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Art  &  Artist

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Rabine-Ricci Richard-Rossetti Rossi-Rysselberghe

Rabine Oscar Born in 1928 in Moscow, Oscar Yakovlevich Rabine is a painter and graphic artist, and one of the organizers of the nonconformist movement. From 1946 to 1948, he studied at the Riga Academy of Arts, and from 1948 to 1949 at Moscow's Surikov State Art Institute, from which he was expelled for "formalism." Rabin's professional and moral development was strongly influenced by his father-in-law, the artist and poet Ye. Kropivnitsky. Rabin was a leading figure in the "Lianozovo Group," which took its name from the small settlement in the Moscow region where the Kropivnitsky family lived. In 1978, he was forced to emigrate from the USSR and was deprived of his citizenship "for behavior discreditable to the title of Soviet artist." He now lives and works in Paris. He has participated in and initiated numerous exhibitions and political actions by independent artists. He recently had a solo exhibition at the Mimi Ferzt Gallery in New York (March/April 2001).

Rabuzin Ivan. Ivan Rabuzin is Croatian Naive artist born in 1921. He began painting in 1956, but his occupation was as a carpenter. He switched his career to professional painting in 1962. His paintings included Avenue and My Homeland. From 1993 to 1999 he was also a member of the Croatian Parliament.

Raggi Antonio (b Vico Morcote, nr Lugano, 1624; d Rome, 1 Aug 1686). Italian sculptor and stuccoist. He arrived in Rome in 1645 and remained based there for the rest of his life. He initially joined the workshop of Alessandro Algardi, under whom he made three stucco reliefs for S Giovanni in Laterano. In 1647 he joined 38 other sculptors working under Gianlorenzo Bernini on decorations at St Peter’s. Over the next few years he established himself as Bernini’s most trusted assistant and chief collaborator in both marble and stucco, working from drawings and models supplied by the master. As such he completed the over-life-size marble group of Christ and Mary Magdalene Noli me tangere (1649) for the Alaleona Chapel of SS Domenico e Sisto and the colossal Danube (1650–51) in Bernini’s Four Rivers Fountain on the Piazza Navona, as well as visiting the Este court at Modena in 1653 to make from Bernini’s sketches terracotta models from which large-scale sculptures for the Palazzo Ducale at Sassuolo could be executed. He also collaborated with Bernini on the Cathedra Petri (1657–64) in St Peter’s and on the redecoration of S Maria del Popolo, where he contributed the stucco relief sculptures of SS Barbara, Catherine, Thecla and Apollonia (1655–7), as well as angels and putti.

Raimondi Marcantonio (c. 1480—after 1527). Italian engraver, the first to specialize in the reproduction of original paintings, etc. After studying under F. Francia at Bologna he went to Venice where he copied Durer's engravings. In 1510 he moved to Rome and made engravings of works by Raphael. It is for these that he is remembered.

Rainer Arnulf (1929— ). Austrian artist best known for his expressive photographic self-portraits which are overpainted and overdrawn with strong colours, or with black lines, to accentuate and transform his own image in what he calls 'a mixture of performing and visual art'.

Rajasthani miniature painting. Art of mid-16th—early I9th-c. *Rajput courts in Rajasthan, N.W. India; notably Mewar, Bundi, Kotah, Kishangar and Jaipur. Vivid, diverse styles evolved but *Mughal miniature painting was influential from the 1600s, especially in Jaipur and Bundi. R. painters ill. religious works, e.g. the Gita Govmda pastoral of Krishna and Radha, most beautiful of the gopis (herds-women), produced 'music' paintings (* ragamala) and secular works, e.g. hunting scenes.

Rajput miniature painting. Art of late 16th-18th-c. N.W. Indian Rajput courts; the 2 main traditions are *Pahari and *Rajasthani. The Rajputs, Hindu warrior princes, yielded to the Mughal empire only in the 1610s. R. m. p. combined Hindu symbolic imagery with *Mughal realism.

Ramboux Johann Anton (b Trier, 5 Oct 1790; d Cologne, 2 Oct 1866). German painter, draughtsman and museum curator. He was taught drawing by Jean-Henri Gilson (1741–1809), before he went to Paris for further training in the studio of Jacques-Louis David. In 1812 he returned to Trier, painting portraits until 1815, when he spent a year at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich. In 1816 he went to Rome, where he was part of the Nazarene circle without becoming a member of the Lukasbrüder. Close association with these artists, notably Peter Cornelius, Carl Philipp Fohr and Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, had a more lasting influence on Ramboux’s artistic development than his earlier studies with David, whose classical concepts he gradually abandoned.

