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Art  &  Artist

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  Kabakov-Klarwein Klee-Kustodiev  

Kabakov Ilya (1933 ). Russian artist who emerged during the Soviet regime as one of the most imaginative, powerful and sophisticated 'dissident' or 'unofficial' artists freed from the *Socialist realism of Soviet art. K. was partly influenced by the freedom shown in theatrical productions, such as those by Y. Lubimov at the Taganka Theatre, and the work of film directors such as A. Tarkovsky, and by *Conceptual and *Installation art in the West. K.'s art, whether he has used oil paint or text-and-tound objects in his paintings and installations, is based on autobiographical and specifically Russian experiences and is unique to him in style and atmosphere. As in fiction or poetry language is an important element in K.'s work — invented characters are created and their consciousness, often through speech, becomes the central focus of the work. In the Installation The Man Who Flew into Space from His Apartment (one of several tableaux in a work called Ten Characters, 1981-8), a cluttered room is reconstructed with objects in disorder, with technical diagrams of trajectories on the walls and a model with an aerial view of a town. The central object is a home-made slingshot over the bed, below a hole
in the ceiling. In My Mother's Life (1989—90), a narrow passage re-creates the corridor of a shabby Soviet apartment block. Black-and-white scenic photographs, taken by his uncle, hang densely in large frames on the walls with texts written by his mother attached to them which contradict the idyllic landscapes of the photographs. For the Berlin exhibition 'The Finite Nature of Freedom' (1990), which commemorated the fall of the Berlin Wall, K.'s Two Walls of Fear was installed on the site of the former Wall. Two parallel walls made of wooden planks formed a narrow passage and at the top of them debris collected in the pre-war heart of Berlin and texts written in Russian, German and English were hung from wires.

Kacere John 1 (1920 – 1999). Kacere was born in 1920 in Walker, Iowa.John Kacere was an abstract painter from 1950 to 1963, but moved to a realistic style; he has been considered a photo-realist or hyper-realist, although he has not adopted the methodology of these schools. Since 1963, he has concentrated on the subject of woman.
Kacere John 2

Kahlo Frida (1910-54)- Mexican artist. Self-taught after a crippling accident at the age of 15 which left her in agonizing pain for life. Her icon-like paintings, e.g. The Two Fridas (1939) and Tree of Hope (1946), are all autobiographical — suggestive of a disturbing psychology — and have startling symbolic imagery. Today they are among the best-loved works of the 20th c. K. married *Rivera in 1929 (they were divorced m 1939) and was 'discovered' by *Breton in 1938 who adopted her as a *Surrealist contrary to her own insistence that she was a Mexican Realist painter who depicted her own life. It has been written that 'the duality of [her] life — an exterior persona constantly reinvented with ornament, costume, and a captivating personality, and an interior image nourished on the pain of her crippled body — invest her painting with a haunting complexity. The traditions of Mexican popular art and Mayan history, incredible suffering and brilliant invention, mingle with a sophisticated knowledge of European literature and painting.' (Whitney Chadwick, Women Artists and the Surrealist Movement, 1991.)

Kahnweiler Daniel-Henry (1884—1979). German-born French art dealer, collector, writer and art publisher who, as one of the major gallery owners of the 20th c, is a key figure to modern art. His 1st gallery opened in 1907 when he bought works by the completely unknown artists *Derain and *Vlaminck at the Salon des Independants, and by Van *Dongen and *Braque. In the same year he met *Picasso, in 1908 *Gris and in 1910 *Leger. 1912—14 he contracted the 4 great Cubists: Braque, Gris, Leger and Picasso. K. was one of the earliest supporters of *Cubism and its most effective spokesman (not least through his Der Weg zum Kubismus, 1914—20). He wrote the major monograph on J. Gris (1943), and was also an important art publisher, the 1st to publ. the writings of *Apollinaire, *Jacob, *Masson, among more than 40 titles.

Kakemono. Japanese art

Kalf Willem (1622-93). Dutch still-life painter who worked mainly in Amsterdam. His faience bowls and vases, glasses, gold and silver vessels, fruit and shells are painted with taste and economy in warm, luminous colours which shine out from a dark background.

