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  Labisse-Levine Levitan-Luminism  



Levitan Isaak (1860—1900). Among the earliest painters of Russian landscape. A member of the *Abramtsevo Colony, he contributed designs for some of the earliest productions of Mamontov's 'Private Opera'. At the Moscow-College he was an influential professor among the future avant-garde, e.g. Talk, Kusnetsov, Larionov ami Tatlin.

Levy-Dhurmer Lucien b Algiers, 30 Sept 1865; d Le Vesinet, 24 Sept 1953. French painter and potter. From 1879 he studied at the Ecole Supйrieure de Dessin et de Sculpture in Paris. In his first exhibition at the Salon in 1882 he showed a small porcelain plaque depicting the Birth of Venus in the style of Alexandre Cabanel and he continued to exhibit there regularly. From 1886 to 1895 he worked as a decorator of earthenware and then as artistic director of the studio of Clement Massier (c. 1845–1917) at Golfe Juan, near Cannes. Around 1892 he signed his first pieces of earthenware inspired by Islamic ceramics and made a name for himself primarily as a potter at the Salon des Artistes Francais in 1895. An innovator in ceramic shapes, techniques and glazes, he participated in the revival of the decorative arts at the end of the 19th century. During this period he spent some time in Italy, notably in Venice where he familiarized himself with 15th-century Italian art. In 1896 he exhibited for the first time at the Galerie Georges Petit: about twenty pastels and paintings were displayed, revealing his individual style and gifts as a portrait painter. The female form, influenced by the art of Leonardo and the Pre-Raphaelites became, with landscape, one of his favoured themes and was invested with mystery, using a technique at once full-bodied and refined (e.g. Eve, 1896; Paris, Mus. d’Orsay). In the 20th century he gradually departed from Symbolism except in some representations of women illustrating the music of Ludwig van Beethoven, Gabriel Faure and Claude Debussy and in some landscapes (e.g. Winter, Petit Trianon, 1929; Paris, Petit Pal.).

Lewis John Frederick (1805—76). British painter of oriental subjects, son of E. C. L. The brilliant colour and minute detail of his paintings attracted the admiration of Kuskin and anticipated the Pre-Raphaelites.

Lewis Maud (Canadian Folk Artist, 1903-1970)

Lewis Wyndham (Percy) (1884-1957). British writer amd painter. After founding the Rebel Art Centre (1913) and *Vorticism, editing the 2 violently polemical numbers of the magazine BLAST (1914, 1915) and war service, I., emerged as the most powerful and one of the most imaginative figures in English art, revered by some artists, increasingly rejected by cultural and social orthodoxy. L.'s novels and critical writings were radical and ruthless attacks on contemporary art and society. He despised the 'average' intellect, and m art held to the 'great ideals of structure and formal significance'; Impressionism, in his view, marked the decay of Realism and neither Cubism, Futurism nor abstract art was the true way out of the impasse of 2oth-c. art. Art, he believed, was the science of the outside of things, and his own paintings and his drawings have a precise, tense, controlled line and a steely angularity of form and surface. His writings include: the novels Tarr (1918); The Apes of Cod (1930), on the superficialities and pretensions of 1920s society; Revenge for Love (1937); and 'The Human Age, a trilogy -The Childermass (1928), Monstre Gai and Malign Fiesta (both 1955); the critical work Time and Western Man (1927) and the autobiographical Blasting and Bombardiering (i937)- His paintings include: famous portraits of T. S. Eliot (1938 and 1949), Ezra Pound (1938) and Edith Sitwell (1923-35); Surrender of Barcelona (1936); and Mud Clinic (1937). He also produced graphic work.

Le Witt Sol (1928- ). U.S. Minimalist artist, author of 'Paragraphs on *Conceptual Art' (Artforum, 1967). L., like *Judd, has made modular and serial constructions, open modular cubes which derive from logical propositions and operations (49 3-Part Variations, 1967-70). In Ins drawings, geometrical patterns are derived from sets of instructions or are reinterpretations of mathematical calculations of points, lines and planes (10,000 Lines j" Long, 1972); concepts like 'towards' or 'between' are worked out in relation to the wall on which a drawing is executed usually by assistants from sets of instructions.