Ramos Mel (1935- ). U.S. *Pop artist. In the early 1960s, comic book characters provided his images; subsequently he did paintings of pin-up girls of increasing eroticism.

Randall Bill. Pin -Up Art

Ranson Paul b Limoges, 1864; d Paris, 20 Feb 1909. French painter and designer. The son of a successful local politician, Ranson was encouraged from the outset in his artistic ambitions. He studied at the Ecoles des Arts Decoratifs in Limoges and Paris but transferred in 1886 to the Acadйmie Julian. There he met Paul Sйrusier and in 1888 became one of the original members of the group known as the NABIS. From 1890 onwards, Ranson and his wife France hosted Saturday afternoon meetings of the Nabis in their apartment in the Boulevard du Montparnasse, jokingly referred to as ‘Le Temple’. Ranson acted as linchpin for the sometimes dispersed group. Noted for his enthusiasm and wit and for his keen interests in philosophy, theosophy and theatre, he brought an element of esoteric ritual to their activities. For example he introduced the secret Nabi language and the nicknames used familiarly within the group. He also constructed a puppet theatre in his studio for which he wrote plays that were performed by the Nabis before a discerning public of writers and politicians.

Raphael (1483-1520). Raffaello Sanzio, Italian painter, with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci one of the three masters of the High Renaissance. Born at Urbino, already a flourishing centre of the arts, and the son of a painter, R. was brought into contact with the highest artistic achievements from childhood. He was trained by Perugino, who was then at the height of his own career. R.'s precocious talent was recognized long before he was 20 and his early Vision of a Knight shows an astonishing maturity. R. was astute enough to realize that the art of Leonardo and Michelangelo was transforming the whole conception of painting and in 1S04 he went to Florence to study it. Betrothal of life Virgin (1 S04) shows the transition between the teaching of Perugino and the assertion of the new influences. R.'s colour and the emotional qualities of his work always remained within the tradition of Central Italian painting, while his sense of composition and the dynamic power of his draughtsmanship were learned from the Florentines. Early portraits too, show how much he owed to Leonardo's Mono Lisa, e.g. Maddalena Doni. In his Madonnas, e.g. La Bella Jardiniere (c. 1520), the influence of Fra Bartolommeo is combined with that of Leonardo's drawings of St Anne with the Madonna and Child, e.g. Madonna with the Goldfinch and Madonna del Granduca. By 1508 R. was receiving offers from both the French court and the Pope; late in that year he went to Rome to take part in the grandiose decorative schemes of Pope Julius II for the new Papal apartments in the Vatican. R.'s response to the enormous artistic challenge his part of the scheme presented is also one of those astonishing 'leaps forward' in art history and is matched, perhaps, only by Masaccio's painting of the frescoes in the Carmine church, Florence, 100 years earlier, and the exactly contemporary (1508—1 2) frescoes of Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel. When he found himself the peer and rival of Michelangelo R. was 26. Considered for their composition alone, The School of Athens, Parnassus and Disputa) (Disputation concerning the Holy Sacrament) are probably supreme in art. They were immediately studied by every artist in Rome and remained an 'art school in themselves'. At the same time R. was painting portraits such as the celebrated Young Cardinal. The next 8 years were, indeed, a record of astonishing achievement: R. and his assistants continued the Vatican frescoes — in the Stanza d'Eliodoro there is a richer use of colour, esp. in The Mass of Bolsena; while in the Stanza dell' Incendio del Borgo the almost forced dramatic quality shows his study of the Michelangelo frescoes. In 1514 R. was preferred to Michelangelo by the new Pope, Leo X, as successor to Bramante, architect-in-charge of St Peter's. In 1518 he was to be made, with A. da Sangallo, 'Superintendent of the Streets of Romе', which made him responsible for town planning as well as for the day-to-day upkeep of the entire city. Before this, he had decorated the Farnesina Villa (1514). The famous Galatea is, with Botticelli's Venus and Primavera, the supreme Renaissance evocation of the classical 'Golden Age'; it is also unmatched in its interpretation of spontaneous and graceful female action. The classical themes remind one too, that R. was also responsible for the Papal colls of antiquities. In 1515—16, R. drew the cartoons for the tapestries which, woven m Flanders, were hung in the Sistine Chapel. 7 of the cartoons are preserved. Yet he also found time to paint altarpieces, e.g. The Sistine Madonna and The Transfiguration, a painting left unfinished when he died of fever. It was completed by *Giuho Romano, one of the founders of the Mannerist school which borrowed so much from R.