Kalmakoff Nicholas (1873–1955). Surrealist painter.

Kamakura. Period of Japanese history (12th— 14th cs) named after K. the capital (from 1192) of Minamotono Yoritomo after the *Fujiwara period; the imperial court remained at Kyoto. Nara buildings and sculpture were restored but K. was dominated by the ideals of the samurai, Zen Buddhism and the popular cult of Amida Buddhism. The colossal bronze daibutsu of Amida Buddha at K. (1252) is in the style of Kaikei; the other leading K. sculpture is Unkei (1142-1212) whose wood statue of the priest Muchaku is a masterpiece of realism. Amida painters depicted the torments of hell and the benignity of Amida. Zen inspired *sumi-e painting and portraiture which aimed to convey the living presence of Zen masters.

Kandinsky Vasily (1866—1944). Russian painter, born in Moscow, generally considered the pioneer of abstract painting. His 1st work to be so described was a watercolour of 1910; however, all representational elements disappeared from his work only in the 1920s. K. was trained as a lawyer and took tip painting when he was 30, studying the art 1st in Munich. His early work was related to the Russian Symbolists and the Sezession groups. In 1906 he went to Paris for a year and exhibited at the current Salons. On his return to Munich his work began to reflect the ideas of the French *Nabis and *Fauves and became related to the Die *Brucke group; from the beginning the city of Moscow, Russian icon painting and folk-art strongly influenced him, providing a link with the Moscow avant-garde. By 1909 K. was painting landscapes called Improvisations which reflect a growing detachment from nature. In 1910 he painted his 1st abstract works, making contact with the Muscovite avant-garde, who invited him to exhibit at the 1st *Knave of Diamonds Exhibition. His On the Spiritual in Art was publ. in 1912. In 1911 he was a co-founder of the *Blaue Reiter. In 1912 K. had his 1st one-man show at the Berlin Sturm Gallery and publ. 2 plays Yellow Tone and Violet, which reflect his interest in relations between colour and music; he also became interested in the German Romantic philosophers, Rudolf Sterner and occultism. With the Bolshevik Revolution he was drawn into administrative work in the art field. In 1920 he drew up a programme for a new teaching system m art schools, but its Symbolist philosophy was rejected by the *Gonstructivists and was put into practice only after he had left Russia and joined the *Bauhaus school in Weimar (1922). In 1920 K. began to paint again, introducing geometrical forms which became strictly abstract, reminiscent of *Suprematist and Constructivist work; such torms remained typical throughout his Bauhaus period up to 1933 when he moved to France and came under the influence of Miro, his forms becoming more fluid and Surrealist. While at the Bauhaus he wrote Point ami Line to Surface (1926), which deals with the nature of form.

Kane John (born August 19, 1860, West Calder, Scotland died August 10, 1934, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.) original name John Cain Scottish-born American artist who painted primitivist scenes of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Scotland.
In 1879, after working in a coal mine since childhood, John Cain immigrated to the United States (where a banker's misspelling changed his name to Kane). He worked as a steelworker, gandy dancer (railroad man who stamps gravel between the ties), street paver, house painter, carpenter, andamateur boxer. After losing a leg in a railroad accident, he became a watchman and a boxcar painter. For his own pleasure he would paint landscapes on boxcars during his lunch break, covering them over with regulation flat paint in the afternoon. After losing his job in 1900, he continued painting landscapes and made a modest living colouring portrait photographs. He left his wife and home after the death of an infant son in 1904 and began to paint on beaverboard landscapes of the Pennsylvania countryside and cityscapes of Pittsburgh. He lived apart from his wife for the next 23 years.Although he attempted to enter art schools on a number of occasions, Kane was unable to pay tuition. About 1908 he served, for a short period, as a studio assistant to the artist John White Alexander. His works were discovered in 1927, when his Scene from the Scottish Highland was accepted by the Carnegie International Exhibition in Pittsburgh. He won a prize at the Carnegie two years later, and museums began seeking his works. His autobiography, Sky Hooks, was published posthumously in 1938. An intense self-portrait (1929) in the collection of the Museum of Modern Art in New York City is his best-known work.

