Dictionary of

Art  &  Artist

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  Fabriano-Florence Floris-Fyt  

Floris Frans (Frans de Vriendt) (1516—70). Flemish painter, he worked in Antwerp. He visited Italy (c. 1542—6) and was an influential exponent of Italian Mannerism in the Netherlands.

. Name taken by an international art movement founded in 1962 to unite members of the extreme avant-garde in Europe and later in the U.S.A. The group had no stylistic identity, but its activities were in many respects a revival of the spirit of *Dada.

Informal international group of avant-garde artists working in a wide range of media and active from the early 1960s to the late 1970s. Their activities included public concerts or festivals and the dissemination of innovatively designed anthologies and publications, including scores for electronic music, theatrical performances, ephemeral events, gestures and actions constituted from the individual’s everyday experience. Other types of work included the distribution of object editions, correspondence art and concrete poetry. According to the directions of the artist, Fluxus works often required the participation of a spectator in order to be completed.

Fohr Carl Philipp (b Heidelberg, 26 Nov 1775; d Rome, 29 June 1818). German painter and draughtsman. His first drawing lessons, from the age of 13, were from Friedrich Rottmann (1768–1816), the father of the painter Carl Rottmann. In 1810 the Darmstadt Court Councillor, Georg Wilhelm Issel, discovered Fohr sketching at Stift Neuberg near Heidelberg and, the following year, invited him to Darmstadt and provided encouragement and financial support. From 1813 Fohr carried out commissions for Grand Duchess Wilhelmina of Hesse, for whom he produced a Sketchbook of the Neckar Region, a collection of views and historical subjects (30 watercolours; 1813–14) and also a Baden Sketchbook (30 watercolours, 1814–15; both Darmstadt, Hess. Landesmus.). These far surpassed the usual level attained in this genre in their sharpness of detail, delicacy of colour and pictorial inventiveness. The Crown Princess granted him an annual pension of 500 guilders. From July 1815 to May 1816, Fohr was a student of landscape painting at the Kunstakademie in Munich, and it was here that his breakthrough into an independent and ingenious drawing style came about.

Fontainebleau France. A royal palace of Francis I begun in 1528 and added to for the next 200 years. The Cour du Cheval Blanc and Cour d'Honneur (including the Forte Doree) are by G. Lebreton. The Galerie Francois I (1533—40) introduces the so-called 'F. style' of interior decoration, a combination of sculpture, metalwork, painting, stucco and woodwork. It was evolved by the Italian artists Niccolo dell' Abbate, Primaticcio and Rosso, who worked for Francis I from с IS3O to c. 1560. This 1st School of Fontainebleau introduced Mannerism to France. A decorative revival under Henry IV, known as the '2nd school of F.', was less important.

Fontainebleau, School of.

The vast number of artists, both foreign and French, whose works are associated with the court of Francis I at Fontainebleau during the last two-thirds of the 16th century. There is both a first and a second school of Fontainebleau. The earlier works are the more important.

The palace itself can be described as charming and picturesque, though architecturally it is not a work of consequence, being chiefly a transformation of the previous medieval castle, even incorporating some of the older parts. The King began rebuilding in 1528 and by 1530 had persuaded Rosso Fiorentino (1494–1540), the first of many Italians who were to work there, to locate in France. Rosso was joined in 1532 by Primaticcio (1504–70). Artists of great merit, they evolveda brilliant system of combining painted panels with stucco nudes, garlands, and other forms sculpted in high relief. In addition, Rosso developed a much imitated “strapwork” technique; that is, he treated stucco like pieces of leather that had been rolled, folded, and cut into shape. Artists who could not visit Fontainebleau knew of the work there through engravings, and these same engravings are useful today as records of what has been lost. Much of the most characteristic Fontainebleau decorative sculpture and painting can still be seen there in the Galerie François I, the Chambre de la Duchesse d'Etampes, and the Salle de Ball.

Primaticcio was active long after the death of Rosso, and his manner of representing the human figure with long limbs, thin necks, small heads, and exaggerated classical profiles was canon for the rest of the century. Other foreign masters included the painter of mythological landscapes, Niccolo dell'Abbate, who was at Fontainebleau from 1552, Antoine Caron, Jean Cousin and Benvenuto Cellini, Florentine goldsmith and sculptor, who is well known for his saltcellar made for Francis I (1540; Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna) and “Nymph of Fontainebleau” (1543-44; Louvre, Paris).

The so-called second school of Fontainebleau generally refers to the painters Antonio Fantuzzi, Ambroise Dubois (1543–1614), Toussaint Dubreuil (1561–1602), and Martin Freminet (1567–1619), men who, though competent, lacked imagination and invention and were content to work within the artistic boundaries set by their predecessors at Fontainebleau.

