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Icart Louis (1888-1950, French Art Deco Painter and Illustrator)

(Gr. image). Religious picture used as an object of worship and often portraying the Virgin and Child. The term is particularly used of pictures of the Byzantine school and later of the Russian school. Russian i.s show clear derivation from Byzantine art and maintained a stylized convention of composition and posture. The works of such artists as *Rublev and his school, to which is ascribed the Old Testament Trinity, show the range of emotional anil artistic expression possible in this form. In later Russian i.s the painted figure was often surrounded by a halo of precious metals and stones. An iconostasis in a Greek Orthodox church is a screen covered with i.s, usually between the congregation and the altar.

Iconography. Art historical term describing the investigation of" ideas and subject matter in art, associated with the method used by *Panofsky, *Saxl and *Warburg.

Iconology. Term used by *Panofsky for the investigation of general meaning of works of art m their historical and cultural contexts.

Ife. A town in W. Nigeria, traditionally the spiritual centre of the Yoruba people, where a number of very beautiful terracotta beads and remarkable brass heads have been discovered since the beginning of the 20th с These have been tentatively dated to the 12th to 14th cs. I. art is naturalistic and reveals an extremely high standard of accomplishment. It has therefore been compared with Greek statuary, but there is no evidence that it was not completely indigenous. The art of brass-casting was probably passed on to the people of *Benin in the 14th с.

Illumination. The decoration of mss. one of the most common forms of medieval visual art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and mter-woven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and full-page ills, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine mss). Rich colours are a common feature, in particular a luxurious use of gold and silver. I. survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16th с Well-known examples are: The *Book of Hours, The Book of Kelts, The Lindisfarne Gospels, The Luttrell Psalter and Les Tres Riches Heures du Due de Berry.

Illusionism. Term used in painitng of a style which exploits all the technical procedures of perspective, etc., not merely to represent 3-dimensional space in 2 dimensions but rather to give the impression that the pictorial space is an extension of the real space; sculptured 3-dimensional figures are often integrated into paintings to heighten the fusion of real and artistic space. The term is especially used of Baroque art.

Imaginistgruppen [Swed.: ‘Imaginist group’]. Swedish Surrealist group, founded c. 1945, which grew out of the short-lived MINOTAURGRUPPEN. Its founders were C. O. Hultén, Max Walter Svanberg and Anders Österlin (b 1926), and later its members included the artists Gösta Kriland (1917–89), Bertil Lundberg (b 1922), Bengt Orup (b 1916), Bertil Gado (b 1916), Lennart Lindfors and Gudrun Ählberg-Kriland. The Imaginistgruppen followed the example of the Minotaurgruppen by using the styles and techniques characteristic of Surrealism, as in Hultén’s Beach Statue ( frottage, 1948; Malmö, Kstmus.). In 1947 the group founded its own publishing house in Malmö, and that year it produced a collection of frottages, Drömmar ur bladens händer (‘Dreams from the hands of leaves’), by Hultén. Första fasen (‘First phase’), a text on Imaginism written by Svanberg in 1948, was included in the catalogue of an exhibition of his work in Göteborg in 1949. In this ‘manifesto’, the first part of his Deklarationer om imaginism i tre utvecklingsfaser (‘Declarations on Imaginism in three phases’), Svanberg discussed the crucial role played by imagination, stressing the free and revolutionary nature of Imaginist art. He claimed that the image, which contained disparate elements, was central and that its realization required the overthrow of traditional art forms, as these were based on reality. These were all familiar Surrealist ideas, and Svanberg developed them further in Andra fasen (‘Second phase’) (1950) and Tredje fasen (‘Third phase’) (1952), so becoming the group’s chief theorist. The Imaginistgruppen participated in the Surrealist exhibition held at the Galerie Aleby in Stockholm in 1949, and Imaginistgruppen exhibitions were held in Stockholm in 1951, in Malmö and Göteborg in 1952, at the Galerie de Babylone in Paris in 1953 and at Lund University in 1954. In 1950 the publishing house issued an album of eight lithographs by Svanberg. Svanberg left the group in 1953, claiming to be the only true Imaginist, but the group continued in existence until 1956.

Imago pietatis (Lat. image of piety). Representation, especially in the late Middle Ages, of the dead Christ standing in his grave, sometimes supported by other figures. Emblems of the Passion are often included to stress the redemptive significance of his suffering.

Immendorf  Jorg (born June 14, 1945 in Bleckede near Luneburg, died May 28, 2007 in Düsseldorf) was one of the best known contemporary German painters; he was also a sculptor, stage designer and art professor.