Leyden Lucas van. *Lucas van Leyden

Lhote Andre (1885-1962). French painter and influential teacher and writer on art. His admiration for the work of Cezanne led him to join the Cubists, and in 1912 he exhibited with the Section d'Or group. His later work in a modified Cubist style became academic.

Libera Adalberto

Liberi Pietro (b Padua, 1605; d Venice, 8 Oct 1687). Italian painter. He moved to Venice at an early age and studied with Alessandro Varotari (il Padovanino). Travels from 1628 to 1638 took him to Constantinople, Tunis and several European countries. In Rome from 1638 to 1640, he copied the frescoes of Michelangelo and Raphael, studied the works of the Carracci, Pietro da Cortona and Guido Reni, and also came under the prevailing influence of Gianlorenzo Bernini. His earliest known work, the Rape of the Sabines (1641; Siena, Pin. N.), richly reflects this experience of Rome. On his return journey to Venice (c. 1643) he stopped in Bologna and may have seen works by Emilian artists, from Correggio to Reni, in Parma.

Lichtenstein Roy (1923-97). U.S. painter and sculptor, one of the main exponents of U.S. *Pop art. Like *Wesselmann, *Rosenquist and *Warhol, his subjects are often banal objects (golf ball, hamburger, hot dog) of modern commercial industrial U.S.A. and mass media, enlarged comic strips, showing printing with dots, talk balloons and exclamations (Whaam, 1963), parodies of famous paintings (Cezanne, Mondrian, Picasso, the Abstract Expressionists) and formalized landscapes. L.'s pictures are usually on a large scale, often painted in acrylic paint, using limited, flat colours and hard, precise drawing in a neutral, deadpan manner.

Liebermann Max (1847—1935). German painter and etcher. L. studied in Amsterdam, where he was influenced by the Realism of J. Israels, and in Paris, where he came into contact with Munkacsy, Gourbet and the painters of the *Harbi7on school. In 1873 he worked in Barbizon, then from 1884 in Berlin as an accomplished master of Naturalism, opposed to the theatrical school of Bocklin. His paintings of this period were dark and heavy, but from the 1890s the influence of Manet and the French Impressionists increased; he was elected president of the Berlin Secession in 1898. Famous and highly productive, I., became the most important German Impressionist.

Ligare David (born 1945) is an American contemporary realist painter. Since 1978, he has focused on painting still lifes, landscapes, and figures that are informed by Greco-Roman antiquity. Chief among his stated influences are the aesthetic and philosophical theories of the Greek sculptor Polykleitos and the mathematican and philosopher Pythagoras, as well as the work of the 18th-century classical painter Nicholas Poussin. A resident of Salinas, California, his paintings often depict the terrain of the central Californian coast in the background. Ligare was born in Oak Park, Illinois. He received his formal artistic training at the Art Center College of Design in Los Angeles. His paintings are in the collections of the Museum of Modern Art, New York City,Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, San Jose Museum of Art, Gabinetto Disegni e Stampe degli Uffizi, Florence, and Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum of Art, Madrid.

Ligorio Pirro (b Naples, c. 1513; d Ferrara, 26 Oct 1583). Italian architect, painter, draughtsman and antiquary. He is best known for his designs for the Casino of Pius IV in the Vatican and his gardens for the Villa d’Este at Tivoli, which greatly influenced Renaissance garden design. His work reflects his interest in the reconstruction of Classical antiquity, although this was sometimes based on fragmentary information, and his painting and architecture are closely dependent on classicism with a richness of detail associated with Roman Imperial art.

Limbourg brothers  Paul (Pol), Jean (Hennequm) and Herman (Hermant). Artists born in Flanders, probably the nephews of the painter J. Malouel. The brothers first entered the service of the dukes of Burgundy. From 1411 they worked for the duke of Berry, succeeding J. de Hesdin. Paul, the greatest, was chiefly responsible for Les Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. This illuminated book of hours, one of the masterpieces of the *International Gothic style, is a superb evocation of the age of chivalry and courtly love painted in its last years. The landscape backgrounds, especially of the calendar, are justly famous. All 3 artists were dead by 1416.