Kangra. N. Indian *Rajput court; under Raja Sansar Chand (1775—1823) the outstanding centre of late *Pahari painting. Works depict court ladies, e.g. The Swing (c. 1810) and the loves of Krishna and Radha, the most beautiful of the gopis (herdswomen).

Kano. Family and school of Japanese artists which fused Chinese ink painting techniques with local Japanese decorative idioms. K. Motonobu (c 1476—1559) evolved a characteristic style of hard outline and bold designs. Many of his highly prized screen paintings are in temples at Kyoto. K. Eitoku (1543—90), his grandson, produced screen paintings for *Muromachi lords in a free and vigorous style using brilliant colours on a gold-leaf ground; he had many followers. K. Tanyu (1602—74), Eitoku's grandson, one of Japan's most versatile artists, revived the family tradition. Official painter (from 1621) of the *Tokugawa government, he provided decorative screens tor palaces and castles in Edo and Kyoto.

Kapists [Capists; Pol. Kapisci, from ‘Komitet Paryski’: Parisian Committee]. Polish group of painters. In 1924 a number of students of Józef Pankiewicz at the Academy of Fine Arts in Kraków formed a committee, whose aim was to organize a study trip to Paris. Jan Cybis (1897–1972), Hanna Rudzka-Cybisowa (1897–1988), Zygmunt Waliszewski, Artur Nacht-Samborski, Piotr Potworowski and Józef Czapski were among the painters who therefore founded the Paris branch of the Kraków Academy from 1924 to 1930. They gained fame after two successful exhibitions at the Galerie Zak in Paris (1930) and the Galerie Moos in Geneva (1931). Most of the artists returned to Poland in 1931, where they were still known as the Kapists. They were a loose association, and, although they had no clearly defined programme, they were principally influenced by the work of Pierre Bonnard. The members were Post-Impressionist painters representing the trend known as Polish Colourism, and they stressed the importance of good craftsmanship in painting. Generally their work is associated with a particular sensitivity to colour, its harmony and contrasts. Forms were built with colour, and the use of perspective and chiaroscuro was limited, as in Rudzka-Cybisowa’s Still-life with Armchair (c. 1956; Poznan, N. Mus.). They painted from nature but did not imitate it, and their compositions were sometimes close to abstraction (e.g. Shells by Jan Cybis, 1953–4; Poznan, N. Mus.). Zygmunt Waliszewski was the only member of the group who did not reject literary subject-matter (e.g. the Toilet of Venus, 1933; Warsaw, N. Mus.). Kapists were well-represented on the staff of the Academy of Fine Arts, Warsaw, opened in 1945. Along with Constructivism, the Polish Colourism introduced by the Kapists became one of the most popular trends in Polish painting in the first half of the 20th century.

Kaprow Allan (1927— ). U.S. artist and theorist, pioneer of *Happenings. In 1958 he proposed that artists 'abandon craftsmanship and permanence' for 'perishable media', foreshadowing U.S. *Junk art. Study with the composer J. Cage (1956—8) shaped K.'s views on chance and spectator participation in art events. His works include assemblages and constructions; 18 Happenings in 6 Parts (1959); Yard (1961), random heaps of car tyres; and the book Assemblage, Environments, and Happenings

Kara-e. *Japanese art

Karli Maharashtra State, India. Site of rock-cut Buddhist caves and a ihailya-huW (vaulted preaching hall) (Andhra period, ist-early 2nd cs). The octagonal aisle pillars have elaborately carved capitals of royal figures and kneeling elephants; the entrance vestibule has relief carvings of serene erotic couples (mithuna) in archaic style. The Buddha images were added later.

Kashmiri art. The art of Kashmir and neighbouring Himachal reached its zenith in the 8th с. AD. К. temples are square, built of massive stone blocks with trilobate blind windows and pointed roots; e.g. Avantipura, Marttanda and Naranag. Tantric symbolism is evident in both Hindu and Buddhist art. Superb bronzes and stone sculptures are based on post-*Gupta N. Indian styles.