Impasto. In oil painting, thick heavy application of paint. Where the strokes of the brush or palette-knife are very pronounced, causing the paint to stand up in relief, the term loaded i. is used.

Impressionism. The major movement in 19th-c. art. The name comes from a painting exhibited by C. Monet in 1874, catalogued as Impression Sunrise. The word was used as a label for the whole group of artists who exhibited as the 'Society of Painters, Etchers and Engravers'. It has been said that I. was not a style but a moment in time. Nevertheless, the term is applied most frequently to paintings where the artist has aimed to capture the visual impression made by a scene, usually of a landscape, and not make a 'factual' report on it; Impressionist painters are characteristically absorbed by the play of light on a scene. In a sense an Impressionist picture is the sketch as opposed to the finished picture; in Monet's own words 'a spontaneous work rather than a calculated one'.
The 1st Impressionist exhibition was in 1874, but Impressionist works had been seen in the Salon des Refuses in 1863. The 1860s were the formative years in which the possibilities of working in the open air, using a light palette, and close analysis of the actual colours in landscape were explored. Monet, Renoir and Sisley were students together and formed the most close-knit group. In the 1870s the group experienced much opposition, and their exhibitions were generally unsuccessful. The Impressionist painters were divided as to who should exhibit, Degas arguing that work by conventional painters would make the exhibitions more accessible to the general public. Manet never exhibited with the Impressionists although his work strongly influenced them. Their interest in the effects of light on landscape was not at first acceptable, nor was the time of day they chose to paint — clear sunny afternoons, as opposed to scenes of twilight or early morning. In the 1 880s these subjects had become more general, and the movement achieved slow recognition and success. But I. became less coherent and less of a common style: Monet continued to analyse his visual perceptions with extreme care, and Sisley continued to paint landscapes; but Renoir turned to a style which stressed line, became accepted as a portraitist, and began to paint many important figure paintings, especially nudes. C. Pissarro came under the influence of Seurat's *Divisionist theory, and exhibited works m this style from 1886, the year of the last Impressionist exhibition, at which Seurat and Signac also showed work. Other Impressionists include J.-F. Bazille, G. Caillebotte, M. Cassatt and B. Monsot.
I. became widely accepted as an artistic style from the late 1 890s, spreading through Europe. No sculptor was directly associated with the movement, but both Degas and Renoir did sculpture (Renoir at the end of his life working through an assistant). Rodin has been called Impressionist because of the interest he took in the effects of light on his sculpture, and Medardo Rosso's evocative technique has caused his work to be so called.

Independents Salon des. *Salon

Independent Group. Group of British artists, architects and art critics (among them R. *Hamilton and *Paolozzi) who met for discussion at the I.C.A. (Institute of Contemporary Arts) in London in the middle and late 1950s. The I. G. was responsible for the birth of British *Pop art, with its romanticization of U.S. mass-culture.

Independent Group.

British group of artists, architects and critics. It met as an informal discussion group at the Institute of Contemporary Arts, London, from 1952 to 1955. Its members, drawn from those of the ICA who were dissatisfied with the Institute’s policy towards modernism, included the art critic Lawrence Alloway (1926–90), the design historian Peter Reyner Banham (1922–88), the art historian Toni del Renzio (b 1915), the artists Nigel Henderson, Richard Hamilton, Eduardo Paolozzi, William Turnbull and John McHale (1922–78), and the architects Alison and Peter Smithson, James Stirling and Colin St John Wilson.

Indiana Robert (1928- ). U.S. painter associated with 1950s N.Y. *Hard-edge, New Realist painting and 1960s U.S. *Pop art. His work reflects the influence of *Demuth and advertising techniques, and includes the 20 ft (6.1 m.) EAT Sign, 1964 New York World Fair; LOVE paintings and sculpture (1966).

Ingres Jean-Auguste Dominique (1780—1867). French painter and draughtsman. After the Academy of Toulouse he entered the studio of *David in 1797, and later the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. In the Salon of 1806 his portrait of Napoleon I on the Imperial Throne created a stir and received adverse criticism which he had to suffer from critics most of his life. During a difficult period after the downfall of his patrons, the Bonaparte family, portrait drawings became the main source of income and he lived in Italy for a time. He returned to Paris, was elected to the Academy (1825) and was able to open a successful atelier; by the 1 840s he was a celebrated public figure and eventually became a Senator. I. was the painter of an ideal reality. He sought to reconcile a searching truth (expressed in the silhouette, relief-like modelling, purity of line and perfection in craftsmanship, strongly influenced by the Italian schools and David), with the inescapable Romanticism of his time. His most famous paintings are La Grande Baigneuse (1808), La Grande Odalisque (1819) and Le Bain Turc (1864). Though he had many pupils he had no significant followers until Degas reinterpreted his classical draughtsmanship.