Rastrelli Bartolomeo (1700-1771).Count, an Italian by birth. Born in Paris. Son of architect and sculptor Carl-Bartolomeo Rastrelli. Studied under his father. In 1716 came to St. Petersburg with his father, who had concluded an agreement with Emperor Petr I, and assisted him. Beginning in 1722 worked independently as an architect. Between 1722 and 1730 traveled twice to Italy and France to improve his knowledge of architecture (one time for 5 years). Carried out private orders in Saint Petersburg and Moscow. When Elizabeth ascended the throne in 1741, he became her favorite court architect. He bore the rank of major general, the title of cavalier of the Order of St. Anne, and was an academician of architecture (1770). He had a number of students and followers. When Empress Catherine II ascended the throne in 1762 Bartolomeo Francesco Rastrelli went into temporary retirement, in 1763 he was dismissed completely and left for Switzerland. Most of Rastrelli's work has survived. This architect is often referred to as the "master of Elizabeth an Baroque." Most of his buildings are in Saint Petersburg: the Smolny Monastery, Vorontsov Palace, Stroganov Palace, Summer Palace of Elizabeth I (located at the site of present Mikhailov or Engineer Palace), the Large Peterhof Palace, the Winter Palace (interiors reconstructed following the fire) and other buildings. Between late 1748 and 1756 during the reign of Empress Elizabeth I, Bartolomeo Francesco Rastrelli headed the construction of the Tzarskoje Selo residence. During this period he rebuilt the entire Large (Catherine) Palace. He also designed the Hermitage (1746 - 1752) and the Grotto (1755 - 1756) in the regular part of the Catherine Park. Between 1754 and 1757 the Slide Hill, disassembled in 1792-1795, was constructed according to Rastrelli's designs. Later the Granite Terrace still in existence today was constructed on this hill according to plans by the architect Luigi Rusca. In 1750 - 1752 the Mon Bijou pavilion of Rastrelli's design was erected in the center of the Menagerie, in place of which the landscape part of the Alexander Park was later planned. The Arsenal designed by Adam Menelaws was later built in place of the Mon Bijou hunting lodge, which had been partially dismantled during the early 19 century.

Rauschenberg Robert(1925- ). U.S. painter. He studied, in 1948 and subsequently, at Black Mountain College, N.C. (with *Albers), then at Art Students League. After travelling in Italy, Casablanca, Morocco and Paris, he then settled, in 1952, in N.Y. Since 1955 he has designed sets and costumes for the Merce Cunningham Dance Company. Influenced by the Dadaists, Surrealists, and by De Kooning, R., inspired by the composerjohn Cage and in association with *Johns, but independently, helped revolutionize post-*Abstract Expressionist U.S. art. He often used 'combines' — part painting, part collage, part *readymades, as in Rebus (1955), Monogram (1959) and Trophy II (1960-1). R. also used *silk screen and photographic processes, and executed a series of drawings for Dante's Inferno. Awarded 1st prize at Venice Biennale 1964.

Rayonism. Art movement founded in 1911/ 12 by the Russian painter *Larionov, in association with his wife *Goncharova. According to Larionov, the 'subject' of Rayonist paintings should be beams of colour, parallel or crossing at an angle. Rayonist paintings are therefore quasi-abstract and have links with Italian *Futurism and with experiments made by *Delaunay in their emphasis on apparent movement and lines of force.

Raysse Martial (French, 1936). Nouveau Realisme

Readymade. In 2oth-c. art, an everyday, usually mass-produced object, selected by an artist with a creative or thought-provoking purpose. *Duchamp distinguished r.s from *found objects as being concerned neither with taste nor aesthetics, the artist's mere act of selection defining them as 'art'. Later artists (*Pop art) have used r.s as elements in their works.