Kecskemet colony. Hungarian artists’ colony established in 1911 at Kecskemét, c. 80 km south-east of Budapest. The town provided studios for artists and offered commissions. The studios were designed in Hungarian Secessionist style by the colony members Béla Jánszky (1884–1945) and Tibor Szivessy (1884–1963). In the Secessionist spirit of Gesamtkunst the colony’s activities ranged from ceramics to tapestry. A weaving school was set up, and free courses in art and industrial design were held in the town. Members came in part from the NAGYBÁNYA COLONY: the initiator of the colony and its first leader was the painter Béla Iványi Grünwald, and Elek Falus (1884–1950) played a significant role in the foundation of the colony and went on to direct its textile workshop. From 1920 the colony was led by Imre Révész (1859–1945), a noted genre-painter. Artists also came from the SZOLNOK COLONY, and the sculptors Zsigmond Kisfaludi Strobl and Imre Csikász (1884–1914) also worked there.

Keith Edmier
(American, 1967). Find works of art, auction results & sale prices of artist Keith Edmier at galleries and auctions worldwide.

Kallela Axel Gallen (b Pori, Finland, 26 April 1865; d Stockholm, 7 March 1931). Finnish painter, graphic artist and designer. He learnt the elements of drawing and painting in Helsinki at the School of the Finnish Arts Society and the studio of the painter Adolf von Becker (1831–1909).

Kells Book of (c. 800; Trinity College, Dublin). Elaborately illuminated copy of the Gospels written in Latin, long one of the treasures of the Columban monastery of Kells in Ireland. The work of monks from lona, it is the masterpiece of the Celtic school of illumination.

Kensett John Frederick (1816-72). U.S. painter greatly admired for his landscapes. In 1840 he went to Europe and worked in Paris making copies of *Claude Lorrain, and also visited London and Rome. He returned to N.Y. in 1848. He established the Artists' Fund Society in 1865 and was a founding trustee of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1870. A second-generation *Hudson River school painter, K. excelled with his expansive shoreline views, e.g. the series of 38 paintings of Long Island Sound which he produced in the year of his death.

Kernn-Larsen Rita. Danish painter. Born 1904 in Hillerod, Denmark. Died 1998.

Kersting Georg Friedrich (b Gustrow, Mecklenburg, 22 Oct 1785; d Meissen, 1 July 1847). German painter. He trained at the academy of art in Copenhagen from 1805 to 1808, adopting the clarity and brilliance characteristic of the Danish school. In 1808 he went to Dresden, where he met and associated with Caspar David Friedrich and his circle. With Friedrich, Kersting went on a walking tour through the Zittau Mountains and the Riesengebirge in July 1810. Kersting was also a close friend of the painter Gerhard von Kügelgen, at whose house he was a frequent guest. His first two portraits in individual interiors (a genre he was to make his own), Caspar David Friedrich in his Studio (Hamburg, Ksthalle) and Gerhard von Kügelgen in his Studio (Karlsruhe, Staatl. Ksthalle), attracted much attention on their exhibition at the Dresden Kunstakademie in 1811. Kersting continued to produce works of this very appealing type, linking the sitter with his surroundings: they are an epitome of early Romantic interest in the spirit of the individual and point beyond the ephemeral, genre-like aspects of the subject to a symbol of the interaction between man and the space in which he works or lives. In 1812 Kersting painted The Embroiderer, The Elegant Reader and Man at a Desk (all Weimar, Schlossmus). For the last of these, Kersting used the young painter Louise Seidler as a model. Seidler was instrumental in enabling Kersting to send several of his works to Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in Weimar in 1813. Goethe strongly recommended that Grand Duke Charles Augustus buy The Embroiderer, and he also encouraged further sales by promoting a lottery.

