Dictionary of

Art  &  Artist

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  Hackert-Heckel Heda-Hofhuizen Hogarth-Hypnerotomachia  

Hackert Philipp (b Prenzlau, 1737; dSan Pietro di Careggi, 1807). He studied first with his father, Philipp Hackert, then from 1755 with Blaise Nicolas Le Sueur at the Berlin Akademie. There he encountered, and copied, the landscapes of Dutch artists and of Claude Lorrain. The latter influence shows in two works exhibited in 1761, views of the Lake of Venus in the Berlin Zoological Garden (versions of 1764 in Stockholm, Nmus.). These much admired paintings retain a rather rigid late Baroque style. Hackert’s main interest in these early works was to arrive at a special understanding of a place through alternate views, with reverse directions of observation. This systematic documentation bears witness to his interest in the study of nature.

Hagenbund [Künstlerbund Hagen; Hagengesellschaft]. Austrian group of artists formed in 1900 in Vienna and active until 1930. Its most prominent members included Heinrich Lefler and Joseph Urban. The group took its name from Herr Haagen, the landlord of an inn at which artists often met for informal discussion. Originally called the Hagengesellschaft, most of its members left the Künstlerhaus at the same time as the Secessionists in 1897. Three years later they left the Secession to form the Hagenbund. At first the group intended to remain within the Künstlerhaus, and they held their first two exhibitions on its premises. However, between 1902 and 1912, and again from 1920 until 1930, they exhibited independently in a market-hall (the Zedlitzhalle) converted by Urban. The group favoured a distinct Art Nouveau style based on folk art and British antecedents, such as the work of Aubrey Beardsley. Their manner was less extreme than that of the Secessionists, and this contributed to their official success; Lefler and Urban were the major contributors to a pageant held in 1908 in celebration of Francis Joseph’s 60 years on the throne. The influence of the Hagenbund was felt largely through their illustrations, which were popular with a younger and less upper-class audience than the Secessionists had. Most notable was the series Gerlachs Jugendbücherei, illustrated with lithographs by Lefler, Urban and Karl Fahringer (1874–1952). Among Austrian artists who participated in Hagenbund exhibitions were Robin Christian Andersen, Anton Hanak, Oskar Laske (1874–1951) and, at times, Oskar Kokoschka and Egon Schiele. Although the group was not dissolved until 1930, its importance had faded by the outbreak of World War I.

Hague school. A group of *Realist artists who worked in Holland between 1860 and 1900, reviving many of the traditions of I7th-c. Dutch landscape and architectural painters. The group included Bosboom, Joseph Israels, Mauve and the Maris brothers.

Haida. North American Indian people of the *North-west Coast group, centred in the Queen Charlotte Islands of British Columbia. They are noted for a tradition of powerful wood carvers whose finest work was in the totemic house and grave poles (totem poles)

Hallstatt. Site in Austria which has given its name to the 1st W. European Iron Age culture; the H. period produced a geometrical art less interesting than that of the subsequent *La Тeпе period.

Halmstad group [Swed. Halmstadgruppen]. Swedish group of six painters active from 1929. It disbanded only with the death of the various members. The artists were the brothers Axel Olson (1899–1986) and Erik (Arthur) Olson (1901–86), their cousin (Anders) Waldemar Lorentzon (1899–1984), Sven Jonson (1902–83), (Carl) Stellan (Gabriel) Mörner (1896–1979) and Theodor Esaias Thorén (1901–81). All had connections with Halmstad, a town on the west coast of Sweden. In 1919 Egon Östlund, a mechanical engineer working in Halmstad, established contact with the Olsons and Lorentzon. Through Östlund, they became familiar with the work of Gösta Adrian-Nilsson, and over the years Östlund supported the Halmstad group. Adrian-Nilsson’s paintings were important early mutual influences for the group, as were Cubism and Neo-plasticism. In the early 1930s the group began to paint in a Surrealist style, as in, for example, Erik Olson’s the Day through the Night (1935; Stockholm, Mod. Mus.); they were influenced by such artists as Salvador Dalí and Yves Tanguy. Gradually the painters developed in different directions, but the group remained active, exhibiting together. They were the most significant exponents of Surrealism in Sweden and took part in various Surrealist exhibitions in Europe in the 1930s. Axel Olson became very involved in local art life, while Erik Olson had close contacts with Danish Surrealists and participated in the resistance to the German occupation of Denmark during World War II. In 1950 he converted to Catholicism and had connections with the art sacré movement in France. He also painted many religious works. In 1963 he was awarded the Order of Gregory the Great by Pope John XXIII (reg 1958–63). Lorentzon joined the Oxford Movement in 1938 and from that time executed mainly religious decorations. Mörner was very versatile, designing sets for various theatres, mostly in Stockholm and Göteborg. He wrote articles on art and several books, including his autobiography Spegel mot mitt liv (‘Mirror to my life’; Stockholm, 1969) and Det varma kvallsljuset (‘The warm evening light’; Stockholm, 1976).