Realism. Term often used in a general sense, meaning fidelity to life (as opposed to idealization, caricature, etc.), but more usefully confined to the 19th-c. movement in painting and literature. This was a reaction against the subjectivity and suggestiveness of Romanticism, insisting on the portrayal of ordinary contemporary life and current manners and problems, and in fact (as part of its anti-Romanticism) tending to emphasize the baser human motives and more squalid activities. In literature the novel became the predominant form: Balzac, Stendhal and Dickens contain realistic elements, but Flaubert and Tolstoy are considered the great masters of R. *Naturalism was an extension of the principles of R. Courbet was the 1st major Realist painter. *Impressionism may be regarded as an off-shoot of R., and a 2Oth-c. version was *Social Realism.

Recondo Felix de was born in Aranjuez, Spain, on 13 March 1932.

Red figure style. Style of Greek vase painting where the figures are painted in ret! on a black ground; supposedly invented by the Andokides painter (fl. 530—520 BC,), it continued until the mid-4th с. ВС.

Redon Odilon (1 840-1916). French painter, draughtsman, graphic artist and writer. Until about 1878 he painted landscapes in oil and pastel under the influence of Courbet and Corot; later he turned to charcoal drawing and lithography. R. was concerned with the realities of the imagination, in opposition to the visual emphasis of Impressionism. His middle period, lasting till the turn ok the c, was an expression of mysticism and the Symbolism of his friends Huysmans and Mallarme; then he became associated with the *Nabis.

Refuses. *Salon des Refuses

Regnault Jean-Baptiste (1754—11829). French Neoclassical painter. He followed only the superficial features of Neoclassicism, e.g. The Three Graces (1799).

Rego Paula (1935- ). Portuguese-born painter, ill. and print maker, who has been living in Britain since 1976. R. has said that her childhood play-room, a rich education in traditional folk and fairy-tales, and an early interest in illustrative art (e.g. *Tenniel's Alice in Wonderland and Beatrix Potter) have been her greatest influences, but it could be said that her work is similar in temperament to that of *Goya and *Balthus. She made collages in the '60s and '70s, e.g. Stray Dogs (The Dogs of Barcelona) and Regicide (both 1965), but devoted herself to painting and making prints from the '80s, with Red Monkey Beats His Wife and Wife Cuts Off Red Monkey's Tail (both 1981). In her narrative work, R. explores power, sexuality and the subversion of social codes; she has said that her work 'is to do with half things. To do with cheating, lying, the half-sins, the mediocre ones.' The Girl and Dog series (1986) shows a young girl with ambivalent power to both nurture and destroy a creature at her mercy, while The Cadet and his Sister (1988) and The Policeman's Daughter (1987) both present relationships between gender stereotypes.

Reinhardt Ad (1913-67). U.S. abstract painter, art critic, theoretician and teacher, and one of the pioneers of U.S. abstraction. He joined the *American Abstract Artists (1930s) and was later associated with *Abstract Expressionism. His style moved from powerful colour and bold, *Hard-edged forms of the late 1930s to 'all black' paintings from the 1950s. R.'s 'ultimate' paintings, e.g. Abstract Painting (1960-2), large canvases trisected into 3 barely distinguishable zones of black, foreshadowed *Minimal art.

Relief. Sculpture executed on a surface so that the figures project but are not freestanding; the projection may be considerable (high relief) or slight (low relief or bas-relief).

Reiss Winold (1886-1953) early modernist in 20th Century American Art and Design. Winold Reiss (1886-1953) was born in Karlsruhe, Germany. He was the second son of Fritz Reiss (1857-1914) who as a well-known landscape artist. Reiss was a portraitist and his philosophy was that an artist must travel to find the most interesting subjects.
In his early years he traveled within Germany with his father who studied peasants of particular types that he wanted to draw or paint. This helped form many of Reiss' ideas about subject matter for portraiture. Reiss came to America in 1913 and was captivated by Native Americans. It was an interest and subject matter throughout his entire career. He was a success very early, lecturing before the Art Students League and even founding a publication, Modern Art Collector. Reiss returned once to Germany in 1921 but only as a visit; coming once again to New York City in 1922. Reiss also illustrated Alain Locke's The New Negro, an important book about African American culture. His most outstanding commission was for the work performed on the Cincinnati Union Terminal (now known as the Cincinnati Museum Center) in 1933. He blended Art Deco with portraiture which captured the history of Cincinnati through its people. Fourteen murals from the passenger concourse were removed to the Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport in 1973, where they can be seen by airport users.
Winold Reiss was a leader who devoted most of his life towards painting a much broader cross section of ethnic diversity in America, in a compassionate and objective manner, than any artist before him. He died on August 29, 1953 in New York City.

