Dictionary of

Art  &  Artist

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  Gabo-Giorgione Giotteschi-Gozzoli Grabar-Guttuso  

Gabo Naum (ne Pevsner) (1890—1977). Painter of Russian origin trained as an engineer in Munich before turning to the creation of abstract constructions. The first of these was Bust (1915), a Cubist-influenced work executed in planes of wood. In 1917 he returned to Russia with his elder brother, the painter *Pevsner, and settled in Moscow, becoming associated with the local avant-garde led by *Malevieh and *Tatlin. In 1920 the Pevsners issued their 'Realist Manifesto', which declared against the functionalism of Tatlin and *Rodchenko's *Constructivism; a year later they left Russia, finding the artistic climate unsympathetic, for Berlin. G. continued to develop his ideas in constructions made of glass, plastics and metals, after Berlin, in Paris, then Britain and, from 1939, in the U.S.A. Later works included an 80 ft (24.4 in.) sculpture for the Bykenkorf Building, Rotterdam (1957). Among his publs is Of Divers Arts (1962).

Gabriel Ange-Jacques (born Oct. 23, 1698, Paris, France died 1782, Paris)
French architect who built or enlarged many chateaus and palaces during the reign of Louis XV. He was one of the most important and productive French architects of the 18th century.

Gaceta del arte. An international monthly cultural review that was published in Tenerife, Canary Islands, from February 1932 to June 1936. Its editor-in-chief was Eduardo Westerdahl (1902–80), and its editors included the writer Domingo Pérez Mink. The proclamation of the Second Republic in Spain in 1931 created an atmosphere of liberalization, and national and international avant-garde periodicals of the previous decade such as Esprit, Cahiers d’art, Die Brücke and Revista de Occidente reappeared. The very character of the islands and the emphasis on international tourism favoured the Gaceta del arte’s publication. Its viewpoint was dependent on Westerdahl’s European travels, which put him in contact with such contemporary avant-garde movements as Functionalism, Rationalism, Surrealism and many others. His programme was to disseminate the most progressive styles and ideas emerging in Europe, from aesthetics and ethics to fashion. From the outset, Gaceta del arte maintained connections with the Rationalist movement in architecture. Its contacts with Surrealism emerged later through Oscar Domínguez. The Gaceta del arte always maintained its independence, however, although there was a Surrealist faction among the magazine’s editors, represented chiefly by Domingo López-Torres and Pedro Garcia Cabrera. Domínguez exhibited in Tenerife in 1933 and the review devoted a special issue to Surrealism. The Exposición internacional del Surrealismo was held in Tenerife in 1935 and included works by De Chirico, Duchamp, Dalí, Max Ernst, Domínguez and Giacometti among others; André Breton visited the island for the occasion. The Gaceta continued as a platform for the discussion of new ideas from Europe and from Spain. Its contributors included some of the most important artists of the day, such as Miró, Kandinsky and Angel Ferrant. It was always well received, particularly in liberal circles in Madrid and Barcelona. When the Spanish Civil War loomed in 1936, the review took a position against the war and against Fascism, but events caused its disappearance in June 1936.

Gaddi Taddeo. Gaddi. A family of Italian artists who sustained the style of Giotto for 2 generations in Florence. Taddeo G. (d. 1366) was probably an assistant to Giotto. His own best-known work is the fresco cycle Life of the Virgin. His sons, Agnolo and Giovanni, were working in the Vatican in 1369. Agnolo painted the fresco cycles The True Cross and Life of the Virgin as well as a number of panels, e.g. Coronation of the Virgin.

