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Ubac Raoul (b Malmédy, 31 Aug 1910; d 24 March 1985).

Belgian painter, sculptor and photographer, active in France. He originally intended to become a waterways and forestry inspector. His interest in art was aroused when he made his first visit to Paris in 1928 and met several artists, including Otto Freundlich. After returning to Malmédy he read the Manifeste du Surréalisme (1924) by André Breton. In 1930 he settled in Paris and made contact with the Surrealist group, attending the first showing of Luis Buñuel’s film L’Age d’or (1931). He attended the Faculté des Lettres of the Sorbonne briefly but soon left to frequent the studios of Montparnasse. About 1933–4 he attended the Ecole des Arts Appliqués for more than a year, studying mainly drawing and photography. In the course of a visit to Austria and the Dalmatian coast in 1933, he visited the island of Hvar where he made some assemblages of stones, which he drew and photographed, for example Dalmatian Stone (1933).

Ubac  Raoul (2)

Ubertini Francesco Bacchiacca.
*Bacchiacca Francesco Ubertini

Uccello Paolo (c 1396—1475). Florentine painter apprenticed to *Ghilberti. At first successful, he fell out of favour with his patrons, due, it is believed, to his uncompromising interest in the problems of perspective. Vasari relates how according to his daughter, '... Paolo would stand the whole night through beside his writing-desk seeking new terms for the expression of his rules in perspective. ..." Vasari also refers to the reason for his nickname 'Uccello' (It. bird). As he was very fond of animals but could not afford to keep any, he surrounded himself with paintings of birds and other animals in his house.
Belonging to Donatello's circle, U. threw himself wholeheartedly into the new scientific-painterly problems of representing 3-dimensional reality on a 2-dimensional surface by means of perspective. After his death he was forgotten, but 20th-c. concern with formal problems caused a revival of interest in his work. It is interesting to compare 2 early paintings, versions of St Cicorge and the Dragon, the first flat and decorative, the second with a passionate concern for space and form. The pattern of circles on the dragon's wings becomes an excuse for showing them in perspective; the treatment of the prancing horse and knight's armour is identical. The upright figure of the princess is composed with severity. The lines of central perspective are accentuated by the diagonals of the knight's lance and the dragon's leg. All the essential elements of U.'s later paintings are here clearly and uncompromisingly stated. His best-known works are the fresco The Tlood and the 3 panels of The Rout of San Romano (1454—7), painted decorations for the Medici Palace in Florence. They are further examples of his highly original and imaginative approach. Scientific perspective is blended with a poetical interpretation of reality. The trappings of horses and armour are turned into fantastic forms and the colour scheme is rich and unexpected. His last important work, The Hunt (1468), is a night scene. Perspective is used here to create a superb, varied pattern of diminishing forms.

Uelsmann Jerry (born 1934 in Detroit, Michigan) is an American photographer. Uelsmann is a master printer producing composite photographs with multiple negatives and extensive darkroom work. He uses up to a dozen enlargers at a time to produce his final images. Similar in technique to Rejlander, Uelsmann is a champion of the idea that the final image need not be tied to a single negative, but may be composed of many. Unlike Rejlander, though, he does not seek to create narratives, but rather allegorical surrealist imagery of the unfathomable. Uelsmann is able to subsist on grants and teaching salary, rather than commercial work.
Today, with the advent of digital cameras and Photoshop, photographers are able to create a work somewhat resembling Uelsmann's in less than a day, however, at the time Uelsmann was considered to have almost "magical skill" with his completely analog tools. Uelsmann used the darkroom frequently, sometimes using three to ten enlargers to produce the expected effect. Photos are still widely regarded as documentary evidence of events, and Uelsmann, along with people like Lucas Samaras, was considered an avant garde shattere of the popular conception.
Ugly Realism. The work produced by a number of artists working in Berlin from the late 1970s, among them J. Grutzke, M. Koeppel, and W. Petrick. It was essentially a revival of the *New Objectivity of the 1920s.

Ukiyo-e. *Japanese Prints.

Umbria, school of. Central Italian school of painting of the 15th—16th cs based on Perugia and represented by *Perugino, *Pinturicchio and *Raphael.

Underpainting. Painting of a composition in monochrome before the addition of colour glazes, which was the initial stage m the traditional method of oil painting. The word can also be applied to a layer of colour which is to be glazed or scumbled.

Unit One. Group of British artists formed in 1933 and including H. *Moore, B. *Nicholson, *Hepworth and *Nash; *Read was its spokesman.

Unkoku Togan. Japan Artist
Utagawa Kunisada. Japan Artist

Utagawa Kuniyoshi. Japan Artist

Utagawa Toyoharu. Japan Artist

Utamaro Kitagawa (1754-1806). Japanese master of the wood-block colour print, the 1st Japanese artist to become well known in the West.

Utrecht Psalter (9th c; University Library, Utrecht). Carolingian Psalter from the Rheims school, almost certainly a copy of a much older codex. Each psalm has an illustrative ink drawing in a sketchy, agitated freehand style totally unlike the usual Carolingian style. The Psalter was brought to England m the late 10th c. and strongly influenced the English school.

Utrecht school. Group of Dutch painters including *Terbrugghen, *Honthorst and *Baburen who were influenced in Rome (c. 1610-20) by the realism of *Caravaggio and his follower Manfredi, and later worked in Utrecht painting religious and genre subjects. Frans Flals, Rembrandt and Vermeer, as well as lesser artists, were all to some extent affected.


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