Rembrandt van Rijn (Harmensz van Rijn) (1606—69). Dutch painter and etcher, born in Leyden. Until 1631 he worked there and in The Hague and thereafter in Amsterdam. Son of a Calvinist miller and a baker's daughter from a Catholic family. He received a classical education at the Leyden Latin School, which he left shortly before finishing the 6-year course. R.'s 1st 2 masters both worked in Italy — firstly, Jacob Isaacsz van Swanenburgh, the black sheep of a Leyden clan of artists and civil servants and secondly, the Amsterdam Catholic *Lastman. Due to his background and training, R. began his career with a certain degree of learning, considerable familiarity with early 17th-c. developments m Italian art and a multi-sectarian perspective in a society where religious affiliation was extremely important.
R.'s earliest major recognition came from Constantijn Huygens, the secretary to the Prince of Orange, dilettante musician and medallist, and an important poet and correspondent in the Republic of Letters. Huygens saw R. as the Dutch answer to Rubens — a local artist capable of raising the reputation of Dutch painting to the highest level. He declared the voting R. to be superior even to the ancient Greeks with his ability to integrate accurate observations of emotion into themes of universal applicability. Thanks to Huygens, R. and his Leyden colleague *Lievensz achieved fame when they were still in their early twenties.
R. risked — and in the event lost — his connection at court in order to pursue a commercial career in Amsterdam. There he became the partner of the Mennonite art dealer Hendrick Uylenburgh, whose studio earned money from art through various activities. R. became the artistic director of this workshop, which supplied the 'upper' end of the portrait market. R. himself set a new standard for Amsterdam portraiture with his Anatomy Lesson of Dr Nicolaes Tulp (1632). The bond with Uylenburgh was consolidated when R. married his niece Saskia (a Frisian Calvinist).
Between 1632 and 1636, R. attracted numerous lucrative portrait commissions. From 1636 to 1642, after leaving Uylenburgh's studio to set up on his own, he worked at a slower pace on more ambitious compositions, such as the Danae in St Petersburg. He moved beyond the emulation of Rubens to vie with Titian, Leonardo and Michelangelo. In 1639 he bought a luxurious house near Uylenburgh. This stage of his career culminated in 1642 with the Civic Guard Comраnу of Frans Banning Cocq, known as The Night Watch. Saskia died this year after giving birth to their 4th child, Titus, the only one to survive infancy. Saskia left her entire fortune to Titus. Subsequently, R.'s affairs grew increasingly desperate until his bankruptcy in 1656. In 1649 his mistress, Geertge Dircx, sued him for breach of promise and he had her put away in a detention house for 12 years. R. took a new mistress, the docile Hendrickje Stoffels, who became his common-law wife. The liaison led to her expulsion from the Calvinist church.
R. also experienced problems in his career. From 1642 to 1652, despite his great renown, he received no significant portrait commissions. This may have been connected with an incident in 1642. R. had painted a portrait for the very-powerful Amsterdam patrician Andries de Graeff, brother-in-law of Frans Banning Cocq. De Graeff refused to accept delivery, so R. sued him, winning the case and forcing the patron to pay. This Pyrrhic victory probably cost R. the patronage that would otherwise have accrued to him in the post-Night Watch period. He was then forced to rely on money earned from teaching and from selling his own finished work. His position of financial insecurity is reflected in the subject matter of his paintings. Rather than the large-scale histories and grand mythological subjects of the 1630s, he now painted sentimental cabinet pictures of familiar biblical and household themes. The Dutch economy faltered with the outbreak of the First English War in 1651 and in 1656 R. was forced to apply for voluntary bankruptcy. He moved to a depressed quarter of Amsterdam.
R.'s artistic development in the 1650s was stimulated by a new and interesting patron, the Amsterdam rentier Jan Six, son-in-law of Nicolaes Tulp. R.'s painting of the patrician (still owned by his family) is I of the most outstanding achievements of European portraiture. Six, who was an amateur playwright, asked R. to produce an etching for the printed edition of his play Medea alongside other conspicuous marks of favour. As with Huygens and Uylenburgh R. lost the support of Six. Those who knew R. and wrote about him considered him tactless, arrogant and temperamental. This is borne out by the documents, which also suggest that he was querulous and unreliable. In the final years of his life, living modestly, R. suffered the loss Ist of Hendrickje and then of Titus. He spent his time with people considered by some to be socially inferior, e.g. the melancholy shopkeeper-poet Jeremias de Decker and other members of a circle of pietistic Calvinists. Some of R.'s work, especially the biblical etchings and paintings, seems to reflect this association. De Decker's Good Friday is reflected in the monumental etchings Ecce Homo and Three Crosses, which R. issued in successive states proceeding from an open and transparent mode to one of mysterious obscurity. The common belief that attributes to the young R. a 'Baroque' outgomgness and to the late R. an acquired innerness cannot therefore be dismissed out of hand.
R. was the Ist artist to practice self-portraiture as a speciality. In so doing, he created a medium for self-fashioning that has since inspired many artists. It is hard to perform artistic introspection without thinking of R.
If R.'s biography and his self-portraits confront us with unfathomable problems concerning the relationship between art and life, his ceuvre leaves us with intractable questions of attribution. The connoisseurship of R.'s etchings was never very embattled and seems to have reached a stable condition unlike the situation regarding his drawings and paintings. R. often entered extremely intimate artistic relationships. His borrowings, lendings and partnerships were never clear-cut transactions. As a result, his work has been confused from the start with that of Lievensz, the workshop assistants m the Uylenburgh studio and some of his own later pupils. With the tempting imitability of his manner, especially the brown studies in suggestive *chiaroscuro and the legendarily economical pen sketches there are the makings of an ceuvre with intrinsically indefinable boundaries. The connoisseurship of R.'s paintings and drawings has been in a permanent quandary since the 17th c, allowing wishful thinking, ignorance and unscrupulousness. A committee of Dutch art historians known as the Rembrandt Research Project, founded in 1968, took it upon itself to distinguish between authentic R. paintings and all others. In 3 vols of the Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings covering the period until 1642, the Project has pronounced categorical judgment on 95% of the paintings concerned. The results have met (as some R. specialists had predicted they would) with less acceptance than the Project anticipated, and m 1993 it announced that in the remaining 2 vols it would give more scope to the doubts, uncertainties and complexities attendant upon its enterprise.
R. has always been considered an artist of great importance, but for what has, however, often been moot. There is his position within the tradition of high art through the nature and many-sidedness of his subject matter, his technical proficiency, the name he earned as a master observer of man and his moods, his emulation of *Rubens and the great Italians. But, he also had qualities that were long disdained by classicists — his irreverent flouting of decorum, his stated preference for 'nature' above artistic tradition, his excessive use of chiaroscuro and his personal shortcomings. What classicists saw as faults became sterling recommendations to 19th-c. Romantics. His dedication to nature was m their eyes similar to that of Realism and they saw his social mal-adroitness as laudable dissension from the bourgeois norm. In the same period, Dutch nationalists adopted R. as a hero while denying that he was the rebel or misfit his Romantic admirers held him to be. The scholarly study of R. and his popular reception has been caught since 1 850 m the meshes of this knot. Perhaps for the past century and a half R. has had the best of both critical worlds. This has given him enough credit to cover a multitude of sins, even those of remote imitators, and to frustrate the best efforts of conscientious biographers and cataloguers.