Kertesz Andre (b Budapest, 2 July 1894; d New York, 27 Sept 1985). American photographer of Hungarian birth. As a young man he used to wander around Budapest and visit the Ethnographic Museum. At this time Bela Bartok and Zoltan Kodaly were rediscovering Hungarian folk music, and Hungarian poets and painters were looking at their ancient vernacular traditions for inspiration. Kertesz, who started taking photographs at the age of 12, also tried to reflect these interests, both in his choice of countryside subjects and in the simplicity of his style. Self-taught, he often took his camera with him when he went to visit relatives in the small peasant towns of the Hungarian heartland, the puszta. He tried to go beyond mere recording of holiday memories, or of the idyllic relationship of the country people to nature; he rather sought out timeless and essential qualities in the ordinary day-to-day events that he saw around him.

Key. The predominant tone and colour values in a painting if light are said to be in a 'high k.', if dark in a 'low k.'.

Key Marco Indians. Prehistoric North American Indian culture. The name comes from a site in Florida where, in the 1890s, a large number of superb, realistic animal wood carvings were discovered.

Khmer. Medieval S.F. Asian empire (roughly modern Cambodia and Laos) of the late 6th— mid-15th cs. Indian Buddhist and  Hindu culture shaped K. arts and literature (Sanskrit was the literary language). Architecture developed from brick-built tower sanctuaries decorated with sculptures to the Angkor golden age (late 9th- early 13th cs).

Khnopff Fernand
(1858-1921). Belgian painter, illustrator, sculptor, designer, photographer and writer. He was one of the foremost Symbolist artists and active supporters of avant-garde art in late 19th-century Belgium. His wealthy family lived in Bruges from 1859 to 1864, moved to Brussels in 1865, where Khnopff remained until his death, and spent their summers at a country home in Fosset, in the Ardennes. Fosset inspired numerous landscapes that owe a strong debt to Barbizon-style realism, which dominated advanced Belgian painting in the late 1870s. Khnopff abandoned law school in 1875, and, turning to literature and art, he studied with Xavier Mellery at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. During visits to Paris (1877–80) he admired the work of Ingres and was especially attracted to the painterly art of Rubens, Rembrandt, the Venetian Renaissance and particularly Delacroix. At the Exposition Universelle of 1878 in Paris he discovered Gustave Moreau and Edward Burne-Jones, both of whom indelibly influenced his art. He studied with Jules Lefebvre and Gustave Boulanger at the Académie Julian in Paris but was dissatisfied with their brand of Realism and continued searching for an original style and subject. He moved through a number of aesthetic options, starting with traditional allegory in his first public showing, with the Belgian exhibition society L’Essor, in 1881. The watercolour Passing Boulevard du Régent (1881), exhibited the following year, shows his awareness of current avant-garde practice with its realism and atmospheric effects. After Flaubert (1883), indebted to the striking light effects and rich impastos of Moreau’s work of the 1870s and to Gustave Flaubert’s novel La Tentation de Saint Antoine (1874), marked his lifelong fascination with literature. It explores evocative expression, which, along with his association with the Jeune Belgique literary movement, put Khnopff in the Symbolist camp. In 1883 he was a founder-member of Les XX, the most avant-garde and internationalist art group in Europe; he designed their logo and exhibited Listening to Schumann (1883), a painting characterized by a Symbolist concern for introspection and an impressionist style indebted to James Ensor’s Russian Music (1881). He also began to illustrate books at this time, producing some of his most puzzling images, for example six illustrations for Lucien Solvay’s Belle-Maman! suivi de Merveilles de la science (Paris, 1884). In the same year he exhibited for the first time at the Paris Salon.

Kiefer  Anselm (1945— ). German painter. After studying with *Beuys (1970—2) he started a series, Panelled Rooms, of bare and ominous interiors. His work attempts to come to terms with his country's past. His Resumptio and Scorched Earth (both 1974) are enormous threatening symbolic landscapes, painted expressionistically and incorporating twigs, straw and grass. He is one of the most prominent artists to have revived Expressionist painting in the mid- to late 1970s.