Gainsborough Thomas (1727—88). British painter of landscape and portraits. Born at Sudbury, Suffolk, G. was trained m London. His early style was formed by a study of the figures in Watteau and other French Rococo painters while working for the engraver Gravelot, combined with the influence of the Dutch masters of landscape, especially J. van Ruisdael and J. Wynants.
G. returnee! to Suffolk and painted some of his finest work (c. 1750—9), including the combination of a double portrait and a landscape, Mr and Mrs Andrews, and the large landscape Cornard Wood (or Gainsborough's Forest). In 1759 G. was astute enough to move to Bath, where he soon came to the notice of the fashionable world. When his reputation spread to London he moved there in 1774. In a few years he disputed with Reynolds the enormous profit and prestige of being the leading portrait painter in Britain and even in Europe. Though a founder-member of the R.A., G. later withdrew and exhibited his paintings in his own home, Schomberg House, Pall Mall. His success continued to his death and his rival, Reynolds, did much to confirm his fame. In his later portraits G. borrowed from Van Dyck, e.g. The Blue Boy. He was most successful in painting women of obvious spirit and animation, e.g. Countess Howe, such sympathetic studies as the newly married couple in The Morning Walk, and the delightfully informal sketches of his 2 daughters.
G. preferred to paint idealized landscapes and what Reynolds called his 'fancy pictures'. His strange lighting was his own, but Rubens was an influence on his later work. The feathery brush-work, lyrical style and rich sense of colour can be seen in many galleries. A masterpiece is The Harvest Wagon. 'Two Shepherd Boys with Dogs Tightiuo is a good example of the 'fancy pictures' and shows the late influence of Murillo. Many of G.'s oil sketches and drawings are of an unusually high quality: Housemaid, and Mrs Gainsborough Goinig to Church.
G. had a lasting influence on British painting, but his only direct follower was his nephew, Gainsborough Dupont (c 1754-97), who worked in his studio, completed many of his late portraits and was a skilful imitator of his style.

Gallego Fernando (fl. 1466-1507). Spanish painter who worked in and around Salamanca. His style, especially reminiscent of R. van der Weyden, and his use of oils, show him to have been under the Flemish influence strong in Spanish art at the time. There are altarpicces by G. in Zamora cathedral and the Prado.

Galle Emile born May 8, 1846, Nancy, Fr. died Sept. 23, 1904, Nancy, celebrated French designer and pioneer in technical innovations in glass. He was a leading initiator of the Art Nouveau style and of the modern renaissance of French art glass.
The son of a successful faience and furniture producer, Gallé studied philosophy, botany, and drawing, later learning glassmaking at Meisenthal, Fr. After the Franco-German War (1870–71), he went to work in his father's factory at Nancy. He first made clear glass, lightly tinted and decorated with enamel and engraving, but he soon developed the use of deeply coloured, almost opaque glasses in heavy masses, often layered in several thicknesses and carved or etched to form plant motifs. His glass was a great success at the Paris Exhibition of 1878, and he became known as a spirited designer working in contemporary revival styles.
Gallé's strikingly original work made a great impression when it was exhibited at the Paris Exposition of 1889. Over the next decade his glass, reflecting the prevailing interest in Japanese art, became internationally known and imitated. It contributed largely to the free, asymmetric naturalism and symbolistic overtones of Art Nouveau. He employed wheel cutting, acid etching, casing (i.e., layers of various glass), and special effects such as metallic foils and air bubbles, calling his experiments marqueterie de verre (“marquetry of glass”). At Nancy he led the revival of craftsmanship and thesubsequent dissemination of crafted glass by way of mass production. At the height of its productivity, during the late 19th century, his workshop employed nearly 300 associates. He attracted numerous artisans, including the Art Nouveau glassmaker Eugène Rousseau. After Gallé's death his glass enterprise continued production until 1913.
With Gallé as its creative force, a form of naturalism, predominantly floristic, developed that was later identified with The School at Nancy, Provincial Alliance of Art Industries, established in 1901. His study of botany was the source for his natural designs, which represented leaves, ethereal flowers, vines, and fruits. His furniture designs, based on the Rococo period, continued the French tradition of emphasizing constructive points organically (e.g., corners of armoires finished in the shape of stalks or tree branches) and employing inlay and carving that were essentially floral in style. Perhaps his most characteristic concept was his meubles parlants (“talking furniture”), which incorporated in its decoration inlaid quotations from leading contemporary Symbolist authors such as Maurice Maeterlinck and Paul Verlaine. Both his glass and furniture were signed, sometimes most imaginatively. He collaborated with many colleagues, most notably the Art Nouveau furniture designer Louis Majorelle.
L. de Fourcaud's Émile Gallé (1903) preceded Gallé's own book Écrits pour l'art 1884–89 (“Writings on Art 1884–89”), which was posthumously published in 1908.