Renaissance. The cultural and artistic revolution which originated in the N. Italian city-states of the 14th c. It manifested a new confidence in the power and dignity of man and was inspired by an increasingly intensive study of the artists and thinkers of classical antiquity. The growing importance of the secular order in European culture was reflected in the very large part played by lay aristocratic patronage in the R.; nobles such as Lorenzo de' *Medici were, moreover, themselves artistically gifted. Nevertheless, the Church continued as a great patron and the sponsorship of such great artists as Michelangelo by Popes Alexander VI, Julius II and Leo X not only changed the face of Rome but also the development of European art. As well as changes in the pattern of patronage, the R. brought a radical change in the position of the artist: hitherto regarded as a skilled, if respected, craftsman, he began to be admired, sometimes with awe, as a superior kind of man, an inspired creator. Besides admiring great artistic inspiration, R. society also held the ideal of 'universal' or 'many-sided' man — skilled in every art, well read m the classics and an able scientist, engineer, courtier, soldier, etc. The work of the greater and lesser humanist scholars of the R. changed the character of European literary culture. The scholar-writer, the humanist Petrarch being perhaps the first, prided himself on knowledge of the classics rather than the metaphysical edifices of St Thomas Aqumas and the schoolmen. Good Latin and Greek grammars and pedagogical imitative prose laid the essential foundations of an elegant and formed style, Cicero being the admired model. The work of men such as Erasmus provided critical eds of classical texts and the Bible, and the rediscovery of much of Plato's work gave a new impulse to thought. The revolutionary invention of printing was welcomed by the most enlightened humanists who collaborated, as literary advisers, with such printers as Froben and Amerbach in producing scholarly texts; the printer's art too, in the work of such men, achieved standards of beauty not surpassed since. In the arts of painting and sculpture such masters as *Giotto, *Masaccio, *Donatello, *Sluter, *Leonardo da Vinci and *Michelangelo originated and perfected a new visual language in which, as in classical art, the human figure and countenance became the most important vehicle of the artist's intention. Growing attention to anatomy and the formulation of the laws of perspective produced figures expressive m movement and gesture and with a bodily weighty 'presence', moving m a well-modulated and coherent picture space or standing freely and confidently in actual space.