Limning (from illumination). Word meaning originally manuscript illumination and, from the 16th с onwards, the painting of miniature portraits.

Lind Jerry von. Pin -Up Art.

Lindner Richard (1901—78). German-born painter, he emigrated to the U.S.A. in 1941. L. evolved a mannered fetishistic style appropriate to subjects which evoke N.Y. life.

Lindsay Norman (1879—1969). Australian artist, known mainly for his ills of Petronius, Rabelais and Villon, and also the poetry of Kenneth Mackenzie.

Linocut. Form of relief printing similar in technique to the woodcut. Lino, invented in the mid-19th c, is easier to work than wood and is therefore often used when the durability of the block is not an important consideration. It is suited to bold, simplified rather than naturalistic effects.

Liotard Jean-Etienne (1702—89). Swiss pastel-list and miniaturist who specialized in society and genre portraits, a fine example of the latter being Chocolate C,irl. He spent 5 years in Constantinople and on his return continued to wear Turkish dress and a beard, which earned him the nickname 'The Turk' and brought him publicity and patronage all over Europe. He painted several portraits of himself thus attired; also famous is his portrait of himself as an old man (1773).

Lipchitz Jacques (1891 —1973). Lithuanian-born sculptor who first studied architecture; he settled m Pans (1909), studying at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and then at the Acadenne Julian. He lived in N.Y. from 1941. His 1st i-man show was held in 1920. In Paris he met *Archipenko, *Gns and *Picasso, and his work from 191 5 to about 1925 is Cubist in character. Figures and heads are reduced to a simple block-like structure, whose flat planes are sometimes coloured (Man with Guitar, 1947). In the late 1920s his work underwent a change in form and content. The structural angularity gave way to a looser spatial play and the disciplined formal analysis was abandoned for a free use of evocative natural forms. The idol-like Figure (1926—30) shows his affinity to the Parisian Surrealism of the 1930s, while Chant des voyelles (1931) or the Prometheus made for the International Exhibition (Paris, 1937) illustrate the concern of his mature style to appeal to the spectator through direct association with natural forms and emotions. He executed several important commissions while in N.Y.

Lippi Filippino (c. 1457—1504). Florentine painter, the son of Fra Filippo I., and almost certainly the pupil of Botticelli. His finest work is The Vision of Si Bernard. Madonna ami CJtild with St Dominic and St Jerome and Portrait of a Young Man are also representative of the graceful style of Florentine painting before the revolution of Leonardo da Vinci. Karly frescoes by L. are found beside those of Masaccio and Masolmo in the Brancacci chapel, Carmine church, Florence. More important, and showing L.'s interest in classical art, are the cycle in the Strozzi chapel, S. Maria Novella, Florence. In his last years he worked in Rome, where he painted many panel pictures and the frescoes of the CarafFa chapel, S. Maria sopra Minerva.

Lippi Fra Filippo (c 1406-69). Florentine painter. L. was received into a religious order as a child. He was certainly influenced by Masaccio, who painted his frescoes in the Carmine at the time when L. was growing up there. His 1st important work is the Tarquinia Madonna. His Barbadori Altarpiece shows an almost complete movement away from Masaccio. Its composition is complicated and makes much of decorative elements, and the whole spirit is one of grace and refinement. At Prato L. painted his most important cycle of frescoes. Of special interest are the 2 scenes St Stephen's Funeral and The Feast of Herod. In Prato he eloped with a nun; their son was the painter Filippino Lippi. Among many later paintings in which L.'s special grace is best seen are Madonna and Child and Madonna Adoring the Child in a Wood. The fresco cycle at Spoleto cathedral was unfinished at his death and was completed by others.

