Dictionary of

Art  &  Artist

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  Hackert-Heckel Heda-Hofhuizen Hogarth-Hypnerotomachia  

Heda Willem (Claesz) (1594-1682). Dutch still— life painter who worked in Haarlem in the manner of P. Claesz. H.'s son Gerrit Willemsz worked in the same style.

Heem Jan Davidsz de (1606—83/4). Dutch still—life painter, as was his father, David de H. (1570—1632). He worked mainly in Antwerp but also in Leyden and Utrecht. He specialized m elaborate flower pieces influenced by those of D. Seghers but used a lighter range of colours. He had many pupils and imitators including his son Cornelis (1613—95).

Heemskerck Maerten van (1498-1574). Dutch painter of portraits and religious subjects, pupil of J. van Scorel, from whom he learned an Italianate style which he further established in Rome (1532-5). There he made-sketches which give important information about the appearance of classical monuments in the 16th с.

Hegedusic Krsto (1901 - 1975). Hlebine school.Croatian group of painters

Heian. Period in Japanese history (784—1185) when the capital was Heian-kyo (now Kyoto). Japanese art of Early H. known as Konin and Jogan (784-897) was shaped by the esoteric Tendai and Shingon sects derived from Chinese Buddhism and introduced respectively by the monks Saicho and Kukai (d. 835). Painters, generally monks, produced involved, though often finely drawn, mandalas, portraits of Buddhist saints and portrayals of elemental divinities, often in violent colours. Shingon (the True Word sect), an occult branch of Buddhism, encouraged heavily symbolic sculptures, generally in unpainted wood. Later H. (897—1185) is commonly called the *Fujiwara period.

Heimatstil [Ger.: ‘regional style’]. Name of a 20th-century movement in architecture, interior decoration and the decorative arts, aimed at protecting and promoting regional and native characteristics. It developed in individual ways in a number of European countries, for example Germany, Switzerland, Poland and Finland, and flourished with varying intensity until the end of the 1940s. Heimatkunst (Ger.: ‘regional art’) was, similarly, linked to local and regional traditions without being folk art as such. Heimatstil was at its height in Switzerland in the years leading up to, and during, World War II, advocating a nationalist culture based on the traditional rural society, as opposed to the grandeur and modern functionalism of cosmopolitan urban culture. It was believed that architecture and the decorative arts should reflect such typically Swiss values as modesty, honesty and being at one with nature. These national characteristics, turned into material form, should make an impact on a new, more natural way of life that was inherently tied to the notion of country. Heimatstil saw as beautiful only that which was in accordance with the essence of the inhabitants of a particular region.

Heintz Joseph (b Augsburg, c. 1600; d Venice, 24 Sept 1678). Painter and etcher, son of Joseph Heintz. He served his apprenticeship (1617–21) as a painter with his stepfather, Matthäus Gundelach, in Augsburg. His artistic beginnings are traceable in drawings produced in Augsburg (e.g. the Painter at his Easel, 1621; Gdansk, N. Mus.), and Venice (e.g. Genius of Painting, 1625; Vienna, Albertina). His great panel painting Christ in Limbo (late 1620s or early 1630s; sold London, Sotheby’s, 6 July 1994, lot 4391) bears witness to his conversion to Catholicism, without which he could hardly have established himself in Venice. He probably spent long periods in Rome in the 1630s or 1640s, and before 1644 Urban VIII made him a Knight of the Golden Spur. Many of his paintings on religious themes, including works supporting the Counter-Reformation, were predominantly for churches in Venice and its dominions. However, his special importance for Venetian painting lies not in the field of religious art but in his depictions (mostly Venice, Bib. Correr) of the city’s festivities and state ceremonies, featuring large numbers of figures, in which he was a direct precursor of Luca Carlevaris and Canaletto, as revealed especially in his Piazza S Marco (after 1640; Rome, Gal. Doria-Pamphili). Presumably he knew of the similar endeavours of his cousin Joseph Plepp (1595–1642) in Berne. He also produced genre paintings, such as the Fishmonger (1650s; Italy) votive pictures, including the Adoration of the Magi (?1669) and Sacra conversazione (1669; both Breguzzo, S Andrea); allegories, for example the Allegory of Venice (1674; Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.); pictures showing the activities of the months and mythological scenes of which there is so far only a literary record.