Galli-Bibiena Giuseppe (b Parma, 5 Jan 1696; d Berlin, 1756). Son of Ferdinando Galli-Bibiena. He was his father’s pupil and assisted him on various projects at the Habsburg court in Vienna. In 1716 he produced his first independent designs, as part of the festive decoration for the birth of the Archduke Leopold of Austria. For a similar occasion the following year he erected a magnificent triumphal decoration of his own (his father had by then left the imperial service). In 1718 he was given a position at court and was subsequently involved in all the major Habsburg celebratory decorations, including those for the marriage of Emperor Joseph’s daughter in Munich (1722). His lavish designs for open-air operatic performances were much admired. In 1727 he officially became chief theatrical designer to the imperial court. His subsequent employment on less secular schemes, such as his superb triumphal arch for the celebration in Prague of the canonization of St John Nepomuk (1729), may have contributed to the theatrical aspect of much German architecture of the period. During the next decade he was again mainly occupied with decorative settings for operas, funerals and celebrations, the most important of which were those for the marriage of Emperor Charles VI’s daughter Maria Theresa to Francis I, Duke of Lorraine (1736). In 1740 he produced his most lasting work, Architetture e prospettive, a book dedicated (like his father’s) to Charles VI. It consists of engravings of fantastic architectural scenes, which, while showing more Neoclassical rigour in architectural detail than Ferdinando’s, far surpass them in variety of combined perspectives, expertly controlled groupings of space and structure and dazzlingly free evocations of endless vistas. Many of them accurately record the extraordinary temporary decorations he provided for religious festivals in the imperial chapel in the Hofburg, Vienna. His stage setting design of a Monumental Hall Supported by Spiral and Square Pilasters (Cleveland, OH, Mus. A.) exemplifies the style.

Gandhara. N.W. region of the Kushan empire on the Upper Indus, Pakistan, noted for its Greco-Buddhist sculpture of the early cs Al). Greek influence came from neighbouring Bactria. Buddha is shown as a young Apollonian type with eastern features; he has a straight nose, fleshy face, lengthened ear lobes and evenly waved hair gathered in a top knot. The G. style spread E. to China (The *Six Dynasties).

Garland Seth was born in Cornwall in 1977. His passion for painting stems from his background as his parents are both top professional illustrators, his father being best known for illustrating the Tolkien book jackets. This constant connection with the visual arts created a vibrant illustrative environment in which to grow up and where his obsession for painting began. During his study at Central Saint Martins, Garland won second prize in 'The Art of Imagination Open Competition', held at the Mall Galleries, London and was their youngest prize winner at the age of 20. His paintings are influenced by the works of the Italian High Renaissance. By reviving a Renaissance method (the same used by Leonardo da Vinci and Holbein) and marrying it with the compositional approach of fashion photographers, the result is a sumptuous hybrid of modern beauty and Renaissance nuances. His work shows an understanding of histories present within the painting process, his contemporary approach to panel painting uses contemporary subject matter to employ these techniques in a modern context. 

Gaterac [Grupo de Artistas y Técnicos Españoles para el Progreso de la Arquitectura Contemporánea]. Spanish group of architects. It developed from GATCPAC, a Catalan group formed in 1930 by JOSEP LLUÍS SERT, JOSEP TORRES I CLAVÉ, Sixto Illescas (1903–86) and Juan Baptista Subirana (1904–79). In 1930 GATEPAC was founded as a state body bringing the Catalan group together with a group of architects from central Spain, the most prominent of whom was FERNANDO GARCÍA MERCADAL, and a group from the Basque country that included José María Aizpurua (1904–36) and Joaquín Labayen (1904–74). It remained active until the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936. GATEPAC was the Spanish representative in CIRPAC and in CIAM, and the architecture designed and promoted by the group can be seen as exemplifying the orthodox Rationalism of the 1930s. Although the young architects who belonged to GATEPAC were all influenced to some extent by Le Corbusier, they also showed a particular preoccupation with the relation of architecture to technical considerations and to social and economic conditions. The group’s theoretical concepts were thus closely related to the principles of Neue Sachlichkeit.