Reni Guido (1575—1642). Bolognese painter, pupil of *Carracci. A refined colourist and sensitive draughtsman, he perfected an eclectic classicism. His melodramatic images of such diverse subjects as Christ, Lucretia and Cleopatra were much sought after, and he became the idol of the fashionable circles of Rome and Bologna. The Massacre of the Innocents at Bologna is his most dramatic and celebrated work. The composition, of great dramatic power, owes much to Raphael and the study of the antique. Aurora, a fresco painted for the Casino Rospigliosi in Rome in 1613, is perhaps his best-known work. Other work includes St John the Baptist Preaching.

Renoir Pierre-Auguste (1841 — 1919). French painter born in Limoges, moved to Paris in 1S45. He trained and worked with great facility as a porcelain painter (1856—9). With his earnings he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts (1862-4) and became a pupil of Gleyre with Monet, Bazille and Sisley. Working with them in Paris and during summers at Fontainebleau, he emerged as one of the most naturally gifted of the future Impressionists. He exhibited in 4 of the 8 Impressionist exhibitions. *Impressionism.
The character of Impressionism emerged from the paintings of Monet and R. between 1867 and 1870. Mutually inspired, they painted directly from the subject (poppyfields, figures under trees, riverscapes) and to retain the momentariness of nature's changing appearance developed a technique of broadly painted broken brush-strokes. The living immediacy of their landscapes was further emphasized by their empirical use of complementary colour in shadows, clear scintillating colour in Monet, more sensitive subtle relationships in R., e.g. Use (1867). The difference between them is evident in their paintings of La Grenouillere painted side by side in 1869, Monet's in aggressive clean strokes of fresh blue and ochre, R.'s in soft feathery areas of muted green, pink and violet. The climax of R.'s important contribution to Impressionism is in, e.g. The Swing and Moulin de la Galette (both 1876) in which gay Paris life flickers under a patchwork of mottled light.
Right through his career, R.'s work never reveals the introspective seriousness of Monet or Cezanne (he shocked Gleyre by saying 'if painting were not a pleasure to me I should certainly not do it') and unlike Courbet, Pissarro or Zola (of whom R. said 'he thinks he has portrayed the people by saying that they stink') never dwelt on any but the pleasing aspects of life. His lack of intellectual seriousness led to a disturbing fluctuation in his early work from the pure Impressionism (1869—76), to Salon-conscious academicism, e.g. Diana (1867) and a literary anecdotal element present in La loge (1874). The constants in his work are his superb touch and his unfailing colour sense.
In the late 1870s he scored a great Salon success with works like the sweet and charming Mme Charpenlier and Daughters (1878), but with the end of his Impressionist phase he felt uncertain. Such paintings as Dance at Bougival (1883) and Les Parapluies (c. 1883) show him attempting to organize his forms with a more sculptural strength. The major work of this 'maniere aigre' was the Grandes Baigneuses (1884—7): the figures very tightly drawn and modelled against the softness of the landscape. The classical character of this period reflects his visit to Italy m 1881 and his current admiration for Raphael, Ingres and French Renaissance sculpture.
His later works are at once more freely painted and strongly coloured (oppressively hot reds and oranges), but retain this sense of monumentality, e.g. Seated Bather (1914). The transition to sculpture in his last years was almost predictable. The bronze Venus Victrix (1914) is a typical example.