Heizer Michael (1944- ). U.S. artist who, like *Smithson, often works on a vast scale (Complex One/City, 1972-6). A leading *Earth work artist, H. creates 'negative objects' which are rarely documented. In Double Negative he excavated 40,000 tons of earth and rock in 2 sq. miles of desert.

Helion Jean (1904-87). French painter. He collaborated with Van *Doesburg on the pamphlet Art Concret and was a member of the * Abstraction-Creation group. He spent several years in the U.S.A. After working under the influence of the Cubists and Mondrian he reverted to representational painting.

Hellenistic. Dating from the time of Alexander the Great's successors (c. 323-c. 50 BC). Such art was produced in a variety of styles, from the baroque to the archaistic, throughout the territories Alexander had conquered, from Egypt to the borders of India.

Helnwein Gottfried (born October 8, 1948 in Vienna) is an Austrian-Irish fine artist, painter, photographer, installation and performance artist.

Henri Robert (1865-1929). U.S. Realist painter who studied at Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and in Paris, and in the 1890s founded the group called 'Philadelphia Realists', later The *Eight; an organizer of the *Armory Show. He was an important and stimulating teacher, encouraging his pupils to seek inspiration in the contemporary scene. Some of his essays and classroom notes were publ. as The An Spirit (1923).

Henslee Jack. Pin -Up Art.

Hernandez Gregorio (Spain, 1576-1636)

Herold Jacques (1910-1987). Rumanian born Surrealist painter, printmaker and sculptor. Herold studied from 1925 to 1926 at the Art Academy in Bucharest. The artist came to Paris in 1930 where he met Victor Braun, Yes Tanguy and Andre Breton. He joined the Surrealist group around Breton and exhibited at the Salon d'Automne since 1936. 

Hesdin Jacquemart de (d. с 1410). French miniaturist of Flemish origin. He worked for John, Duke of Berry, decorating several L3ooks of Hours, the most famous being the Belles Heures. Subtlety of colour and use of borders with birds and foliage characterize his work. His representation of architecture suggests Sienese influence.

Hess Jesuit Willem van (1601-90).

Hicks Edward (1780-1849). The greatest of the itinerant, self-taught American folk artists or 'primitives', famous for his versions of The Peaceable Kingdom illustrating Isaiah II, with W. Penn signing his treaty with the Indians shown in the background.

High Tech. Stylistic term applied to the expressive use of modern technology, industrial components, equipment or materials in the design of architecture, interiors and furnishings. It was first employed in print by Joan Kron and Susan Slesin in magazine articles of 1977. High Tech described the then-fashionable style of decoration using out-of-context, brightly coloured elements of industrial design (e.g. factory lamps, warehouse shelving, office chairs, work-benches, duct-work, glass bricks etc) in domestic interiors and shops. In their book High-Tech: The Industrial Style and Source-book for the Home (1978), however, Kron and Slesin cited a number of buildings, most notably the Centre Georges Pompidou (1971–7), Paris, by Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano, to add weight to their argument that ‘the industrial aesthetic in design ...is one of the most important design trends today’. By 1980 this building had become the standard exemplar of High Tech architectural design and remained a monument of definition thereafter. The bright colours of its exposed ducts, its transparent escalator tubes hung on the exterior of its boldly exhibited structural system and its general air of technological optimism made it a convincing large-scale demonstration of the Kron and Slesin aesthetic.

Hildebrandt Greg. Pin -Up Art.

Hill Gary (1951- ). U.S. video artist of international importance. His *Postmodern concerns with perception and language are informed by cybernetics, communications theory, video technology, *Performance and *Conceptual art, and poetry in the U.S.A. since the early 1960s. In his works complex video installations are combined with language, in spoken and written texts, which often allude to French thinkers, like M. Blanchot and J. Derrida, in an interplay between word and image, e.g. Inasmuch as It Is Always Already Taking Place (1990), I Believe It is an Image in Light of the Other (1991 -2), Tall Ships (1992), Between 1 & 0 and Learning Curve (both 1993).

