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Jack of Diamonds. *Knave of Diamonds

Jack of Diamonds. [Rus. Bubnovy Valet]. Group of Russian avant-garde painters active in Moscow from 1910 to 1917. It was founded by Mikhail Larionov, Natal’ya Goncharova, Aristarkh Lentulov, Pyotr Konchalovsky, Robert Fal’k, Il’ya Mashkov and Aleksandr Kuprin, young artists who found membership of existing art societies no longer compatible with their experimental styles of painting. Regular participants included Alexandra Exter, David Burlyuk and Vladimir Burlyuk. The name ‘Jack of Diamonds’, chosen by Larionov, suggested not only the roguish behaviour of the avant-garde but also their love of popular graphic art forms such as old printed playing cards.

Jacob Georges (b Cheny, 6 July 1739; d Paris, 5 July 1814) arrived in Paris in 1755 and became a Maitre Ebeniste on 4 September 1765. His first business was in the Rue de Cléry, Paris, from 1767 and the Rue Meslée from 1775. At the start of his career he produced curvilinear models often decorated with carved flowers and foliage (e.g. 1777; Paris, Louvre), characteristic of chairs at the end of the reign of Louis XV. His reputation rests on the production of numerous, sometimes innovative varieties of high-quality seats in the Louis XVI and Empire styles, for which his work was seminal. He was probably the first to use the common Louis XVI form of tapering, fluted legs headed by a rosette within a square (e.g. of 1780–90; Paris, Mus. Nissim de Camondo), and he introduced console-shaped legs that terminated in a volute below the seat rail (e.g. fauteuil de toilette, 1770; Paris, Louvre) and promoted the use of baluster-shaped arm supports (e.g. fauteuil à la reine; Paris, Mus. A. Déc.), also using them on the later Empire-style seats.
He was one of the first, following the English, to use mahogany for seats. His production, which included beds, console tables and screens, and later cabinet work, strongly featured carved decoration, ranging from the standard Louis XVI motifs of twisted ribbons, foliate rinceaux, stylized acanthus leaves, guilloche, beading and fluting to the Turkish-style suite of furniture (Paris, Louvre) supplied in 1777 to Charles, Comte d’Artois (later King Charles X), and carved by Jean-Baptiste Rode (1735–99), which prefigured the Empire style . Much of the carving and gilding was executed by the Jacob workshops, but on certain occasions outside craftsmen were used.

Jacobello Dalle Masegne (d. 1409, active in Emilia). Italian sculptor

Jacob Max (1876-1944). French poet and artist, a friend of *Apollinaire and *Picasso in the early days of *Cubism.

Jacquemart de Hesdin. *Hesdin Jacquemart de

Jacquemin Jeanne (1863-1938) In 1863, somewhere in France, Jeanne Jacquemin was born. She is well known by modern critics, but very little is known about her actual life. Just recently, after two years of research, her birth and death dates were uncovered. Between 1891 and 1896, Jacquemin was known for exhibiting at the gallery of Le Barc de Boutteville and the Salon de La Plume of 1900 as an impressionist and symbolist. Most of her paintings involve showing intense suffering, anguish, or human pain. She died in 1938.

Jacquet Alain. Alain Jacquet is a French artist born February 22, 1939 in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. He is widely acknowledged as being a French representative of the American Pop Art movement, a visual artistic movement that emerged in the 1950s. He is married to Sophie Matisse, great-granddaughter of the French Fauvist artist Henri Matisse. Alain Jacquet lives in New York and Paris and teaches at the École Nationale Supérieure des Arts Décoratifs. Camouflage Botticelli (Birt of Venus) (1963-64) is a famous work of his. In a series of camouflage paintings, he often uses motifs from older, very famous paintings, such as in this case from the painting The Birth of Venus by Sandro Botticelli.