Repin Ilya (1844—1930). Russian painter, the best known and probably the most brilliant of the *Wanderers group. His work is considered a model for the *Socialist Realist school in Russia. The Volga Boatmen (1870—3), one of his most famous works, is typical in having the poorest and most miserable Russian peasants as subject. Apart from social themes, R. was a talented portraitist and landscape painter.

Replica. An exact copy of a painting either by the painter of the original or under his direction. The word is frequently used to describe identical works when it is not known which was produced first.

Reproduction. Copy of a painting or drawing made by some means which renders it capable of being printed m large numbers for the purpose of popularization. From the 17th to the late 19th c. engraving was the means of г., mezzotint being the most widely used technique; this has been superseded by photographic processes.

Revoil Pierre-Henri (b Lyon, 12 June 1776; d Lyon, 19 March 1842). French painter and collector. He entered the Ecole de Dessin in Lyon around 1791 as a pupil of Alexis Grognard (1752–1840). He then became a designer in a wallpaper factory. In 1795 he began working in Jacques-Louis David’s studio, where, with Fleury Richard, Comte Auguste de Forbin, François-Marius Granet and Louis Ducis, he belonged to what David’s pupils called the ‘parti aristocratique’. In 1800 he published with Forbin, who remained a friend, a comedy that was performed at the Théâtre du Vaudeville, Sterne à Paris, ou le voyageur sentimental. In 1802, on the occasion of the laying of the first stone of the Place Bellecoeur in Lyon by the First Consul, Révoil executed a large and elaborately allegorical drawing, Bonaparte Rebuilding the Town of Lyon (preparatory drawings, Paris, Louvre, and Lyon, Mus. B.-A.), which was the basis for a painting exhibited in the Salon of 1804 (destr. by the artist, 1816). During the same period he composed a number of religious paintings, for example In Honour of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and Christ on the Cross (both Lyon, St Nizier). In 1807 Révoil was appointed a teacher in the recently founded Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Lyon. His teaching was marked by considerable erudition and contributed to the birth of the ‘Lyon school’, which came to the fore in the 1820s.

Reynolds Joshua (1723—92). British painter of portraits and genre allegorical subjects, founder-member and 1st president of the R.A. (1768). R.. studied with Thomas Hudson, and, under Admiral Keppel's patronage, visited Europe (1749—52). His portrait of Keppel (1753—4) 'ed to many other portrait commissions, great wealth and influence, and he painted portraits of George III and Queen Charlotte (1779). R. himself became an art collector and also founded the R.A. schools. Friendly with and accepted in aristocratic circles, he was also friendly with Dr Johnson, Sheridan and theatrical and literary circles in London. R. also painted somewhat sentimental pictures of children, and, especially in his later years, mythological and allegorical paintings. Among his works are: Mrs Siddons as the Tragic Muse, The Infant Samuel and The Age of Innocence. R.'s views on art and paintings were publ. as Discourses Delivered to the Students of the Royal Academy by Sir Joshua Reynolds.

Ribalta Francisco (1565—1628). One of the 1st Spanish painters to use *tenebrist effects in scenes of intense religious fervour. He was trained in Madrid, probably under Navarrete, then settled in Valencia. His paintings include The Vision of Father Simon (1612) and The Vision of St Francis (c. 1620). His son Juan (c. 1596— 1628) was his pupil and collaborator.

Ribera, Jusepe de  (c. 1590—1652). Spanish painter and etcher. In 1616 he settled in Italy; his life was full of dramatic incidents and this is reflected in the violent subject matter of his paintings, the contrasted modelling of his figures and the theatrical lighting of his compositions. He was strongly influenced by Caravaggio and Correggio and his own powerful style we associate today with the Spanish Baroque. His uncompromising realism is demonstrated in the Boy with a Club Foot. In his last paintings he achieved a mastery Velazquez's.

Ricci Marco  (1676—1729). Venetian landscape painter, nephew and collaborator of Sebastiano R. He was often employed to paint landscape backgrounds in his uncle's religious works. He was the originator of romantic landscape painting in 18th-c. Venice and N. Italy. R. also produced remarkable etchings.

Ricci Sebastiano  (1659—1734). Venetian painter active in Vienna, Pans and London. He painted the Resurrection in Chelsea Hospital chapel and left decorations in Burlington House unfinished. He was chiefly influenced by Veronese but had a looser lighter style which in turn influenced G. B. Tiepolo.

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