Lippo Memmi. Italian painter, Sienese school (b. ca. 1285, Siena, d. ca. 1361, Siena)
He was the son of MEMMO DI FILIPPUCCIO, the brother of Tederigho (also spelt Federigo) Memmi and, after 1324, brother-in-law of Simone and Donato Martini, all of whom were painters. He is known through signed works, documentary references and early secondary sources. In 1317 he signed and dated a frescoed Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints (‘Maesta’) in the Palazzo del Popolo, San Gimignano. Commissioned by the podesta, Nello di Mino de’ Tolomei of Siena, the work is an adaptation of Simone Martini’s fresco of the Maesta in the Sala del Mappamondo of the Palazzo Pubblico, Siena. A diptych of the Virgin and Child and St John the Baptist, originally in Pisa (Berlin, Gemäldegal., and New York, W. B. Golovin priv. col.), is signed and dated 1333. In the same year Lippo and Simone Martini signed and dated the altarpiece of the Annunciation (Florence, Uffizi), originally from the altar of St Ansanus in Siena Cathedral. The precise nature and extent of Lippo’s participation in this work are disputed by scholars. A fragmentary fresco of the Virgin and Child Enthroned with SS Peter and Paul and Two Angels (Siena, Pin. N.) from the cloister of S Domenico, Siena, once bore a signature and, perhaps, a partial date of MCCCL....In S Maria dei Servi, Siena, there is a signed but undated half-length Virgin and Child. A Virgin and Child Enthroned (Altenburg, Staatl. Lindenau-Mus.) carries what is apparently an original inscription (LIPPUS MEMMI DE SENIS ME PINXIT), but its style bears little resemblance to that of Lippo Memmi’s other known works. A Madonna of Mercy in Orvieto Cathedral is signed LIPPUS DE SENA, but there is much disagreement over attempts to identify this artist with Lippo Memmi.

Liss German Johann (Jan) (d. 1629) nicknamed 'Pan'. German painter of genre, biblical and mythological subjects who went to Italy (c. 1619) after being trained in the Netherlands. He settled in Venice and with Feti brought new vigour to Venetian painting of the early 17th с

Lissitzky El  (Lazar) (1S90-1941). Russian pioneer of modern design in the fields of typography and exhibition design in the 1920s; he also transmitted Russian ideas to W. Europe. In 1919 he met *Malevich in Vitebsk; painted his 1st abstract paintings of startling originality which he called Prouns. His Story of Two Squares (1920) is considered the 1st example of modern typographical design; in 1921 he helped to organize and design the Russian exhibition in Berlin. Group G winch he founded in Berlin in 1920, fusing *Suprematist and *Constructivist ideas, made contact with *De Stijl, leading architects and, through the other founder-member *Moholy-Nagy, with the *Bauhaus.

Lithography. A surface printing technique, invented (1798) by A. Senefelder, which depends on the fact that grease and water do not mix. The design is drawn with a greasy chalk on the 'stone' (originally a porous limestone, now always zinc plate), which is then wetted. The water runs off the chalked areas and the greasy ink will take on these areas but not on the damp stone. At first used simply for reproductions, I. developed into an independent art and was used by many 19th-c. artists notably *Daumier. Colour 1. was developed early but was pioneered as an art form by *Toulouse-Lautrec.

Local colour. Term used in painting of the actual colour of an object in natural diffused light. Shadows or strong neighbouring colours may modify local colour.

Lochner Stefan. 15th-c. German painter mainly active in Cologne. He acted as a link between later Gothic and Early Renaissance painting. He assimilated the tradition of the harsh S. German and the courtly, lyrical Cologne schools. The Virgin of the Rose Harden combines charm with geometry; and his most famous work, the altarpiece in Cologne cathedral, combines the decorative with a monumental realism, influenced by Flemish art.

Lombardo Pietro (c. 1433-1515). Venetian sculptor and architect of prominence, largely responsible, among other work, for the design and interior sculptures of S. Maria dei Miracoli in Venice. He often worked with his sons Tullio and Antonio who also distinguished themselves as architects and sculptors in Venice and the Veneto area.