Gaudi Antoni born June 25, 1852, Reus, Spain died June 10, 1926, Barcelona.
Spanish Antonio Gaudí Y Cornet Catalan architect whose distinctive style is characterized by freedom of form, voluptuous colour and texture, and organic unity. Gaudí worked almost entirely in or near Barcelona. Much of his career was occupied with the construction of the Expiatory Temple of the Holy Family (Sagrada Familia), which was unfinished at his death in 1926.

Gaudier-Brzeska Henri (1891-1915). Sculptor and draughtsman; born in France but associated with the English school. Although only 23 when killed in action, G.-B. had already achieved an astonishing maturity as an artist. From 1911 he lived in Britain, working by day as a clerk, encouraged by his companion Sophia Brzeska (whose name he adopted), and a few sympathetic patrons. In 1913 he identified himself briefly with the *Vorticists. Such works as The Dancer, Horace Brod; sky and Birds Erect explore the potentialities of modern sculpture, representational, Cubist and abstract; while G.-B.'s drawings, especially the superb outline drawings of nudes, birds and animals, are now highly valued.

Gauguin Paul (1848-1903). French painter, sculptor and graphic artist. With Van Gogh and *Bernard, G. was the creator of a new conception of painting, and his work was a formative influence on 20th-c. art. Like Van Gogh's, his life has become almost a modern legend. Born in Paris but brought up chiefly in Peru, he served 1st in the French merchant marine, then became a successful stockbroker in Paris, painting in his spare time. He exhibited with the Impressionists (1880-6), and the 1st evidence of great original
talent was Study of the Nude (1880). In 1883 he gave up his job to paint full-time with disastrous financial consequences. After an attempt to support his family in Denmark, he left them, dividing his time between painting in Brittany and a number of jobs, such as bill-sticking in Paris and working as a navvy on the Panama Canal. At Pont-Aven, Brittany, in 1888 he met Bernard with whom he evolved a much-simplified, non-naturalistic style of painting with emphasis on decorative line and the use of flat bright colour. Based on many models (ills in children's books and Japanese colour prints among them), the new style was called 'Synthetism'. A masterpiece of the period is Jacob Wrestling with the Angel Late m 1888 came the disastrous visit to Van *Gogh at Aries. In 1889-90 he was painting at Pont-Aven and Le Pouldu, Brittany. In 1891 he left Europe for Tahiti. The remainder of his life was spent in the South Seas, except for an unsuccessful attempt to sell his paintings in France (1893-5). When G. died m poverty at Atuana, Marquesas Islands, he left behind not only many paintings, including The White Horse, Mango Blossoms, Where Do We Come From ... and Nevermore, but also carvings, woodcuts, watercolours, lithographs and ceramics; while his writings, chiefly journals and letters, are also of interest. The most important of these are Noa-Noa and Avant el apres.

Gaulli Giovanni Battista. *Baciccia

Gavarni Paul. Pseud, of Sulpice-Guillaume Chevalier (1804-66). One of the leading French graphic artists of the 19th c, satirist, ill., also wood engraver and lithographer. His contributions to Le Charivari and other papers illustrated the absurdity of the human comedy with elegance and good humour. His visits to London (1847, 1849-52) opened his eyes to vice and poverty, and an increasing bitterness and disillusionment appeared in his work. Masques ct visages (1852), which includes the series Les Pro'pos de Thomas Vireloque, is typical of this period. His own apt captions give additional point to his drawings.

Gazi Dragan (1930 - 1983) Hlebine school. Croatian group of painters.

Geertgen tot Sint Jans (c. 1465-c. 1495). Early Netherlandish painter. Born in Leyden and a pupil of Van *Ouwater, G. is poorly documented. 2 works, Lamentation Over the Dead Christ and Julian the Apostate Orders the Bones of St John the Baptist to be Burnt, are almost certainly his and his curiously effective, if naive, style and smooth egg-shaped heads (probably influenced by wood carving) have been traced in a number of works including the harrowing Man of Sorrows and the Nativity, a small brilliantly lit night scene of mystical intensity.