Hals Frans (1580/5-1666). Dutch portrait painter. H. lived all his life in Haarlem. He probably studied under K. van Mander and may have visited Rubens in Antwerp (1616). He must have won a considerable reputation as a portrait painter prior to 1616, when he was commissioned to paint The Banquet of the Haarlem Civic Guard, Archers of St George. In this work H. confidently solves the enormous problems of composition involved in a group portrait where no figure can be subordinate. Other militia portraits were commissioned for the same mess in 1627, 1633 and 1639, while H.'s fame had spread to Amsterdam, whose Civic Guard he was invited to paint in 1633, a picture he left unfinished. Married, with numerous children, one an imbecile, another a delinquent, H. was in continuous financial difficulty. He gave lessons and among his pupils were probably Brouwer, Leyster, Molenaer and Wouwerman. In 1641 H. painted 'The Governors of St Elizabeth Hospital. In 1644 the entrance fee of the Haarlem Guild was waived to allow H. to become a member. In 1664, in return for a small grant of money and fuel from the city, H. painted 2 of his most masterful and technically bold group portraits, Men ... and Women Governors of the Haarlem Almshouse. Of his single portraits, perhaps the best known is the one called The Laughing Cavalier. Among others which show the brilliance of his brush-work and which capture the spontaneity of gesture he was famous for, are Gipsy Girl, Elderly Woman, Hille Bobbe, or The Witch of Haarlem and Young Couple in a Landscape. H. was an important influence on Manet.

Hamilton Richard  (1922— ). British artist. He studied at the R.A. Schools (1938) but his art training was interrupted by the war when he was trained as engineering draughtsman. He taught for 14 years, first at the Central School of Arts and Crafts, London, and then at the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. H. was largely responsible for the radical developments which transformed British art in the 1950s and 1960s: his seminal role in the birth of *Pop art is acknowledged internationally. Although best known as a painter and maker of prints, his influence has been exercised also through teaching, writing, and through a number of exhibitions, e.g. 'Growth and Form' (1951), 'Man, Machine and Motion' (1955) and "This is Tomorrow' (1956). His publications include Collected Words (1953-82).

Han. Chinese dynasty (206 ВС—AD 220), а period of imperial expansion and Confucianist orthodoxy modified by the introduction of Buddhism (c. 1st c. AD). Fine bronze, lacquer and jade objects survive but of the great wall paintings which decorated the palaces only a few tomb paintings are left — notably at Liao-yang, S. Manchuria and Wang-tu, Hopei province. The style is naturalistic and vigorous with affinities to *calligraphy. Funerary sculptures includes the 1st Chinese monumental stone carving, e.g. at the tomb of General Ho Ch'u-ping (d. 117 BC), Hsing-p'ing, Shensi and magnificent small bronzes, notably the famous Horse Poised on a Swallow, from a tomb at Lei-t'ai, Kansu.

Hanawa Kazuichi. Manga blood.

Hanson Duane (1925—96). U.S. *Super-Realist sculptor of life-size and life-like figures of ordinary Americans, made with plastic materials (reinforced polyester resin and fibreglass) which result in extraordinary and disconcerting verisimilitude. The subjects and types chosen may express a critical attitude towards the social types they represent (e.g. Tourists, 1970) or the society that produces them.

Hans von Aachen.  Aachen Hans von (b Cologne, 1552; d Prague, 4 March 1615). German painter and draughtsman, active also in Italy and Bohemia. One of the foremost painters of the circle gathered at the Prague court of Emperor Rudolf II, he synthesized Italian and Netherlandish influences in his portraits and erudite allegories.

Happening. An apparently impromptu situation, performance, event or series of events sometimes contrived to generate participation by onlookers. The H. was developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s in the U.S.A. Random responses from the spectator—performers are often part of the H. whose purpose is to rupture the barriers between 'art' and 'life'. *Kaprow's 18 Happenings in 6 Parts, Reuben Gal., N.Y. (1959) and *Oldenburg's Store Days (1962) are typical early examples. H.'s were mounted in Europe and Japan.