London Group. An exhibiting society founded m J913 in opposition to the *New English Art Club, which was held to have become conventional and academic. H. Oilman was the 1st president, and both the *Camden Town painters and the *Vorticists exhibited. Between the wars V. *Bell, *Fry, *Grant and *Nash were among the exhibitors; in the postwar period such figurative painters as *Bomberg and Cliff Holden.

Long Richard (1945— ). British artist. He began making geometric forms in the landscape in 1966 (circles of paper on grass, cut turf in a lawn, e.g. Turf Circle, 1966). He works exclusively with natural materials in the landscape, or in a gallery space, the former being works that become integral parts of the landscape (e.g. Stones in Morocco - A Six Day Walk in the Atlas .Mountains, 1979) and which are realized on long solitary, ritualized walks (walking in circles, in lines, spirals or zigzags), many in remote and uninhabited parts of the world, e.g. a stone line in the Himalayas, a stone circle in the Andes, etc. These works are documented by photographs, e.g. Toolstone, a 136-mile (203-km) walk across England from the Irish Sea coast to the North Sea coast, placing five piles of stones along the way.

Longhi Pietro Falca called (1702—85). Venetian painter of the Rococo period famous for his delicate, slightly ironical paintings and sketches of Venetian life and manners. He was a pupil of G. M. Crespi at Bologna. He became a member of the Academy of Venice in 1766.

Loos Adolf. The architect Adolf Loos (1870-1933) worked mainly in Vienna after gaining early experience in the US. where he was influenced by the functionalist Chicago School. In 1908, he wrote a highly contentious article entitled Ornament und Verbrechen (Ornament and Crime), an indictment of ornament that attacked the Secession designers, then in vogue in Vienna, and their extravagant use of decoration for furniture and buildings. Loos had already written a series of articles for the Neite Freie Presse and his periodical The Other, in which he promoted the ideas that governed his own work, contrasting them with current "stylistic exercises". He maintained that designers and all their artistic scribblings were utterly superfluous.

Lorenzetti Ambrogio and Lorenzetti Pietro. I4th-c. Sienese painters, probably pupils of Duccio; both almost certainly died in the plague of 1384. Both were greatly influenced by Giotto, their works leaning towards narrative rather than decorative qualities. Important paintings by Pietro include the altarpiece of the Carmine church (1329) and The Birth of the Virgin. Of his frescoes in the lower church of St Francis, Assisi, the 2 outstanding subjects are Madonna and Child and Descent from the Cross. In both frescoes everything else is subordinated to the creation of emotional intensity; in the Descent pain has distorted the figure of Christ but has not robbed it of grandeur. Ambrogio's best-known works are the frescoes on the theme Good and Bad Covernment in the town hall, Siena. Here he displays an imaginative genius for ordering the elements of a townscape or a landscape. Other important panel paintings by Ambrogio are: 4 scenes from the Legend of S. Nicholas of Bari, Presentation in the Temple, a polyptych altarpiece and St Catherine of Alexandria.

Lorenzetti Pietro ( fl c. 1306–45). Although deeply indebted to the art of Duccio and his circle and inclined to be retrospective, he was an artist of considerable originality: his naturalistic figures, influenced by sculpture, are imbued with intense emotions and set within innovative illusionistic space.
Documents referring to Pietro and his works are comparatively scant. It is not certain whether he is identifiable with a ‘Petruccio Lorenzo’ who, on 25 February 1306, was paid 1 lira and 10 soldi for a picture on a ‘panel’ of the nine governors of Siena. Although Pietro’s earliest surviving works date to the second decade of the 14th century, the course of his career suggests that he was an independent master by the first decade. A single panel of the Virgin and Child (on dep. Siena, Pin. N.) from Castiglione d’Orcia (Siena) is the earliest surviving work attributed to him and is technically unusual in that the image was painted on a silver ground. The composition is a modification of a type current in Duccio’s circle. A dismembered polyptych from SS Leonardo e Cristoforo in Monticchiello (Pienza), composed of a half-length Virgin and Child (in situ), a St Margaret (Le Mans, Mus. Tesse) and St Benedict, St Catherine of Alexandria and St Agnes (Florence, Mus. Horne), similarly dates to c. 1315.


