(b Malmédy, 31 Aug 1910; d 24
Belgian painter, sculptor and photographer, active in France. He
originally intended to become a waterways and forestry inspector. His
interest in art was aroused when he made his first visit to Paris in
1928 and met several artists, including Otto Freundlich. After returning
to Malmédy he read the Manifeste du Surréalisme (1924) by André
Breton. In 1930 he settled in Paris and made contact with the Surrealist
group, attending the first showing of Luis Buñuel’s film L’Age d’or
(1931). He attended the Faculté des Lettres of the Sorbonne briefly but
soon left to frequent the studios of Montparnasse. About 1933–4 he
attended the Ecole des Arts Appliqués for more than a year, studying
mainly drawing and photography. In the course of a visit to Austria and
the Dalmatian coast in 1933, he visited the island of Hvar where he made
some assemblages of stones, which he drew and photographed, for example
Dalmatian Stone (1933).
Ubertini Francesco Bacchiacca.
*Bacchiacca Francesco Ubertini
Uccello Paolo (c 1396—1475). Florentine
painter apprenticed to *Ghilberti. At first
successful, he fell out of favour with his
patrons, due, it is believed, to his
uncompromising interest in the problems of
perspective. Vasari relates how according to his
daughter, '... Paolo would stand the whole night
through beside his writing-desk seeking new terms for
the expression of his rules in perspective. ..."
Vasari also refers to the reason for his
nickname 'Uccello' (It. bird). As he was very
fond of animals but could not afford to keep
any, he surrounded himself with paintings of
birds and other animals in his house.
Belonging to Donatello's circle, U. threw
himself wholeheartedly into the new
scientific-painterly problems of representing
3-dimensional reality on a 2-dimensional surface
by means of perspective. After his death he was
forgotten, but 20th-c. concern with formal
problems caused a revival of interest in his
work. It is interesting to compare 2 early
paintings, versions of St Cicorge and the
Dragon, the first flat and decorative, the
second with a passionate concern for space and
form. The pattern of circles on the dragon's
wings becomes an excuse for showing them in
perspective; the treatment of the prancing horse
and knight's armour is identical. The upright
figure of the princess is composed with
severity. The lines of central perspective are
accentuated by the diagonals of the knight's
lance and the dragon's leg. All the essential
elements of U.'s later paintings are here
clearly and uncompromisingly stated. His
best-known works are the fresco The Tlood and
the 3 panels of The Rout of San Romano (1454—7),
painted decorations for the Medici Palace in
Florence. They are further examples of his
highly original and imaginative approach.
Scientific perspective is blended with a
poetical interpretation of reality. The
trappings of horses and armour are turned into
fantastic forms and the colour scheme is rich
and unexpected. His last important work, The
Hunt (1468), is a night scene. Perspective is
used here to create a superb, varied pattern of
(born 1934 in
Detroit, Michigan) is an American photographer.
Uelsmann is a master printer producing composite
photographs with multiple negatives and
extensive darkroom work. He uses up to a dozen
enlargers at a time to produce his final images.
Similar in technique to Rejlander, Uelsmann is a
champion of the idea that the final image need
not be tied to a single negative, but may be
composed of many. Unlike Rejlander, though, he
does not seek to create narratives, but rather
allegorical surrealist imagery of the
unfathomable. Uelsmann is able to subsist on
grants and teaching salary, rather than
Today, with the advent of digital cameras and
Photoshop, photographers are able to create a
work somewhat resembling Uelsmann's in less than
a day, however, at the time Uelsmann was
considered to have almost "magical skill" with
his completely analog tools. Uelsmann used the
darkroom frequently, sometimes using three to
ten enlargers to produce the expected effect.
Photos are still widely regarded as documentary
evidence of events, and Uelsmann, along with
people like Lucas Samaras, was considered an
avant garde shattere of the popular conception.
Ugly Realism. The work produced by a number of
artists working in Berlin from the late 1970s,
among them J. Grutzke, M. Koeppel, and W.
Petrick. It was essentially a revival of the
*New Objectivity of the 1920s.
Umbria, school of. Central Italian school of
painting of the 15th—16th cs based on Perugia
and represented by *Perugino, *Pinturicchio and
Underpainting. Painting of a composition in
monochrome before the addition of colour glazes,
which was the initial stage m the traditional
method of oil painting. The word can also be
applied to a layer of colour which is to be
glazed or scumbled.
Unit One. Group of British artists formed in
1933 and including H. *Moore, B. *Nicholson, *Hepworth
and *Nash; *Read was its spokesman.
(1754-1806). Japanese master of the
wood-block colour print, the 1st Japanese artist
to become well known in the West.
Utrecht Psalter (9th c; University Library,
Utrecht). Carolingian Psalter from the Rheims
school, almost certainly a copy of a much older
codex. Each psalm has an illustrative ink
drawing in a sketchy, agitated freehand style
totally unlike the usual Carolingian style. The
Psalter was brought to England m the late 10th
c. and strongly influenced the English school.
Utrecht school. Group of Dutch painters
including *Terbrugghen, *Honthorst and *Baburen
who were influenced in Rome (c. 1610-20) by the
realism of *Caravaggio and
his follower Manfredi, and later worked in
Utrecht painting religious and genre subjects.
Frans Flals, Rembrandt and Vermeer, as well as
lesser artists, were all to some extent