Fontaine Pierre-Francois-Leonard (September 20, 1762, Pontoise, near Paris – October 10, 1853, Paris) was a neoclassical French architect, interior decorator and designer, who worked in such close partnership with Charles Percier, originally his friend from student days, from 1794 onwards, that it is fruitless to disentangle artistic responsibilities in their work. Together, Percier and Fontaine were inventors and major proponents of the rich and grand, consciously archaeological versions of neoclassicism we recognize as Directoire style and Empire style.

Fontana Carlo (1634-1714) (Fontana - Italian family of architects and engineers. They were distantly related to Domenico Fontana, and were mainly active in Rome. The family’s fame was largely based on the work of Carlo Fontana, who continued the traditions laid down by the great masters of the High Baroque (Bernini, Borromini, Pietro da Cortona) and passed them on to his students, who included Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt, Domenico Martinelli, Nicodemus Tessin, James Gibbs and Filippo Juvarra. The essential conservatism of this tradition was particularly obvious in the work of Mauro Fontana, which, although it does not offer genuine highlights or new directions for future development, nonetheless concludes the architectural mission of the family in a coherent and dignified fashion.)

Fontana Lucio (1899—1968). Argentine-born Italian artist. Associated (1930s) with * Abstraction-Creation he launched spazialismo with his 'White manifesto' (1946). It combined *Dada with *Concrete art principles and deeply influenced younger Italian artists. F. worked in sculpture — e.g. neon light structure (1952) — pottery and painting, slashing canvases and crevassing clay and metal in later works.

Foppa Vincenzo (c. 1427-1515/16). Italian painter, the leading artist of the Milanese school before Leonardo da Vinci visited Milan. He was probably trained by the Paduans and was influenced both by Mantegna and the Bellini. Among his works are 'The Adoration of the Kings, St Francis Receiving the Stigmata and a Madonna and Child.

Forces Nouvelles.
French group organized by the painter and critic Henri Héraut (b 1894), whose first exhibition, in April 1935 at the Galerie Billiet-Vorms in Paris, consisted of paintings by Héraut, Robert Humblot (1907–62), Henri Jannot (b 1909), Jean Lasne (1911–46), Alfred Pellan, Georges Rohner (b 1913) and Pierre Tal-Coat. Héraut, the eldest of the painters, hoped to establish a new aesthetic through the group and stated in his preface to the catalogue that since all modern movements, starting with Impressionism and Expressionism, had endangered art there was a need to return to drawing, tradition and nature. The group’s concentration on nature was often manifested in their preference for still-lifes, such as Lasne’s Still-life (1939; Paris, Pompidou). Sensitive to the political situation in Europe, they rejected light-hearted subject-matter, often dwelling on disaster, as in Humblot’s Dead Child (1936; priv. col.), and relied on a restricted dark palette, as in Héraut’s Othello (1935; Rennes, Mus. B.-A. & Archéol.).

Foreshortening. In painting and drawing perspective applied to single objects or figures to create the illusion of projection and depth. F. is 1st found in Greek vase painting (c. 500 BC) but was not developed until the Renaissance, e.g. Dead Christ by Mantegna; it was fully exploited during the Baroque period, e.g. sotto in su lllusionism.

Form. Term used in the arts for (1) an accepted framework of expression, e.g. the sonnet f. in literature and sonata f. in music; and (2) the structural qualities of a work, e.g. the harmonious proportioning of the various parts and their arrangement in order to create tension and bring about climaxes.

Italian group, founded in Rome in 1947. Its members included Pietro Consagra, Giulio Turcato, Piero Dorazio, Achille Perilli (b 1927), Antonio Sanfilippo (1923–80), Carla Accardi, Ugo Attardi (b 1923), Mino Guerrini and Concetto Maugeri. These artists played an important part in the development of Italian abstract art during the late 1940s and the 1950s. While influenced by contemporary ART INFORMEL, the work of Forma cannot be confined to any neat stylistic definition. Both Turcato and Dorazio experimented at this time with geometric abstraction, influenced in particular by the work of the Futurist Giacomo Balla. Turcato’s paintings had a strong narrative element, as can be seen from Political Gathering (1950; Rome, Gal. Anna d’Ascanio), in which the bright red triangles have an obvious political significance. While Dorazio’s work consisted of disciplined rhythmic patterns of interlocking shapes, other artists, such as the painters Accardi and Sanfilippo and the sculptor Consagra, concentrated on creating freer, more expressive works. During the 1950s Turcato, too, moved towards a more lyrical form of abstraction. As well as staging its own exhibitions (e.g. at the Art Club in Rome in 1947), Forma was involved in important international events, including the Venice Biennale of 1948 and the exhibition Arte astratta e concreta in Italia, held at the Galleria d’Arte Moderna in Rome in 1951. The group also made an important contribution to debate on art through its eponymous magazine. Its successor was the group CONTINUITÀ (founded 1961), which included Accardi, Consagra, Dorazio, Perilli and Turcato.