Lorenzo di Credi
. *Credi Lorenzo di

 Lorenzo Monaco. *Monaco Lorenzo

Lorentzon Waldemar (1899-1984). Surrealist Art.

Lotto Lorenzo (c. 1480—J 556). Venetian painter. L. trained probably under A. Vivanni in Venice, though most of his working life was spent in towns outside Venice — Treviso, Recanati, Rome (f. 1508), Bergamo (1513-28), Ancona and Loreto, where he died as a lay brother in a religious order. Although influenced at different periods by Giovanni Bellini, Titian and Palma Vecchio, L. remained a strongly individual painter. His frescoes in and near Bergamo and his altarpieces in towns where he worked are often marred by stylistic idiosyncrasies. However, his own unusual personality often gives him a rare insight into the personalities of his sitters when he turns to portraits, e.g. Man on a Terrace, the superbly alive Youth Before a White Damask Curtain, and Andrea Odoni. The St Jerome in the Wilderness and Si Nicholas of Bari in Clory are outstanding for their landscape backgrounds, while the mtarsias of S. Maria Maggiore, Bergamo, are notable for their rare decorative sense and draughtsmanship, e.g. Vision of T'lijah. Paintings such as The Annunciation and Christ Taking Leave of His Mother are close 111 style to Mannerism.

Louis Le Vau. 1612-70, French architect, involved in most of the important building projects for Louis XIV.

Loutherbourg Philippe Jacques de (b Strasbourg, 31 Oct 1740; d London, 11 March 1812). Alsatian painter, illustrator and stage designer, active in France and England. Loutherbourg’s father, Philipp Jakob (1698–1768), was an engraver and miniature painter to the court of Darmstadt. In 1755 he took his family to Paris, where Loutherbourg became a pupil of Carle Vanloo; he also attended Jean-Georges Wille’s engraving academy in the Quai des Augustins and Francesco Casanova’s studio. Wille directed Loutherbourg’s attention to 17th-century Dutch landscape artists, such as Philips Wouwerman and Nicolaes Berchem, and in 1763 Denis Diderot noticed the inspiration of the latter in Loutherbourg’s first Salon exhibit, a landscape with figures (Liverpool, Walker A.G.). In this and other works, focus is on the foreground figures, which are framed by natural formations that occasionally fall away to reveal distant horizons. This informal style found favour with the French public; Loutherbourg’s vivid, fresh colour and ability to catch specific light and weather conditions made the pastoral subjects of François Boucher and his school seem contrived and fey. Rather more romanticized were Loutherbourg’s shipwreck scenes (e.g. A Shipwreck, exh. Salon 1767; Stockholm, Nmus.), inspired by Claude-Joseph Vernet, and pictures of banditti recalling Salvator Rosa. Loutherbourg became the most prolific painter to exhibit at the Salon between 1762 and 1771. In 1766 he was elected to the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture and nominated as a Peintre du Roi.

Lubok. I7th-c. Russian woodcut similar to the British chapbooks; at 1st religious, then political in subject, or often simply a means of circulating songs and dances among the peasants. The L. had a considerable influence in forming *Larionov's and *Goncharova's 'primitivist' style (1908—12) so noticeable, e.g. in Goncharova's designs for Firebird.

Lucas Sarah
(born 1962) is a British artist. She is part of the generation of Young British Artists who emerged during the 1990s. Her works frequently employ visual puns and bawdy humour, and include photography, collage and found objects. Sarah Lucas was born in Holloway, London, England. She studied art at The Working Men's College, London College of Printing and Goldsmith's College, graduating in 1987. She was included in the group exhibition Freeze the following year, along with contemporaries including Angus Fairhurst, Damien Hirst, and Gary Hume. She emerged as one of the major Young British Artists during the 1990s, with a body of highly provocative work. In the early 1990s she began using furniture as a substitute for the human body. Her first two solo exhibitions in 1992 were titled The Whole Joke and Penis Nailed to a Board. For six months in 1993, Lucas and fellow artist Tracey Emin rented a retail space in east London, The Shop, where they made artworks, ranging from printed mugs to T-shirts with slogans, and put them on sale.