Kienholz Edward (1927-94). U.S. *assemblage artist, noted tor a series of *Funk art life-sized tableaux. Bizarre, sick or horrifying, they are essentially moralizing comments on sordid aspects of U.S. society. They include: Roxy's (1961); Back Seat Dodge- 38 (1964), a mordant comment on 'Lovers' Lane' type romance; and the terrifying The Slate Hospital (1966).

Kiesler Frederick (born Sept. 22, 1892, Vienna, Austria died Dec. 27, 1965, New York, N.Y., U.S.)
Austrian-born American architect, sculptor, and stage designer, best known for his “Endless House,” a womblike, free-form structure. After study at the Technical Academy and the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna, Kiesler worked on a slum clearance and rebuilding project in Vienna with Adolf Loos. In the early 1920s Kiesler began to design for the stage. He designed what was probably the first theatre-in-the-round when he was architect and director of the International Music Theatre Festival of the City of Vienna, held in 1924. At the invitation of two theatre groups Kiesler went to the United States in 1926. From 1933 to 1957 he was scenic director for the Juilliard School of Music, New York City. His designs for the Metropolitan Opera were notable for their imagination and low cost. From 1936 to 1942 he was director of the design laboratory of the Columbia University school of architecture.
Kiesler's “Endless House” was never built full-scale, but a large concrete model was displayed at the Museum of Modern Art, New York City, in 1960. More sculpture than architecture, the house consisted of a group of joined, rounded, shell structures on piers that could be used as continuous space or as separately defined, closed-off rooms. Inside the Endless House (1966), written as a journal, is basically an account of Kiesler's artistic life. His last important work was the Shrine of the Book (1959–65), which houses the Dead Sea Scrolls in Israel.

Kim Edward Black. Showcases realistic and symbolic figurative, portrait, and landscape paintings.

Kinetic Art. Art involving movement, either real or apparent; the term originated in the 1920s. Movement in sculpture was proposed by the Futurist *Boccioni and the idea was developed by Duchamp, Gabo and Pevsner, Moholy-Nagy and A. Kemeny, who advocated a 'dynamic-constructive art form'. In the 1950s artists such as *Schoffer began producing Kinetic sculpture; subsequent groups include Gruppo N. (1959) and EAT (1966). Kinetic sensations in painting are achieved by optical effects and the use of lights. *Op art.

Kinetic Art.
Term applied to works of art concerned with real and apparent movement. It may encompass machines, mobiles and light objects in actual motion; more broadly, it also includes works in virtual or apparent movement, which could be placed under the denomination of OP ART. Kinetic art originated between 1913 and 1920, when a few isolated figures such as Marcel Duchamp, Vladimir Tatlin and NAUM GABO conceived their first works and statements to lay stress on mechanical movement. At about the same time Tatlin, Aleksandr Rodchenko and Man Ray constructed their first mobiles, and Thomas Wilfred and Adrian Bernard Klein, with Ludwig Hirschfeld-Mack and Kurt Schwerdtfeger at the Bauhaus, began to develop their colour organs and projection techniques in the direction of an art medium consisting of light and movement (1921–3). Although László Moholy-Nagy and Alexander Calder pursued more or less continuous artistic research into actual motion in the 1920s and 1930s, it was only after 1950 that the breakthrough into kinetic art, and its subsequent expansion, finally took place. Such artists as Pol Bury, Jean Tinguely, Nicolas Schöffer and Harry Kramer played a leading part in this development as far as mechanical movement was concerned; Calder, Bruno Munari, Kenneth Martin (iv) and George Rickey in the domain of the MOBILE; and Wilfred, Frank Joseph Malina (1912–81), Schöffer and Gyorgy Kepes (b 1906) in that of lumino-kinetic experiment.

