolfli) was a prolific Swiss artist who is regarded as one of the foremost artists in the Art Brut or outsider art traditions.

Wolfli Adolph (2)

Wols (Alfred Otto Wolfgang Schulze) (1913—51). German painter and poet who studied at the Dessau *Bauhaus under Mies van der Rohe and Moholy-Nagy; moved to Paris in 1932. He ill. with engravings works by Kafka and Sartre.

Wood Grant (1892-1942). U.S. regionahst painter of Iowa. His development was influenced on visits to Europe in the 1920s, by 15th- and 16th-c. Flemish and German painting and the *New Objectivity movement. The technical precision and stylization which characterize his work are also reminiscent of U.S. folk-art. His best-known paintings are American Gothic and Daughters of the Revolution in which there is a strong element of satire.

Woodcut. Relief printing technique in which the design is drawn on the plank surface of the wood (usually pear or alder) and that part of it which is to be white is cut away with a gouge or knife, leaving the remainder to print black. The w. came into use in the late 14th с for the printing of playing-cards and block-books and had become an artistic medium by the mid-15th c, culminating in the work of Durer. Displaced by the line engraving, it was revived in the 19th c. by William Morris and others. The medium is ideally suited to subjective expression and was widely exploited in the 1st quarter of the 20th c. by the German Expressionists, e.g. Kirchner and Heckel, who used it with a power and originality not attained since Durer.

Wood engraving. Relief technique of printing which differs from the woodcut in that the working surface of the block uses the end-grain of the boxwood section, and a burin instead of a gouge is used for cutting. This makes very fine lines possible, so that effects similar to those of line engraving can be achieved. W. e. was developed in the mid-i8th с and was beautifully handled by *Bewick (1753-1828). In the mid-19th с it was used as a reproduction technique by the Dalziel brothers and others but was revived as a medium for original work just after World War I. The major exponents of w. e., including Bewick and Gwen Raverat, have used the white-line method, i.e. the lines are cut into the block and therefore print white in contrast with both the woodcut and the line engraving.

Woolner Thomas (b Hadleigh, Suffolk, 17 Dec 1825; d London, 7 Oct 1892). English sculptor and poet. He ranks with John Henry Foley as the leading sculptor of mid-Victorian England. He trained with William Behnes and in 1842 enrolled as a student at the Royal Academy, London. In 1844 he exhibited at Westminster Hall, London, a life-size plaster group, the Death of Boadicea (destr.), in an unsuccessful attempt to obtain sculptural commissions for the Houses of Parliament. His earliest important surviving work is the statuette of Puck (plaster, 1845–7; C. G. Woolner priv. col.), which was admired by William Holman Hunt and helped to secure Woolner’s admission in 1848 to the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. The work’s Shakespearean theme and lifelike execution, stressing Puck’s humorous malice rather than traditional ideal beauty, made it highly appealing. Although eclipsed by Hunt, John Everett Millais and Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Woolner was an important figure in the Brotherhood. He contributed poetry to its journal, The Germ (1850), and his work was committed to truthfulness to nature more consistently than that of any other Pre-Raphaelite, except for Hunt. This is evident in Woolner’s monument to William Wordsworth (marble, 1851; St Oswald, Grasmere, Cumbria). This relief portrait, which conveys both the poet’s physiognomy and his intellect, is flanked by botanically faithful renditions of flowers, emphasizing Wordsworth’s doctrine that in Woolner’s words, ‘common things can be made equally suggestive and instructive with the most exalted subjects’.

World of Art, The (Mir Iskusstva). The name for a society, exhibiting organization and a magazine, founded in St Petersburg in 1898 similar to the *Nabis group. It brought together artists chiefly, but also poets and musicians; prominent members were Benois, Diaghilev and Bakst. They were in revolt against the 'provincial nationalism' of the *Wanderers and in contrast declared for 'Art for Art's sake' and close ties with Western European ideas. The magazine was ed. (1899-1904) by Diaghilev, and his Ballet Russe is the group's most notable production, to which most of its members contributed.