Hi-Red Center [Haireddo Senta]. Japanese group of installation artists founded in 1963 and active until 1964. The group’s name comprised a translation of the first part of each founder’s surname: ‘Taka’ from JIRO TAKAMATSU, ‘Aka’ from Genpei Akasegawa (b 1937) and ‘Naka’ from Natsuyuki Nakanishi (b 1935). The group attempted to draw attention to their neo-Dadaist ideas through the staging of public installations and performances. In the Dairoku ji mikisa keikaku (‘The sixth blender plan’) exhibition at the Miyata Clinic, Shinbashi, Tokyo (1963), for example, Nakanishi covered himself in metal clothes-pegs. The Shieruta puran (‘Shelter plan’) event in the Teikoku Hotel, Tokyo (1964), involved the creation of personalized nuclear fall-out shelters by the group’s members. Hi-Red Center also produced a number of pamphlets in addition to their other activities.

Hiroshige Ando Tokitaro called (1797—1858). Japanese artist of the Ukiyo-e school, one of the great masters of the coloured woodcut. He adapted block printing to landscape subjects being best known for his poetical prints of the Yedo (Tokyo) district and the old high road to Kyoto. His work exerted a powerful influence on the Impressionists and other 10th-c. Huropean artists.

Hirshfield Morris (b Russian Poland, 10 April 1872; d New York, 26 July 1946).
American painter of Russian–Polish origin. He claimed to have carved wooden ceremonial objects as a young boy, but ceased to create until he retired from his clothing manufacturing concern and began to paint. When Sidney Janis was arranging an exhibition of American folk art for MOMA in 1939, he saw Hirshfield’s naive works in a gallery in New York. He exhibited two in the show and organized a one-man show for the artist in 1943; he also purchased two works, including Beach Girl (1937). In such paintings Hirshfield based large areas of the overall design on the fabrics with which he worked during his years in business, and his outlined forms on the art of patternmaking. In this and slightly later works, such as Inseparable Friends (1941), an ambiguous treatment of young female sexuality is played off against the patterns and the repetition of forms.

Hirst Damien (born June 7, 1965) is an English artist and the most prominent of the group that has been dubbed "Young British Artists" (or YBAs). Hirst dominated the art scene in Britain during the 1990s and is internationally renowned. During the 1990s his career was closely linked with the collector Charles Saatchi, but increasing frictions came to a head in 2003 and the relationship ended. Death is a central theme in Hirst's works. He became famous for a series in which dead animals (including a shark, a sheep and a cow) are preserved—sometimes having been dissected—in formaldehyde. His most iconic work is The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living, a 14-foot tiger shark immersed in formaldehyde in a vitrine. Its sale in 2004 made him the world's second most expensive living artist after Jasper Johns. In June 2007, Hirst overtook Johns when his Lullaby Spring sold for £9.65 million at Sotheby's in London. On 30 August 2007, Hirst outdid his previous sale of Lullaby Spring with For The Love of God which sold for £50 million to an unknown investment group. He is also known for "spin paintings," made on a spinning circular surface, and "spot paintings," which are rows of randomly-coloured circles. 

History painting.
Alberti, in the 15th c, used the word istoria to describe any subject picture with more than 1 figure. In the 17th c, h. p. had come to mean pictures with subjects taken from the histories, that is poetry, history (especially of antiquity) and religion; it was held to be the highest form of art. In the 18th c. Reynolds stated 'a history painter paints man in general: a portrait painter, a particular man, and consequently a defective model'. Scenes of contemporary history in modern dress were only slowly accepted at the beginning of the 19th с.

Hlebine school [Hlebinska slikarska skola; Hlebine Primitives]. Croatian group of painters who worked in Hlebine and the neighbouring village of Podravina, near Zagreb, from c. 1932. Its principal members included KRSTO HEGEDUSIC, IVAN GENERALIC, Franjo Mraz (1910–81) and Mirko Virius (1889–1943). The first mention of the group was in 1932, when Hegedusic began to encourage peasants from the area to paint. The Croatian authorities at that time favoured an art programme based on a folk style and aimed at an authentic national artistic expression, and Hegedusic’s idea corresponded with prevailing populist support for ruralism and its manifestation in various artistic media. An art independent of western European ideas was also preferred. Hegedusic exerted a strong influence on his collaborators (among the first of whom were Generalic and Mraz) through his use of rural motifs and his technique of painting on glass. He also organized several exhibitions in which the work of the Hlebine school was shown with that of the LAND GROUP (Zemlja). After World War II Generalic was the most important artist of the group to work in the region. The painters Franjo Filipovic (b 1930), Dragan Gazi (1930–83), Mijo Kovacic (b 1935), Ivan Vecenaj (b 1920), Martin Mehkek (b 1936), Ivan Lackovic-Croata (b 1932) and Josip Generalic (b 1936) gathered round him and formed the ‘second Hlebine school’. Unlike the first generation, who had been preoccupied with themes of social criticism, the second generation nostalgically evoked idyllic peasant life and labour and celebrated their beauty. The Hlebine Primitives became well known internationally, exhibiting at the Biennale in São Paulo in 1955 and at the Exposition Universelle et Internationale in Brussels in 1958. This frequent international exposure created the impression that their primitivist work was representative of modern Yugoslav art. Their most important works are in the Gallery of Primitive Art in Zagreb.