Jacopo della Quercia (b Siena, ?1374; d Siena, 20 Oct 1438). Italian sculptor, sienese school. He was the most significant non-Florentine sculptor of the 15th century: a transitional figure in the development of Italian Renaissance sculpture, who infused the Late Gothic art of Nicola Pisano with a new appreciation of antiquity, paving the way for such later artists as Antonio Federighi and Francesco di Giorgio in Siena, Niccolo dell’Arca in Bologna and, most notably, Michelangelo. He worked for a wide spectrum of patrons—the papal states, noble and mercantile families and the cities of Siena and Florence—and was the only Sienese artist of his century to achieve a truly national reputation.

Jade. Properly the term refers only to nephrite, a silicate of lime and magnesia, but it is more often extended to include jadeite, a silicate of sodium and aluminium, and further to any stone that resembles nephrite in its hardness, trans-lucency and colouring (light green, bluish, white and even ochre). It is a stone laboriously difficult to work, but its tactile and visual beauty have recommended it since prehistory to the Chinese, Maori and pre-Columbian American cultures; the archaic Chinese products — ritual implements, emblems of rank, ornaments and small figures in the round — are best known. The Chinese *Ch'ing dynasty produced fine examples.

Jain miniature painting. School of art in Gujarat, W. India, ill. Jain religious scriptures. Flat colours were used against red or (from c. 1500) blue grounds; faces were shown in profile but with both eyes. Painting was on palm leaf up to c. i 3 50, paper after с 1400. Persian art and *Mughal miniature painting were influential.

Janesko Jennifer. Pin -Up Art

Jan van Eyck. *Eyck Jan van

Japanese art. The earliest Japanese sculptures are the haniwa tomb figurines (c. 4th—7th cs). Buddhism, formative in subsequent J. a., was introduced in the 6th с (Asuka). ("hinese influence dominated and continued during the Nara and Early *Heian periods (7th 9th cs) but during the *Fujiwara age Chinese-style painting (kara-e) was joined by the still derivative but more colourful Japanese style (yaniato-e) and the |apanese technique of jointed sculpture, yoseki-isnkiiri. In 1192 the administrative capital was moved to Kainakura (300 miles (480 km.) from imperial Kyoto). Zen Buddhism influenced the arts increasingly, notably in the monochrome ink painting (siniii-e) in part derived from the Chinese *weii-jen style. The restrained style of die *Muroinachi period was supplanted in the late 16fh-c. *Momoyama age by gorgeous colours often embellished with cut gold leaf (kirikane). The court style of the Tokugawa shogunate (1616—1868), set by the *Kano school, was less vigorous than the popular *Japanese prints. Japanese landscapes and narrative are generally on room screens or sliding panels, hanging scrolls (kakemono) or scrolls designed to be unrolled as the narrative progresses (makimono).

Japanese Prints. Probably influenced by the Chinese 'stone prints', certain early i8th-c. |apanese artists began producing brightly coloured wood-block prints on city lite and actors and scenes from the kabnki theatre. Considered ephemeral and vulgar they were called ttkiyo-e, 'pictures of the floating (fleeting) world'. However, prints by *Harunobu, *Hiroslnge, *Hokusai and *Utainaro had considerable influence on kite i9th-c. European art.

Jawlensky Alexei von (1864—1941). Russian painter, trained at a military school in Moscow; lie studied at St Petersburg Academy (1889) and then in Munich (1896) under Azbe as a fellow-student of *Kandinsky. While in France during 1905 he was deeply impressed by Matisse's free use of colour. In 1909 lie joined Kandinsky's New Artists' Association in Munich. His early work (1911-14) reveals a Kandinsky-inspired interest in the expression of feeling through brilliant colour and violent execution, but in his mature work, e.g. Head (1935), forms are controlled with a Cubist sense ot structure and the image has a deeper icon-like mysticism. He exhibited with Feininger, Kandmsky and Klee (Der *Blaue Vier in 1924), but mostly worked m isolation at Wiesbaden, where he died.

Jenkins Mark
(b. 1970) is an American artist most widely known for the street installations he creates using packing tape. He has shown indoors in galleries in the U.S., Europe and Brazil and is represented by Lazarides gallery in London. He maintains the website tapesculpture.org and teaches his tape casting process in workshops in the cities he visits. He was born in Fairfax, VA and currently lives in Washington DC.