Kirchner Ernst Ludwig (1880—1938). German *Expressionist painter. He studied architecture at Dresden (1901—5) where he met Heckel and Schmidt-Rottluff. co-founders in 1905 of Die *Brucke. Led by K. and inspired by Gauguin, Munch, Van Gogh and above all by primitive art. Die Brucke was the first manifestation of German Expressionism — superficially similar to Parisian *Fauvism, but deliberately more violently and directly expressive of human emotions. The intensity of their art and philosophy, deeply rooted in Nietzsche, is a parallel to the Italian *Futurists' fervent belief in a new world. The Artist and his Model (1907) is a typical example of K.'s deployment of pure colour — brilliant oranges and pinks juxtaposed — producing a jarring visual sensation. In his woodcuts the same effect is achieved by the crudeness of his harsh outlines, partly inspired by his admiration of German primitive art but with exaggerated distortions. He moved to Berlin in 1911, joined Nolde's Neue Sezession and was associated with Der Sturm circles. His work became more aggressively angular and sombre coloured: the Five Women in the Street (1913) are stark, primitive images of the modern city. He suffered a nervous breakdown during World War I and convalesced (1917) at Davos, where he continued to live. His late landscapes are more serene, profound formalizations at their purest (1921-5) and then becoming abstract in 1928. His art was suppressed as 'degenerate' by the Nazis (1937) and he committed suicide in 1938.

Kirchner Raphael (1876-1917).
Kirchner Raphael. Kirchner Raphael (Cards and Posters)

Kirikane. *Japanese art

Kisling Moise (1891-1953). Polish-born painter of the school of *Paris. He settled in Paris in 1910 and joined the Bateau Lavoir group, then the circle round Modigliani.

Kissmer Willi. Born in Germany in 1951, Kissmer started out initially as a musician, before enrolling at the Folkwangschule in 1971 to study etching, lithography, printmaking and fine art. Today Kissmer specializes in figurative works and sensual female nudes, and often uses his wife, Beate as his model. His prints and etchings have been exhibited extensively throughout Europe, America and Russia. Below you will find a range of Willi Kissmer's beautiful Limited Edition etchings created using the Scraped Aquatint process with dry point on copper plates.

Kitaj R. B. (1932- ). U.S. painter and print maker working mostly in Britain. K. studied at the Vienna Akademie der Bildenden Kunste, 1951— 4, and at the Oxford Ruskin School of Drawing and Fine Art, 1957-9, with a grant under the G.I. Bill. In 1960 he entered the R.C.A., London, where he met *Hockney with whom he formed a close friendship which had a great mutual influence. K.'s work is essentially figurative and rich in literary and other intellectual associations and references. His style draws on the figurative tradition of Western art from the Renaissance to the present, especially on late I9th-c. and early 2Oth-c. painting, notably that of *Degas and *Matisse; his work usually combines figure drawing and landscape, e.g. The Autumn of Central Paris (After Walter Benjamin) (1972-4) and If Not, Not (1975-6). He also draws extensively - it has been said (Time magazine) that 'he draws better than almost anyone else alive' - and works in pastels often on a large scale.

Kitchen Sink. Term applied to the work of various British playwrights (Angry Young Men) after the success of J. Osborne's Look Back in Аnger (1956), in which working-class locales and values contrasted with prevailing middle-class conventions. Also applied to the work of British Social Realist painters, e.g. *Bratby.

Kitchen Sink school.
English group of painters active in the 1950s. Its name was derived from an article of 1954 by the critic David Sylvester and is used to identify a brand of English realist painting whose main exponents were John Bratby (b 1928), Derrick Greaves (b 1927), Edward Middleditch (b 1923) and Jack Smith. These artists knew each other and exhibited together but did not share a common programme or ideology. Like the contemporary ‘angry young men’ of realist drama and literature, they rejected their label. Their work represents a distinctive but brief reaction against the élitism of abstraction and Neo-Romanticism in favour of figurative social realism, a reaction that found its most ardent voice in the writings of the Marxist critic John Berger (b 1926).

Kiyomasu Torii  (1697-1722) Japan Artist

Kiyomitsu Torii  (1735-1785) Japan Artist

Kiyonaga Torii  (1735-1814) Japan Artist

Klarwein Mati (1932-2002) Klarwein was born in Hamburg, Germany. His family was of Jewish origin and fled to Palestine when he was two years old after the rise of Nazi Germany. Klarwein grew up in Palestine and Israel but subsequently travelled widely and lived in many different countries. He died in Deiŕ on the Spanish island of Mallorca.

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