Gelee Claude. *Claude Lorrain

Generalic Ivan (b Hlebine, 21 Dec 1914). Croatian painter. A farmer by occupation, his artistic talent was discovered in 1930 by Krsto Hegedusic. He became the most celebrated Yugoslav naive painter and the central figure of a group of naive painters known as the HLEBINE SCHOOL. In the 1930s the simple and expressive folk style and the clear colours in which he depicted peasant scenes with traditional customs, merry festivals, tragic deaths or arduous peasant work came close to the socially critical aesthetic of the committed artists in the group Zemlja. Yet he did not develop this expression of childlike simplicity by drawing on its primary force but by studying painting, focusing particularly on problems of perspective and space and on colour.

Generalic Josip b. 1936. Yugoslav naive painter.

General Idea. Canadian partnership of conceptual artists working as performance artists, video artists, photographers and sculptors. It was formed in 1968 by A. A. Bronson [pseud. of Michael Tims] (b Vancouver, 1946), Felix Partz [pseud. of Ron Gabe] (b Winnipeg, 1945) and Jorge Zontal [pseud. of Jorge Saia] (b Parma, Italy, 1944; d Feb 1994). Influenced by semiotics and working in various media, they sought to examine and subvert social structures, taking particular interest in the products of mass culture. Their existence as a group, each with an assumed name, itself undermined the traditional notion of the solitary artist of genius. In 1972 they began publishing a quarterly journal, File, to publicize their current interests and work. In the 1970s they concentrated on beauty parades, starting in 1970 with the 1970 Miss General Idea Pageant, a performance at the Festival of Underground Theatre in Toronto that mocked the clichés surrounding the beauty parade, resulting in the nomination of Miss General Idea 1970. This was followed by the 1971 Miss General Idea Pageant, which involved the submission by 13 artists of photographic entries that were exhibited and judged at The Space in Toronto.

Genoves Juan (b 1930).
Grupo Hondo. Spanish group of painters.

Genre (Fr. type, kind). The painting of the life of ordinary people, first found as an independent subject of paintings in Dutch I7th-c. art. Religious art and paintings of ceremonial occasions are not g. although details in such works may be so called. G. paintings are more common in N. European art than in Italy; they were frequent in the 19th c. but the term is not used for pictures telling a story or with identifiable persons.

Gentile da Fabriano (c 1370—1427). Italian painter working in Florence; there his refined decorative sense acted as a counterbalance to the pursuit of representation. G.'s 2 great paintings are Adoration of the Magi, a masterpiece of the International Gothic school, and the exquisite Flight into Ligypt; other works include the early Madonna and Child.

Gentileschi Artemisia (1593-1651). Italian painter, daughter of O.G. She worked mainly in Naples in a strongly Caravaggesque style.

Gentileschi Orazio (1563-1647?). Italian Caravaggesque painter; from 1576 in Rome and from 1626 court painter to Charles I of England. His painting was emotionally gentler and his palette eventually lighter than Caravaggio's, though the latter's naturalism remained the major influence on G.'s work.

Gerard Francois, baron (1770—1837). French Neoclassical painter of portraits and historical subjects, painter to both Napoleon and Louis XVIII. He was a pupil of J.-L. *David but softened and sweetened his master's style so that he stands closer to J.-B. Regnault. Portraits such as Jeau-Bapliste Isabey and his Daughter and Madame Reeamier are superficial but charming.

Gericault Theodore (1791—1824). French painter, graphic artist and sculptor of great promise and originality who strongly influenced his close friend *Delacroix and French 19th-c. painting as a whole. G. was the pupil of the fashionable painters *Vernet and *Guerin; he studied at the Louvre, visited Italy and later Britain, but the example of *Legros, painter of contemporary subject matter, decided the course of his development. His restlessness, excitement and disappointments found expression in his turbulent paintings and often morbid subject matter. His most famous composition The Raft of the 'Medusa' (1819) was based on the experiences of survivors from an actual shipwreck and is painted with a compelling realism based on the study of corpses and sickness. The painting was intended to shock, and to protest; inevitably it caused a scandal. G. became a leader of French Romantic painting. His interest in racing and riding is obvious from his paintings and lithographs of horses, where animal life achieves a symbolic power. In these paintings he was influenced by the popular British sporting print and by the British painter J. Ward. His portraits of the insane, e.g. The Mad Woman (1822—3), arc extraordinary documents revealing G.'s psychology and insight.