Harbour Jennie. Art Deco

Hard-edge painting. A term coined in 1958 by the Los Angeles art critic Jules Lansner to describe the work of local artists using cleanly defined forms and flat colour. By extension, any modern abstract painting with these characteristics.

Hard-edge painting.
Term applied to abstract paintings composed of simple geometric or organic forms executed in broad, flat colours and delineated by precise, sharp edges. The term was coined by the Californian art critic Jules Langsner in 1958 and intended by him merely as an alternative to the term ‘geometric abstraction’. Generally, however, it is used in a more specific sense: whereas geometric abstraction can be used to describe works with large numbers of separate, possibly modelled, elements creating a spatial effect, hard-edge painting refers only to works comprised of a small number of large, flat forms, generally avoiding the use of pictorial depth. It is in relation to this type of painting, particularly as produced by artists such as Ellsworth Kelly, KENNETH NOLAND, Barnett Newman and Ad Reinhardt from the mid-1950s to the end of the 1960s, that the term acquired general currency. Characteristic of this style are Newman’s The Gate (1954; Amsterdam, Stedel. Mus.) and Kelly’s White Black (1961; Chicago, IL, A. Inst.)

Haring Keith  (1958—90). U.S. artist whose *graffiti-like drawings of children, dogs, UFOs and AIDS-inspired images made him one of the art celebrities of the 1980s. He also painted and sculpted, and designed stage-sets, murals, record covers and logos. As the critic Germano Celant has observed, H. 'had the singular ability' to depict the complexity of the present with both its sublime and horrifying aspects as well as its marvelous and monstrous forms.'

Harrison Fisher. Pin -Up Art.

Harunobu Suzuki (1724-1770) . The great 18th-c. master of the Japanese colour print. His main themes were girlhood and scenes from everyday life, and he endowed these commonplace subjects with a grace and beauty far excelling anything in the Japanese tradition before or after his time.

Harushige Suzuki  (1747-1818) Japan Artist

Hassam Childe (1859-1935). U.S. painter and graphic artist. After studying in Boston he went to Paris, where he was strongly influenced by the technique and high colour range of the Impressionists. He was one of the 1st U.S. artists to adopt Impressionism and also to paint the N.Y. scene.

Hatching. To create the effect of tone or shadow by a series of parallel lines or, in the case of Cross-Hatching, of parallel lines crossed by others.

Hawkins Louis (1849-1910). Born in Germany of English parents, he took French nationality in 1895. Studied in Paris, at the Acadeйmie Julian. From 1881-91 he exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Francais; from 1894 with the Societe Nationale, the Rose+Croix Salons and the Libre Esthetique in Brussels. In touch with the Symbolist writers, with Stйphane Mallarmй, Jean Lorraine, Robert de Montparnasse etc. Akin to the Pre-Raphaelites in his dense, highly detailed style combined with strange or exotic subject matter.

Hauer Erwin (b.1926). Modular constructivism.

Hausmann Raoul (1886-1971). Austrian-born Dadaist, one of the co-founders - with *Grosz, *Heartfield, Huelscnbeck and others — of the 'Club Dada' in Berlin in 1918, one of the signatories of the Berlin Dada Manifesto (1918) and editor of the magazine Der Dada. H. developed first, along with other Berlin Dadaists, the method of *photomontage. H. wrote: 'seized with an innovatory zeal, I also needed a name for this technique, and in agreement with Grosz, Heartfield, Baader, and Hoch, we decided to call these works photomontages. This term translates our aversion at playing the artist, and, thinking of ourselves as engineers ... we meant to construct, to assemble our works.' H. also edited the Dada Almanach (1920) and was one of the key participants at the Berlin Dada Fair in June 1920.