Jennewein Carl Paul (1890 - 1978). American sculptor. Art Deco

Jeune Peinture Belge. Belgian group of avant-garde artists active from 1945 to 1948. It was formed on the initiative of an art critic Robert L. Delevoy and a lawyer René Lust, with the intention of promoting the work of young contemporary painters and sculptors through exhibitions. It developed from the groups Route libre (1939) and L’Apport (1941–51). The main exhibitions took place in 1947 in Brussels at the Palais des Beaux-Arts. The ‘first generation’ of artists involved in the foundation of the group included the sculptor Willy Anthoons (b 1911) and the painters René Barbaix (1909–66), Gaston Bertrand (b 1910), Anne Bonnet (1908–60), Jan Cox (1919–80), Jack Godderis (b 1916), Emile Mahy (1903–79), Marc Mendelson (b 1915), Charles Pry (b 1915), Mig Quinet (b 1906), Rik Slabbinck (b 1914) and Louis Van Lint (1909–87).

Fantastic art

Johns Jasper (1930- ). Leading U.S. painter, sculptor and print maker. In the 1950s associated with *Rauschenberg and U.S. *Pop art but always using the rich painterly techniques of *Abstract Hxprcssionism. J. at 1st used ordinary objects in his paintings or cast as sculptures, e.g. I-'lag (ly.s.s). Target with Plaster C.asts (1955). His paintings, usually made in encaustic and oil, arc collaged and built up in relief. The representation of subject matter such as flags, numbers, targets, maps of the U.S.A., colour and number charts is cool and objective, yet personal, ironic and ambiguous e.g. (>ray Numbers, 1958. In the late 1950s and '60s his works became increasingly freer and he eventually reduced recognizable representation in many works but without lapsing into abstraction, e.g. According to what (1964) and Harlem Light (1967). These works often incorporated found objects (rulers, brooms, brushes, etc.) as well as stencilled letters and body prints. From 1972 on J.'s work developed even further in this direction with paintings which do not make any use of recognizable subject matter and yet convey a quality of representation unlike most abstract art, e.g. Scent (1973—4) and Weeping Women (1975). Since about 1974, J.'s work has taken a new turn becoming interestingly enriched through complex allusions to the work of Grunewald, Munch, Cezanne, Picasso, Duchamp, etc., and to images from his own earlier paintings. J. has also worked extensively in silk-screens and lithographs.

Johnson Ray (1927-95). U.S. artist, best known since the early 1950s for his 'mailart' and *collages. |. is one of the most original artists of U.S. *Pop art, using letters, postcards, photographs and portraits of 'high' and 'low' culture personalities like Elvis Presley, Mondrian, Virginia Woolf and Shirley Temple. His work is both playful and surprising, fusing life and art, and raising questions about both.

Johnson Sargent Claude (1887-1967). African-American sculptor and print maker active on the West Coast of the U.S.A. His most productive period was in the 1930s when he used a wide variety of materials, including copper, for his masks derived from *Ife and *Benm sculptures. He executed a number of *W.P.A. projects. His large figures of Incas on llamas (8-ft (2.43 m.) high) were made for the Treasure Island, San Francisco.

Johnson William H. (1901-70). African-American artist considered today to be one of the most important of his generation. He travelled extensively and absorbed in his oils, watercolours, drawings, prints and ceramics elements from the diverse cultures of N.Y., North Africa and Europe. His style ranged from the self-consciously naive to academicism, *Impressionism, *Fauvism, German *Expressionism and *Cubism. Married to Holcha Krake, a Danish artist, he lived for several years in Denmark, before and after his wife's death. From 1945 he painted a series of social, historical and political narrative panels depicting African-American imagery. Soon after these were exhibited with great success in Copenhagen, he became mentally ill. He spent the last 23 years of his life in obscurity, in a mental hospital on Long Island.