Germ, The. The magazine of the *Pre-Raphaelites. Its ed. was W. M. Rossetti and included contributions in prose and verse from D. G. Rossetti and other members of the 'brotherhood'. Only 4 numbers were issued between January and April 1851.

Gerome Jean-Leon (1824—1904). Facile French academic painter and sculptor, pupil of *David and an exponent of a prettified Davidian classicism. In some of his work he followed the vogue for oriental subjects.

Gesso. A form of plaster used as a ground for modelling or painting; it has a brilliantly white, smooth-textured surface. Frequently used on furniture in low relief, and gilded.

Gervex Henri (b Paris, 10 Sept 1852; d Paris, 7 June 1929). French painter. His artistic education began with the Prix de Rome winner Pierre Brisset (1810–90). He then studied under Alexandre Cabanel at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where his fellow pupils included Henri Regnault, Bastien-Lepage, Forain, Humbert (1842–1934) and Cormon; and also informally with Fromentin. Gervex’s first Salon picture was a Sleeping Bather (untraced) in 1873: the nude, both in modern and mythological settings, was to remain one of his central artistic preoccupations. In 1876 he painted Autopsy in the Hôtel-Dieu (ex-Limoges; untraced), the sort of medical group portrait he repeated in 1887 with his Dr Pean Demonstrating at the Saint-Louis Hospital his Discovery of the Hemostatic Clamp (Paris, Mus. Assist. Pub.), which celebrated the progress of medical science with a sober, quasi-photographic realism. Gervex’s most controversial picture was Rolla (1878; Bordeaux, Mus. B.-A.), refused by the Salon of 1878 on grounds of indecency, partly because of the cast-off corset Degas had insisted he include. The painting shows the central character in a de Musset poem, Jacques Rolla, who, having dissipated his family inheritance, casts a final glance at the lovely sleeping form of the prostitute Marion before hurling himself out of the window. As his friend, Manet, had done the year before with his rejected Nana (1877; Hamburg, Ksthalle), Gervex exhibited his work in a commercial gallery, with great success.

Gestural painting. A general term for the work of leading U.S. *Abstract Expressionists, and also that of European artists working in the same vein: the marks on the canvas are considered to be the record of the artist's characteristic physical gestures and therefore express not only his emotions at the time when the painting was made, but also his whole personality. *calligraphic painting.

Ghiberti Lorenzo (c. 1378—1455). Italian sculptor, goldsmith, architect and writer on art of the Florentine school. Trained as a goldsmith, G. won the commission for the making of a pair of bronze doors for the Baptistery, Florence, in 1402, when he was about 24. His winning panel, Sacrifice of Isaac, can be compared with that of his older competitor, Brunelleschi, at the Bargello, Florence. Most of G.'s life was spent making the 28 panels for these doors (1404—24) and those of the even more celebrated dates of Paradise, a 2nd pair also for the Baptistery (1430—47). His 3 large bronze figures for Or San Michele, Florence, St John the Baptist, St Matthew and St Stephen, were technically and artistically more ambitious than anything attempted before and won G. a wide reputation. To the famous baptismal font in Siena he contributed 2 panels in relief. The Baptist before Herod and Baptism of Christ. His large workshop was the training school of a whole generation of Florentine artists: Donatello, Michelozzo and Uccello were among his pupils. Despite this, every commission undertaken bears the unmistakable mark of his own very individual talent. Furthermore, G. was a leading citizen of Florence. Fie was also a humanist and scholar, the friend of such men as Leonardo Bruni. His own work shows study of the International Gothic style, the masters of Sienese painting and classical bas-reliefs. His learning and taste are reflected again in his writings on art, the 3 books of his Commentarii. Traditionally, it was *Michelangelo who said that the 2nd pair of G.'s Baptistery doors were worthy to stand as the Gates of Paradise.