Inkhuk. *Vkhutemas

Inkhuk [Institut Khudozhestvennoy Kultury; Rus.: ‘Institute of Artistic Culture’].
Soviet institute for research in the arts that flourished from 1920 to 1926. Inkhuk was a dominant force in the development of Soviet art, architecture and design in the 1920s. Founded in Moscow in May 1920, with affiliations in Petrograd (now St Petersburg) and Vitebsk, it attracted many members of the avant-garde, especially LYUBOV’ POPOVA and ALEKSANDR RODCHENKO; its key administrative positions were occupied by Vasily Kandinsky (Moscow), Vladimir Tatlin (Petrograd) and Kazimir Malevich (Vitebsk). At one time Inkhuk maintained contact with Berlin (through El Lissitzky and the journal Veshch’/Gegenstand/Objet), the Netherlands, Hungary and Japan, although it never really had the chance to develop these international connections. One of the principal aims of Inkhuk was to reduce the modern movements such as Suprematism and Tatlin’s concept of the ‘culture of materials’ to a scientifically based programme that could be used for educational and research purposes—a development analogous to the initial endeavours of the Russian Formalist school of literary criticism, which attempted to analyse literature in terms of formal structures. In its aspiration to elaborate a rational basis for artistic practice, Inkhuk encouraged discussions on specific issues of artistic content and form, such as the debate on ‘composition versus construction’ in 1921.

Inness George (1825—94). U.S. landscape painter who made several visits to Europe where he studied the paintings of Corot and the *Barbizon school. His work showed a gradual loosening of his early attachment to the *Hudson River school in favour of these European influences.

Installation art. Multi-media, multi-dimensional and multi-form works which are created temporarily for a particular space or site either outdoors or indoors — in a museum or gallery (*Environmental art). Installations only exist as long as they are installed, but they can be recreated in different sites. The works are perceived 'in time' as they cannot be looked at like traditional art objects, but are experienced in time and space, and are interactive with the viewer. Although installations have as long a history as modern art, with pioneering works by *Duchamp, *Schwitters and other *Futurist, *Dada and *Surrealist artists, it is especially since the 1960s that I. a. has been more prominent (e.g. *Beuys) with many of the most important younger artists turning to this form post-1980. Increasingly, galleries and large exhibitions in museums include, or are wholly devoted to, installations, e.g. the Venice Biennale, the annual Docimienta exhibition in Kassel, Germany and the Carnegie International in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Artists who have created prominent works include *Acconci, *Baumgarten, *Bloom, *Boltanski, *Buren, *Christo, *De Maria, *Gober, A. *Hamilton, *HoIzer, *Kabakov, *Kosuth, *Kounellis, *Kruger and *Turrell. *Happenings and *Performance art.

Installation [Environment]. Term that gained currency in the 1960s to describe a construction or assemblage conceived for a specific interior, often for a temporary period, and distinguished from more conventional sculpture as a discrete object by its physical domination of the entire space. By inviting the viewer literally to enter into the work of art, and by appealing not only to the sense of sight but also, on occasion, to those of hearing and smell, such works demand the spectator’s active engagement. As an art form, installations are particularly associated with movements of the 1960s and 1970s such as Pop art, Nouveau Réalisme, Minimalism, conceptual art and process art, but in theory they can be conceived within the terms of virtually any style.

Intaglio. Method of printing in which the design is incised on to a copper or zinc plate; the block is inked and the surface cleaned so that the ink is retained only in the incised lines. Block and paper are then passed through a copper-plate press and the paper picks up the design as the heavy rollers force it into the incisions in the block. *engraving.

Intarsia. A type of marquetry popular in Italy during the 15th and 16th cs. Both Florence and Venice were renowned for i. depicting, notably, architectural perspectives and still-lifes. Uccello and Piero della Francesca are known to have made designs for use by intarsiatori, the practitioners of the craft.