W.P.A. The Works Progress (later called Projects) Administration, an agency set up by the U.S. government in 1934—5. It organized a great number of projects which provided employment during the Depression. More than 5000 artists of all kinds were among those employed, the emphasis being on public service (writers produced the 'American Guides', painters decorated public buildings, there was a Federal Theater, etc.); but from 1939 the artistic projects were wound up. Abstract monumental murals were made by, among others, *Gorky, *De Kooning.

Wren Christopher (b East Knoyle, Wilts, 20 Oct 1632; d London, 25 Feb 1723). English architect. The leader of the English Baroque school, he was the creator of St Paul’s Cathedral, London, completed in his lifetime, and remains the most famous architect in English history.

Wright Frank Lloyd, (1869-1959), architect.

Wright Frank Lloyd (2)

Wright Joseph ('Wright of Derby') (1734-97). British painter, almost the earliest to take his subjects from the Industrial Revolution. He visited Italy (1773-5), tried his fortune at Bath but, failing to oust Gainsborough as a portrait painter there, returned to Derby, where he spent most of the rest of his life. Apart from a few portraits and night landscapes, his main work was in depicting the domestic and workshop interiors at the time of the Industrial Revolution, where, by the light of a candle or furnace, the figures are thrown into relief and dramatically presented.

Wtewael Joachim (b Utrecht, 1566; d Utrecht, 1 Aug 1638). Dutch painter and draughtsman. He was one of the last exponents of MANNERISM. From c. 1590 until 1628, the year of his latest known dated paintings, he employed such typical Mannerist formal devices as brilliant decorative colour, contrived spatial design and contorted poses. He sometimes combined such artifice with naturalism, and this amalgam represents the two approaches Dutch 16th- and 17th-century theorists discussed as uyt den geest (‘from the imagination’) and naer ’t leven (‘after life’). Wtewael’s activity reflects the transition from Mannerism to a more naturalistic style in Dutch art. Slightly over 100 of his paintings and about 80 drawings are known. Subjects from the Bible and mythology predominate; he also painted several portraits, including a Self-portrait (1601; Utrecht, Cent. Mus.).

Wyatt James born Aug. 3, 1746, Burton Constable, Staffordshire, Eng. died Sept. 4, 1813, near Marlborough, Wiltshire. English architect chiefly remembered for his Romantic country houses, especially the extraordinary Gothic Revival Fonthill Abbey.
In 1762 Wyatt went to Italy, where he remained six years. On his return to England, he designed the London Pantheon (opened 1772; later demolished), a Neoclassical building inspired by Hagia Sophia in Istanbul. The Pantheon made Wyatt one of the most fashionable architects in England.
He succeeded Sir William Chambers as surveyor general to the Board of Works (1796) and was engaged in restoring the cathedrals of Durham, Hereford, Lichfield, and Salisbury, as well as Windsor Castle, Westminster Abbey, and Magdalen College, Oxford. These “restorations” later earned him the epithet “the Destroyer” from such medieval revivalists of the 19th century as A.W.N. Pugin, who had a more accurate archaeological approach.
In point of originality, Wyatt's severely elegant works in the classical mode, like Heaton Hall, Lancashire (1772), and Heveningham Hall, Suffolk (c. 1788–99), were surpassed by the extravagance of his Gothic Revival buildings, of which the most sensational was Fonthill Abbey (1796–1807), Wiltshire. Initially this was built as a landscape feature and eventually developed into an extraordinary home for the arch-Romantic William Beckford, who supervised its design and construction. The great central tower (270 feet) collapsed in 1807, and after Beckford sold the estate, in 1822, the house further fell into ruin. Today it has mostly disappeared. In John Rutter's Delineations of Fonthill (1823), however, one can still experience some of the building's grotesque, spectacular quality that made it architecturally notorious in the Romantic period. Other notable examples of Wyatt's Gothic country houses include Lee Priory, Kent (1783–90), and Ashridge, Hertfordshire, completed (1808–18)by his nephew, Sir Jeffry Wyatville. A biography of the nephew by Derek Linstrum was published in 1972.

Wyeth Andrew (Newell) (1917- ). U.S. painter of genre subjects; studied under his father, the celebrated ill. N. C. Wyeth. A most accomplished naturalistic artist, he works in a meticulously detailed style but invests his paintings with an enigmatic visionary quality which raises them above photographic naturalism.

Wysocki Charles (1928-2002). Naive Art.



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