Ghirlandaio Domenico (1449—94). Italian painter of the Florentine school. Trained as a goldsmith by his Either, G. later won a reputation chiefly as a fresco painter, creating a serene style which reflects the full development of Florentine painting before Leonardo da Vinci. His earliest known works are the frescoes above the Vespucci altar, Ognissanti, Florence. Later, for the same church, he painted St Jerome and a Last Supper warm with the mellow light of a Tuscan evening. In 1481—2 G. was in Rome painting 2 frescoes for the Sistine Chapel, the survivor of which, The Calling of the Apostles Peter and Andrew, shows G.'s habit of including portraits of people he knew among the witnesses to a religious scene. Again, in the frescoes of the Sassetti chapel (S. Trinita, Florence) he includes portraits of members of the Medici, Sassetti and Spini families. Other works by G. are Visitation, Birth of the Virgin and other frescoes, and Madonna and Saints. G.'s workshop assistants included his brother Davide (1452—1525). His son Ridolfo (1483—1561) was a minor Florentine painter. More important, Michelangelo was a pupil and learned from G. the technique of fresco painting.

Giacometti Alberto (1901—66). Swiss sculptor and painter; father Giovanni (1868—1933) and 2nd cousin Augusto (1877—1947) were painters. G. studied at the Geneva School of Arts and Crafts (1919) and under Bourdelle in Pans (1922—5) where (apart from the war years) he thereafter lived. G.'s early works, e.g. Two figures (1926), have an elemental, primitive force; later, more Surrealist constructions like The Palace at 4 a.m. (1933) already have the attenuation which increasingly became the feature of the human figures he produced from c. 1940. The fraility of these strange, desolate matchstick-men (e.g. the group City Square, 1949) is emphasized by the heavy bases on which they are usually placed; the spatial relationships created, quite different from the monumental quality of traditional sculpture, have had great influence on contemporary work. G. painted a series of meticulously observed portraits, notably a 5-ycar study of Isabel Lambert and Portrait of Jean Genet (1955).

Giambologna . *Giovanni da Bologna

Gibson Charles Dana born Sept. 14, 1867, Roxbury, Mass., U.S. died Dec. 23, 1944, New York, N.Y.
Artist and illustrator, whose Gibson girl drawings delineated the American ideal of femininity at the turn of the century.
After studying for a year at the Art Students' League in New York City, Gibson began contributing to the humorous weekly Life. His Gibson girl drawings, modeled after his wife, followed and had an enormous vogue. Gibson's facile pen-and-ink style, characterized by a fastidious refinement of line, was widely imitated and copied. His popularity is attested by the fact that Collier's Weekly paid him $50,000, said at the time to have been the largest amount ever paid to an illustrator, for which Gibson rendered a double-page illustration every week for a year, usually of comic or sentimental situations of the day.
In 1905 he withdrew from illustrative work to devote himself to portraiture in oil, which he had already taken up; but within a few years he again returned to illustration. He also illustrated books, notably The Prisoner of Zenda, and published a number of books of his drawings. London as Seenby C.D. Gibson (1895–97), People of Dickens (1897), and Sketches in Egypt (1899) were editions of travel sketches. The books of his famed satirical drawings of “high society” included The Education of Mr. Pipp (1899), Americans (1900),A Widow and Her Friends (1901), The Social Ladder (1902), and Our Neighbors (1905).

Giger Hans Ruedi (born at Chur, Grisons canton, February 5, 1940) is an Academy Award-winning Swiss painter, sculptor, and set designer best known for his design work on the film Alien.