International Gothic. Sophisticated late Gothic style of painting which spread through Europe in the late 14th and 15th cs. It is a decorative linear style with its origins in French Gothic art, particularly ms. illumination, and is characterized by refined and elegant figures, graceful curves of drapery, jewel-like colour and naturalistic detail. Examples include Melchior Broederlam's Dijon altarpiece, which owes a good deal to the Sienese influence of Simone Martini, who worked at Avignon; also from Burgundy is the ms. Les Tres Riches Heures ... by the *Limbourg brothers. In Italy I. G., which was highly developed in the work of Gentile da Fabriano and Pisanello, existed simultaneously with Masaccio's new realism. The style also flourished in Germany, Bohemia and Spam. A variant on I. G. found in German painting and sculpture is known as the soft style characterized by softly flowing drapery and a sweetness of sentiment which found particular expression in the representation of the Madonna and Child (Schone Madonnen).
International Style. Term applied to architecture of the MODERN MOVEMENT after 1932. That year the first architectural exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA), New York, was held following a visit to Europe by historian Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson, Director of Architecture at MOMA; the term was enshrined in the title of the accompanying book and catalogue The International Style: Architecture since 1922. Buildings selected for inclusion in the exhibition, with some notable exceptions (see below), had certain formal characteristics in common, being mostly rectilinear, undecorated, asymmetrical and white.

Intimism. Term invented to describe the type of painting of domestic interiors executed by *Bonnard and *Vuillard.

Islamic art reflects the powerful influence of the Islamic faith and is essentially a religious art. Decoration is a fundamental element that has been tirelessly and ingeniously elaborated upon since the founding of the Moslem religion in the 7th с. AD which forbade the portrayal of living creatures. After the death of Mohammed (632), the Umayyad family ruled the Islamic empire (r. 650—c. 730) which contained Egypt, Syria, Persia and Mesopotamia, and the Islamic civilization was founded. Craftsmen from these lands combined their skills but their differing traditions produced an architecture of a somewhat eclectic style that only developed and established its form during the rule of the Abbasid family (c 730-r. 790). Under this new dynasty there was considerable creative and intellectual advancement: the distinctive elements of I. a. began to emerge such as the decorative arabesque and rosette motifs which, among others, later influenced Renaissance art; Moslem craftsmen excelled in architecture using such designs to emphasize structural beauty, most notably in the unique character of the mosque. A tradition of high-quality pottery and porcelain also developed and was influenced particularly by Chinese porcelain which reached Persia via the trade routes. Elements of many other cultures influenced the development of I. a. chiefly: Mesopotamia!! and Persian, Mughal, Turkish and Egyptian. Islam also became established in N. India from с 700 and it was under the Mughal rulers that Moslem art in this region reached its peak. The Taj Mahal is perhaps the best-known example of Islamic architecture in India. During the 15th and 16th cs the Ottoman Turks ruled over the majority of the Islamic world which incl. Greece, the Balkans, Egypt and Syria, Mesopotamia and most of N. Africa. The enlightened rulers of these empires encouraged artistic development to such an extent that the period is considered one of the greatest in 1. a. Both design and the harmonious use of colour flourished and were used to great effect in pottery and especially in the weaving of fine fabric, particularly carpets. The earliest Islamic paintings date from c. 1500, a tradition cultivated by the Mughal rulers and strongly influenced by Persian miniature techniques. Typical paintings of the genre depict court and hunting scenes, and use varied and brilliant colour combined with a technical perfection. *Mesopotamian art.

Itten Johannes (1888-1967). Swiss painter and teacher of the art of colour. I. began to study under Adolph Holzell in Stuttgart, 1913, later moving to Vienna where lie ran his own school for several years. In 1919 he joined the staff of the Weimar *Bauhaus where he formed an association with *Albers, *Klee and *Kandinsky. Many of the theories formulated by I. during his long teaching career were published in The Art of Color (1961) which still remains one of the most important textbooks on colour.

Ivanov Alexandr Andreyevich (1806-58). Russian painter mostly of religious subjects, influenced by the *Nazarenes in Rome where he spent most of his life. His main work, other than drawings, is Christ's First Appearance to the People (1833-55).

Ivory. The elephant or walrus tusk has been used for carving since palaeolithic tunes. It is one of the most durable of all materials and lends itself to a variety of techniques, relief, entire carvings and to the most subtle and intricate interweaving of shapes. It has been employed equally for ornamentation and use at all times, and there exist boxes, brooches, chessmen, combs, pendants, as well as statuettes, altarpieces, etc.
Although most naturally lending itself to miniature work 1. has been used for the colossal chryselephantine (gold and ivory) cult statues in Greece, the most famous of which were those of the Zeus at Olympia and the statue of Athena by Phidias in the Parthenon on the Athens Acropolis. It was also used as a decoration for large objects, notably, e.g. the throne of Archbishop Maximian at Ravenna.
Ivories were the predominant form of Byzantine sculpture and the dispersal of Byzantine ivories in W. Europe was an important vehicle of cultural influence; Carolingian and Romanesque work produced further outstanding examples in the medium. The high period of medieval Europe an i. carving was during the 9th—11th cs; superb pieces from other cultures include the carvings from African centres such as *Benin and *lfe.


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