Hausner Rudolf (1914 – 1995) was an Austrian painter, draughtsman, printmaker and sculptor. Hausner has been described as a "psychic realist" and "the first psychoanalytical painter" (Gunter Engelhardt). Hausner studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna from 1931 until 1936. During this period he also traveled around Europe, visiting England, France, Italy, Greece, Turkey, and Egypt. After he was designated a 'degenerate' artist in 1938, exhibition of his work was banned in Germany. He was a soldier from 1941 until 1945. In 1942 he married Grete Czingely. Before allying himself with and co-founding the Vienna School of Fantastic Realism his works were mainly Expressionist-influenced images of suburbs, still-lifes, and female models, most of which he destroyed.
In 1944, Hausner married Irene Schmied. During the last days of the second world war he was assigned to an air defense unit. After the war, he returned to his bomb-damaged studio and resumed work as an artist. In 1946 he founded a surrealist group together with Edgar Jené, Ernst Fuchs, Wolfgang Hutter and Fritz Janschka. They were later joined by Arik Brauer and Anton Lehmden. He joined the Art-Club and had his first one-man exhibition in the Konzerthaus, Vienna. A key work of this period, It's me! (1948; Vienna, Hist. Mus.), shows his awareness of Pittura Metafisica and Surrealism in a psychoanalytical painting where the elongated being in the foreground penetrates what was apparently a real landscape, until it tears like a backdrop; another painting, Forum of Inward-turned Optics (1948; Vienna, Hist. Mus.), is evidence of his ability to depict the subject in a realist style while simultaneously overturning the laws of one-point perspective. He married Hermine Jedlicka in 1951; their daughter Xenia Hausner, also an artist, was born the same year. After working on the painting for six years, he completed his masterpiece, The Ark of Odysseus, in 1956. The Ark of Odysseus (1948-51 and 1953-6; Vienna, Hist. Mus.), depicts the hero as a self-portrait and was a precursor to the series of Adam paintings in which Hausner painted his own features. In 1957, Hausner painted his first "Adam" picture. He came into conflict with the Surrealist orthodoxy, who condemned as heretical his attempt to give equal importance to both conscious and unconscious processes. In 1959 he co-founded the Vienna School of Fantastic Realism together with his old surrealism group members: Ernst Fuchs, Wolfgang Hutter, Anton Lehmden, Arik Brauer, and Fritz Janschka. In 1962, Hausner met Paul Delvaux, René Magritte, Victor Brauner, and Dorothea Tanning while traveling in Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. The 1st Burda Prize for Painting was awarded to him in 1967. In 1969, he was awarded the Prize of the City of Vienna. Shortly after, he separated from Hermine Jedlicka and moved to Hietzing together with his daughter Xenia and Anne Wolgast, whom he had met in Hamburg. From 1966 until 1980, he was a guest professor at the Hochschule für Bildende Künste in Hamburg. He also taught at the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna. Among his students were Joseph Bramer, Friedrich Hechelmann, Gottfried Helnwein, Michael Engelhardt, and Siegried Goldberger. Hausner was awarded the Austrian State Prize for Painting in 1970.

Hayahi Joshifumi. Yoshifumi Hayashi was born in Fukuoka (Japan) in 1948. Having dropped out of university, in 1974 he moved to Paris, where, he began to produce
pencil drawings. At first his main influence was the metaphisical world of De Chirico, but soon his focus shifted to the lower half of the female anatomy.

Hayden Palmer (1890-1973). African-American artist who, after studying at the Cooper Union School of Art in N.Y. and at the Boothbay Art Colony in Maine, received the coveted Harmon Foundation award which enabled him to go to France in 1927. In Paris he enrolled at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and soon after successfully exhibited his works associated with the final years of the Harlem Renaissance. After returning to N.Y. m 1932, he worked on the U.S. Treasury Art Project and the *W.P.A. In 1944 he began a series, Ballad of John Henry (until 1954), on the life of the legendary African-American folk hero.

Hayez Francesco (b Venice, 11 Feb 1791; d Milan, 12 Dec 1882). Italian painter and printmaker. Italy’s greatest exponent of historical Romantic painting, he was also greatly admired for his portraits. He played an important part in the cultural life of Italy during its emergence as a modern nation state.

Hayter Stanley William (1901-88). British graphic artist responsible for giving a new impetus to engraving techniques, widely extending their field of reference by his imaginative use of mixed techniques. In Paris he founded (1927) the influential experimental workshop *Atelier 17.

Heartfield John (Helmut Herzfelde) (1891-1968). German pioneer of *photomontage and a founder of Berlin *Dada in the 1910s. In Britain from 1938, he settled in E. Germany in 1950. A Communist, H. fought relentlessly against Nazism, capitalism and war, in renowned satirical montages.

Heckel Erich (1883-1970). German *Expressionist painter and graphic artist, with Kirchner and Schmidt-Rottluff founder of Die *Brucke. The brooding introspection of his work up to 1920 gradually diminished and he turned away from Expressionism, developing a more decorative style and a lyrical sensitivity to landscape. He produced important woodcuts such as 'The Crouching One (1914) which conveys his tragic sense of man's isolation.


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