Hoch Hannah (1889—1978). German artist, a member of the Berlin Club *Dada and one of the originators of *photomontage, along with *Hausmann, *Grosz, *Heartfield anil *Baader. Her photomontages, e.g. Cut with the Cake Knife (c. 1919), are often larger than those of the others and differ in composition. H. used photographs, scraps of text, images of machinery, and assembled heads and bodies often including portraits of friends and photographs of herself, e.g. Da-Dandy (1919).

Hockney David (1937- ). British artist who, more than any other British painter of his generation, has enjoyed great international and popular success from the early 1960s. H. studied at the K.C.A., London (1959-62) where he met *Kitaj who influenced him to turn to figurative painting and unashamed use of literary sources. Already while at R.C.A., H. achieved distinction as an engraver with the major series of 16 etchings The Rake's Progress (1961—3) which combined Hogarth's narrative, from his series of the same name, and H.'s experience from his 1st visit to N.Y. He exhibited at the Young Contemporaries (Whitechapel Art Gal., 1962) 4 paintings under the general title Demonstrations of Versatility, painted in different styles and emulating the example of Picasso who was to become the major influence on H.'s development. During 1963-7 he settled in California which resulted in paintings of Calitornian subjects, culminating with A Bigger Splash (1967), and an ever-increasing tendency towards naturalism. This was briefly interrupted by a 2nd series of etchings, Illustrations for fourteen Poems from С. Р. Cavafy (1966) and his 1st stage designs for Alfred Jarry's Ubu Roi (Royal Court Theatre, 1966). From 1968 to 1971 he painted a number of double portraits including Mr and Mrs Clark and Percy (1970-1), while in 1969 he executed another series of etchings, Six Fairy Tales from the Brothers Grimm. Н. has always drawn profusely: a book, Travels with Pen, Pencil and Ink, was published in 1978. From 1975 he designed frequently for the stage: Stravinsky's The Rake's Progress (Glyndebourne 1978), Mozart's The Magic Flute (Glyndebourne 1978) and 2 triple bills at the N.Y. Metropolitan Opera House (L'Enfant et les sortileges, Parade and Les Mamelles de Tiresias, 1980—1, and Le Sacre du printemps, Le Rossignol and Oedipus Rex, 1982). Also Tristan und Isolde (1987), Turandot (1991) and Die Frau ohne Schatten (1992). H. has often used photography and since 1980 he has experimented with new technology, using it in complex. Cubist-like photomontages, e.g. Grand Canyon Looking North (1982) and Jardin de Luxembourg, Paris (198s). His work has also been influenced by faxes and xeroxes, e.g. Hotel by the Sea, Tennis and Breakfast with Stanley in Malibu (all 1989). H.'s most recent paintings include Where Now? followed by his group called 'Some Very New Paintings' (all 1992).

Ho David. Surrealism.

Hodler Ferdinand (1853-1918). Swiss painter, a precursor of "Expressionism. Deliberately rejecting Impressionism, he developed a precise and expressive linear style which relates to the German Jugendstil movement. He painted landscapes, portraits and large-scale historical and mythological subjects, but Ins fame rests on his symbolical works such as Night, Disillusioned Souls and Towards the Infinite. The combination of realism and mysticism in these paintings gives him a solitary place among the artists of his time.

Hoffmann Josef (1870 - 1956). Austrian architect, designer and draughtsman. He had a natural gift for creating beautiful forms, and he proceeded to make the most of it during a career that spanned more than 50 years. In this half century the conditions and nature of architectural practice changed profoundly, but Hoffmann’s fundamental approach remained the same. He relied on his intuition to produce works that were unmistakably his own in their formal and compositional treatment, yet mirrored all stylistic changes in the European architectural scene.

Hofhuizen Willem ( 1915 – 1986). Dutch painter and Expressionist.


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