Gilbert and George (Gilbert Proesch, Italian, b. 1943; George Passmore, British, b. 1942). In 1969 G. & G. created their first 'singing sculpture' while still students at St Martin's School of Art, London. Hands and faces painted gold and wearing staid business suits, they moved marionette-like on a table in a work that came to be known as Underneath the Arches, after the Hannagan and Allen song played on a cassette tape-recorder beneath the table. Refusing to separate life from art, their activities as living sculpture from their activities at home in the East Hud of London, G. & G. have achieved great international prominence working in various media as living sculpture, in large-pastoral drawings, in small photographic pieces, books or genteel poems, and recently in their film, The World of Gilbert and George and in many-panelled large, 14 x 36 ft (4 x 11 in.) polychrome tinted mono photographs. Their use of their own persons as art material suggests an affinity with artists such as *Manzoni or *Klein.

Gilding. The process by which another metal is covered with a thin layer of gold. Traditionally silver was the most common metal to be gilded, but base metals are also used extensively. The old method of g. was by a mercury distillation process, but in the 19th c. electrolysis provided a safer, cheaper though less efficient method.

Gillet Hugues born in France in 1968. Master of Fantastic Realism

Giocondo Fra (born c. 1433, Verona, Republic of Venice died July 1, 1515, Rome) original name Giovanni da Verona , also called Giocondo da Verona Italian humanist, architect, and engineer, whose designs and written works signal the transition in architectural modes from early to high Renaissance.
A learned Franciscan, Fra Giocondo is said to have received an extensive humanistic education. He made an important collection of classical inscriptions and was noted by his contemporaries for his extraordinary knowledge of architectural engineering. In 1489 Alfonso, duke of Calabria, summoned Fra Giocondo to Naples, where he conducted archaeological studies, advised on fortification and road building, and may have helped design the gardens of Giuliano's palazzo, Poggio Reale.In 1495 Fra Giocondo went to France, where he may have helped design several chateaus and laid the foundations andsupervised construction of the bridge of Notre-Dame over the Seine in Paris (1500–04). He helped introduce Italian Renaissance styles into France through his designs.After returning to Italy, Fra Giocondo worked on fortifications and civic-engineering projects in Venice, Treviso, and Padua before being called to Rome in 1513 by Pope Leo X to aid Giuliano da Sangallo and Raphael on the building of St. Peter's. He was evidently needed for his expertise on statics, as the foundation piers of the structure were shifting and had begun to crack.Among his written works, an annotated and illustrated edition (1511) of the Roman architect Vitruvius' treatise De architectura proved highly influential.

Giordano Luca (1632-1705). Neapolitan painter, pupil of Ribera and Pietro da Cortona and remarkable for his facility and eclecticism. He helped to change the character of Neapolitan art, previously dominated by Ribera, by introducing a Baroque style and lighter treatment. His prodigious output included the ballroom ceiling, Palazzo Riccardi, Florence (1682), and ceilings in the Escorial, Madrid (1692).

Giorgione, born Giorgio, or Zorzi, da Castelfranco (c. 1477-1510), Italian painter of the Venetian school. Despite his great influence on painting and a reputation which has lasted without fluctuating for 400 years, little is known of his life and few paintings are certainly by him. His master was Giovanni Bellini. In 1508 he was a colleague of Catena, in 1507-8 he was painting at the Doge's Palace, Venice. In 1508 there was a dispute over the frescoes he was painting on the outside of the Fondaco dei Tedeschi, Venice. Titian was also engaged on this commission. Most authorities are agreed that G. was the more original genius of the 2 and that Titian bore G.'s influence for the rest of his life, but this cannot be proved on evidence — almost nothing remains of the frescoes.
Although G. painted commissions for churches such as the Castelfmuco Madonna, it was the small paintings in oil he painted for private collectors which are G.'s great innovation in art. These are neither portraits, nor recognizable subjects from myth or history. Indeed, it is almost impossible to determine what is happening in The Tempest, though a profoundly evocative mood is created and, instead of resenting the fact that there is no obvious subject, the imagination is gratified by being freed. However quietly accomplished by G., this was a revolutionary new conception of what a painting should be. Such paintings found patrons; they were highly prized before G.'s early death (probably of plague), and works left unfinished in his studio were completed by other artists: Sleeping Venus by Titian and Three Philosophers by Sebastiano del Piombo. Other major works attributed include: Adoration of the Magi, Judith, Laura, Shepherd with Pipe and Fete champetre.



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