Jones Allen (1937- ). British artist prominent in early 1960s *Pop art, his subjects generally coining from 1940s U.S. culture. His sometimes commercial technique includes use of acrylic paints. Banal sexy images of intense, even '3-D.' reality, highlight J.'s preoccupation with the dichotomy between the realism of picture details and the unreality of picture space.

Jones Inigo (1573-1652) was the foremost exponent of late-Renaissance classicism in England, where his work left an indelible mark; it also influenced 18th-century architecture in the US. His most successful projects included country houses (the Queen's House at Greenwich and Wilton House), the Banqueting Hall in Whitehall, and the enlargement of St Paul's Cathedral. He was famous in his day for his designs for the royal court's masques. An interesting collection of his drawings has survived, including designs for the Palace of Whitehall.

Jones Lois Mailou (1905- ). African-American painter, ill., textile designer and teacher. Born in Boston, she received her initial education in art at the Boston School of the Museum of Fine Arts which, however, turned down her application for a graduate assistantship in 1927 on racial grounds. In 1937 she went to study in Paris and has returned frequently since. After 1st working in North Carolina, she joined the faculty of Fine Arts, Howard University, Washington, where she became associated with the Harmon Foundation. She remained there until her retirement. As an artist J. was one of the 1st African-American women painters to depict African imagery, e.g. Les Fetiches (1938). Her output ranges prolifically from her African-inspired works of the early 1930s to landscapes, cityscapes and figures (1937—51). Since i960 she has depicted Haitian scenes and returned to African themes. In 1973 the 1st major retrospective of J.'s work was held.

Jonson Sven (1902-1981). Surrealist.

Joos de Momper ( Flemish, 1564 -  1635). Anthropomorphic Landscape

Joos van Cleve (Joose van der Веке) (c. 1480—1540). Flemish painter identified with the Master of the Death of the Virgin. He worked in Antwerp and for Francis I in France, painting portraits and religious subjects. The dispassionate realism of his portraits owes something to the influence of Quentin Massys, but wide stylistic differences are apparent in his work as a whole.

Joos van Gent (Joose van Wassenhove) called 'Justus of Ghent' [ft. 1460—So). Flemish painter influenced by Bouts and Van der Weyden, and active in Antwerp and Ghent before going to work at the court at Urbino. His works include Adoration of the Magi, Crucifixion and Last Supper.

Jordaens Jacob (1593 — 1678). Flemish painter working in Antwerp. He collaborated with Rubens on at least 2 pictures and was greatly influenced by him. His paint is thicker, however, and his robust sense of joie de vivre often becomes outright vulgarity, e.g. She Wife of Candaules. His portrait style at its best is seen in Man and his Wife.

Jorn  Asger (1914—73). Danish painter and writer, a forerunner of *Action painting in Europe, a founder of the *Cobra group and a contributor to the Exhibition of Experimental Art, Amsterdam (1949). Between 1957 and 1961 J. was an important member of the international Situationist movement.

Juan de Levi (b Saragossa; fl 1388–1410). Spanish painter. He belonged to a family of converted Jews and was the nephew and pupil of the painter Guillén de Levi. He painted the altarpiece of SS Laurence, Catherine and Prudence, commissioned by the brother prelates Fernando and Pedro Pérez Calvillo for their sepulchral chapel, founded in 1376, in Tarazona Cathedral (Saragossa). The altarpiece was finished by 1403, when it was mentioned as a model in a contract that commissioned Juan de Levi to supply a retable for S Jaime, Montalban (untraced). Other documents record that he executed works in Huesca, Saragossa and Teruel, but none of these survives. The altarpiece in Tarazona Cathedral, Juan’s only surviving authenticated work, is one of the most beautiful examples of late 14th-century Aragonese art. It is painted in an expressive and elegant style, and shows great narrative ability. It indicates a development from an Italianizing Gothic style, of Sienese origin, towards a more international manner that incorporated elements derived from the work of north European masters.