Lucas van Leyden (c. 1494—1533). Early Netherlandish painter and engraver. Taught by his father and C. Engclbrechtsz, L. was a celebrated engraver by the age of 15. Among his engravings, often valued second only to those of Purer, are litre Homo and Mohammed and the Monk. He met Durer in the Netherlands in 1521 and travelled in the Netherlands with Mabuse in 1527. Like Durer, L. was very interested in bold technical experiments, perspective, detailed studies from nature, and character, if not oddity, in human bemgs. His colour is bright, his composition is restless, while serene and lovingly painted landscapes provide relief in such paintings as Last Judgement, The Adoration of the Kings, Healing of the Blind Man and The Worship of the Golden Calf.

Luini Bernardino (c. 1481 —1532). Italian painter of the Milanese school, one of the most popular. His personal idiom was fresh and lighthcarted but after a series of frescoes in this style he turned to imitating Leonardo. This brought him success but deadened a delightful artistic talent.

Luis de Morales (b ?Badajoz, c. 1520; d Badajoz, ?1586). Spanish painter. The origins of his highly individual style are complex. His meticulous technique and the prominent echoes of the style and forms of Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael indicate the formative influence of Italianizing Flemish painters. This accords with Palomino’s statement that Morales was trained in Seville by the Flemish Mannerist painter Peeter de Kempeneer (known in Spain as Pedro de Campana), who is recorded in Spain from 1537. It has been suggested that Morales visited Italy c. 1540, but this seems most unlikely. His contact with Portuguese painting, particularly that of Frei Carlos and the Evoran school, was important, and his knowledge of German and Flemish prints contributed to his repertory of forms.

Luks George (1867—1933). U.S. painter of low urban life, member of The *Eight and of the *Ashcan School of Social Realism.

Luminism. Term used to describe certain U.S. I9th-c. landscape painters, e.g. *Lane, *Heade and *Kensett in certain of his works, as Lake George, 1869. Luminists painted small, intimate and quietist landscapes and 'waterscapes' whose horizontally imitated the format of vast panoramas, probably drawing on the Dutch tradition. In L. landscapes the sense of monumentality is accomplished through scale, not size, by emphasizing the horizon and reducing the size of the objects, trees, rocks, etc. Landscapes are painted with sharp realism transcended by the effect of clear yet atmospheric light which bathes the scene — often expanses of water — with sublime luminosity. In keeping with the American transcendentalist tradition of R. W. Emerson and H. D. Thoreau, a L. landscape aims to draw in the spectator, submerging and uniting him with nature.

Lupertz  Markus (1941- ). German painter, sculptor and print maker, a contemporary of *Baselitz, *Penck and *Kiefer, associated, despite his denials, with *Neo-Expressionism and the 1980s wave of new figuration in Germany. In fact, L.'s prolific work is m virtually all modernist styles: *Surrealist, *Cubist and *Abstract Expressionist, e.g. both his series of 'Style Paintings' (started in 1977 and continuing through the 1980s) and of 'Alice in Wonderland' (1980—1).

Lurago Carlo (1615-1684). Italian architect, active in Prague.