Judd Donald (1928—94). U.S. minimalist 'structure-maker' and leading theorist of *Minimal art. He, however, did not call himself a minimalist, but an empiricist. In the late '50s and early '60s his writings advocated rigorously new art and his belief that representational art was finished and that painting was 'finished', e.g. his article 'Specific Objects' (1965) which brusquely dismissed 2-dimensional painting as subject to 'the problem of Illusionism', arguing that the artist must work in the 'real space' of the 3rd dimension and that the art object was autonomous. J.'s cubic, rectilinear, freestanding works of the late '60s redefined the nature of sculpture alongside other minimalists including *Flavin, *Andre and F. *Morris. Fie used metals, e.g. galvanized iron or aluminium, and Plexiglas (sometimes painted in strong colours) in open structures which explored the relationships between space, scale and materials. These compositions were factory-made, fabricated by others and often determined according to mathematical progressions — this is apparent in the way in which his works were modular and serial repeating at identical intervals arrangements of identical units. He upheld the idea that such 'primary structures' were essentially different from *Constructivism m that they achieved a wholeness through the repetition of identical units in absolute symmetry. His views naturally led to *Conceptual art, but J. insisted that 'art is something you look at'. In the late 80s he founded the Chinati Foundation with Dia.

Juel Jens (b Balslev, Fünen, 12 May 1745; d Copenhagen, 27 Dec 1802). Danish painter. Noted for his landscapes and portraits, he painted compositionally balanced works in a harmonious palette, continuing a classical painterly tradition. The son of a vicar at Gamborg on Funen, Juel went to Hamburg (then under Danish sovereignty), where he studied under the German artist Johann Michael Gehrmann (d 1770). In 1765 he briefly returned to Fünen and then to Copenhagen, where he studied at the Kunstakademi until 1771. While at the academy he came under the influence of Carl Gustaf Pilo, a professor there from 1748 and best known for his portraits of the Danish royal family. It was also at the academy that Juel perfected his considerable talent in drawing.

Jugendstil. German term for *Art Nouveau.

Junk art. Term first used by the critic Lawrence Alloway in 1961 to describe an urban art in which found or ready-made objects and mechanical debris were transformed into paintings, sculptures and environments by welding, collaging, décollaging or otherwise assembling them into new and unusual forms. The name evolved from the phrase ‘junk culture’, which had been used in the late 1950s and early 1960s, particularly in Great Britain and the USA, by writers such as Hilton Kramer (b 1928) to describe the vulgar and kitsch qualities of objects with built-in obsolescence produced in industrial nations after World War II.

Junk sculpture. A variety of *assemblage made by such artists as *Chamberlain from the late 1950s, out of discarded industrial items and the detritus of modern consumer culture.

Justus of Ghent  or Justus van Gent ( fl c. 1460–80). South Netherlandish painter, active also in Italy. He is commonly identified with JOOS VAN WASSENHOVE, master at Ghent, who is said to have gone to Rome some time between 1469 and 1475. Many of Justus’s works have been attributed to the Spaniard Pedro Berruguete, and problems remain in this area. Justus is documented between 1473 and 1475 in Urbino, where he ran a workshop, and he was the only major Netherlandish painter working in 15th-century Italy.

Juvarra Filippo (b Messina, 16 June 1678; d Madrid, 31 Jan 1736). Italian architect, draughtsman and designer. His work reinforced a Late Baroque classical tradition while also drawing on the leavening criticism of that tradition by Francesco Borromini. His work is characterized by clarity and directness, his architectural conceptions defined by a drastically reduced structure and complex conglomerate spaces; his surfaces were adorned with elaborate decorative systems the originality of which pointed the way to a light-hearted Rococo. In 1714 he became first architect of Victor-Amadeus II of Savoy, King of Sicily. Juvarra’s mandate was to accomplish the transformation of Turin begun in the 17th century. During a 20-year residence in Turin he built sixteen palaces and eight churches, and designed numerous church ornaments. He also designed furniture, theatre scenery and urban complexes.


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