Land art. International art form that developed particularly from the late 1960s and early 1970s. It was part of a revolt against painting and sculpture and the anti-formalist current of the late 1960s that included CONCEPTUAL ART and Arte Povera. A number of mainly British and North American artists turned their attention to working directly with nature, notably Christo and Jeanne-Claude, Walter De Maria, Michael Heizer, Dennis Oppenheim, Robert Smithson and Richard Long. They created immense sculptures on the same scale as landscape itself, or exhibited written and photographic accounts of their excursions. With few exceptions, their works (also known as earthworks) are almost inaccessible, situated far from human settlements in deserts or abandoned areas. Their lifespan was brief: little by little they were destroyed by the elements and often by erosion, so that for posterity they exist only in the form of preparatory drawings, photographs or films. The works themselves were seen by only a small number of people and sometimes by only the artist.
London Group. English exhibiting society founded in November 1913. On its foundation it absorbed many members of the CAMDEN TOWN GROUP and also incorporated the more avant-garde artists influenced by Cubism and Futurism, some of whom afterwards joined the Vorticist movement. Among the founder-members were David Bomberg, Henri Gaudier-Brzeska, Jacob Epstein, Harold Gilman (the group’s first president until his death in 1919), Charles Ginner, Spencer Gore, Percy Wyndham Lewis, John Nash, Christopher Nevinson and Edward Wadsworth. The group was organized in opposition to the conservatism of the Royal Academy and the stagnation of the formerly radical New English Art Club. Though, as can be judged from the names of its founders, it had no homogeneous style or aesthetic, it acted as a focal point for the more progressive elements in British art at that time.

Lubarov Vladimir. Vladimir Lubarov is a famous book graphic artist who has illustrated more that one hundred books among them there are Voltaire, Rabelais, Gogol, Strugatskie, and main artist of "Chemistry and life" journal and "Text" publishing house.

"Our street" (the exhibition name) by Vladimir Lubarov has no definite geographic address and where it is located - in town, in village or just field - it is not known. People of different roots and different religions - Russians, Jews and people of indefinite "Caucasus nationality", inhabit this street. Personages differ not only by national equipment but time they live: it flows on "Our street" forward and backward, at random, or stands still as the artist wants. And at the same time it is typical Russian out-of-the-way place: you can immediately recognize realities - dirty market, and typical province railroad station, and Park of Culture with permanent "girl with paddle", and crowded queues, and drinking people in the open air. And small Jew community, which consists of "Russian Jews" in the whole, also lives on "Our street": shoemakers, rabbis, and tailors. Quite organic they inscribed in Russian landscapes, they follow their Saturday, eat matzo on Pesy, study Torah, and think more about eternal.
From the article of art critic Valentina Iliinskaya. Me and Business" #1, 2001

Luminism. Term coined c. 1950 by the art historian John I. H. Baur to define a style in 19th-century American painting characterized by the realistic rendering of light and atmosphere. It was never a unified movement but rather an attempt by several painters working in the USA to understand the mysteries of nature through a precise, detailed rendering of the landscape. Luminism flourished c. 1850–75 but examples are found both earlier and later. Its principal practitioners were FITZ HUGH LANE, MARTIN JOHNSON HEADE, ALFRED THOMPSON BRICHER, DAVID JOHNSON and Francis Augustus Silva (1835–86). Several artists of the HUDSON RIVER SCHOOL, among them SANFORD ROBINSON GIFFORD, JOHN F. KENSETT and ALBERT BIERSTADT, painted works that could be considered examples of Luminism, as did such Canadian painters as LUCIUS R. O’BRIEN (e.g. Sunrise on the Saguenay, 1880; Ottawa, N.G.).


Term applied generally to Belgian Neo-Impressionism and more specifically to the work produced after 1904 by the movement’s exponents, in which they combined aspects of Realism, Impressionism and Neo-Impressionism; it was also applied from 1910 in the Netherlands to describe the late phase of Dutch Impressionism that is comparable stylistically with Fauvism. The term derives from Vie et Lumière, the name of a group formed by EMILE CLAUS and others. After Georges Seurat’s death in 1891 some Belgian Neo-Impressionists turned away from the painting movement in favour of decorative arts. When the avant-garde group Les XX was superseded in 1894 by the Libre Esthétique (1894–1914), Claus and other Belgian Impressionists sought a more national, often Flemish identity, enhanced by the nationalist tendency to pay homage to the century-old Dutch Flemish tradition of landscape painting, and by the Romantic–Realist style taught at Belgian academies and practised by the schools of Kalmthout, Tervuren and Dendermonde.

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