Formists [Pol. Formisci].
Polish group of painters and sculptors that flourished between 1917 and 1922, from 1917 to 1919 known as the Polish Expressionists (Ekspresjonisci Polscy). A foretaste of the Formists’ work appeared in the three Wystawy niezaleznych (‘Exhibitions of the Independents’; 1911–13) in Kraków, organized by the artists later to become leading Formists: the painter and stage designer Andrzej Pronaszko (1888–1961), his brother Zbigniew Pronaszko and Tytus Czyzewski, who all opposed Impressionism and favoured Cubism, Futurism and Expressionism. The Formists first exhibited in Kraków in 1917. Their aim was to find a new form and a new national style (they saw themselves as the Polish equivalent of the Italian Futurists and French Cubists) that was in part a continuation of the artistic ideology of the turn of the century (Polish modernism). A wide variety of artists took part in Formist exhibitions, including Stanislaw Ignacy Witkiewicz, Leon Chwistek, the painter Tymon Niesolowski (1882–1965), August Zamoyski and the graphic artist Wladyslaw Skoczylas (1883–1934), who later became the chief ideologist of national art.

Fortuny y Carbo Mariano (1838—74). Spanish painter of history and genre. F. first attracted notice with his paintings of the Moroccan campaigns of General Prim, e.g. Battle of Wadras. Later he worked in Rome on large canvases, rich in incident and detail, which sold for record prices, e.g. The Spanish Marriage.

Foujita Tsugouharu (b Tokyo, 27 Nov 1886; d Zurich, 29 Jan 1968).
French painter of Japanese birth. After graduating from the Tokyo School of Fine Arts in 1910, he went to France in 1913. Though associated with the Ecole de Paris he developed an individual style. He became an annual member of the Salon d’Automne in 1919 and a permanent member in the following year. Subsequently his reputation in Parisian artistic circles rose, established by such works as My Studio (1921; Paris, Mus. N.A. Mod.) and Five Nudes (1923; Tokyo, N. Mus. Mod. A.), where he used a thin, delicate line on a background of milk-white material, like the surface of porcelain; this style was particularly impressive in his cool, complaisant nudes. In 1929 he briefly returned to Japan, holding a successful one-man show in Tokyo. He left Paris in 1931 and travelled through South, Central and North America before returning to Japan in 1933. He was made a member of the Nikakai (Second Division Society) in the following year and painted several murals in Japan, including Annual Events of Akita, Festivals of Miyoshi Shrine of Mt Taihei, commissioned by Hirano Masakichi of Akita (Akita, Hirano Masakichi A. Mus.). He visited Paris in 1939 to 1940, painting Still-life with Cat (Tokyo, Bridgestone A. Mus.) and Cats (Fighting) (Tokyo, N. Mus. Mod. A.). In 1941 he left the Nikakai and was appointed to the Imperial Art Academy. He was also attached to the Navy and Army Ministries and used his excellent descriptive and compositional skills to depict war zones in China and South-East Asia. He was awarded the Asahi Culture Prize for the Last Day of Singapore (1942; Tokyo, N. Mus. Mod. A.) and other works. He went to the USA in 1949 and to Paris in the following year, taking French nationality in 1955 and becoming a Catholic convert, with the baptismal name of Leonard, in 1959. In 1966 he had the chapel of Notre-Dame-de-la-Paix built in Reims, and he devoted his last years to its design and its stained glass and murals.

Found object (Fr. objet trouve). The *Surrealists held that any object could become a work of art if chosen by an artist. *Duchainp exhibited a bottle-rack as a sculptural object, but f.o.s are more commonly natural forms such as shells, tree roots and pebbles, altered or added to by the artist ('objets trouves assistes). *readymade.

Fouquet Jean (c. 1425— с 1480). French painter. F. was born m Tours and probably trained in Paris. He travelled in Italy and brought many of the achievements of Italian painting back to France on his return to Tours in 1448. F. was painter to the French kings and probably the major French artist of the 15th c. Only the miniatures in a copy of the Antiquites juda'iques are documented, but other attributed works include: the Melun Diptych, the portraits Charles VII and Jouvenel des Ursins and the monumental Pieta.

Four Arts Society of Artists [Rus. Obshchestvo Khudozhnikov ‘4 Iskusstva’].
Soviet exhibiting society, active in Moscow from 1924 to 1932. The society was planned to include representatives of all ‘Four Arts’, painting, sculpture, graphics and architecture. Among its members were the painters Martiros Saryan and Konstantin Istomin (1887–1942), the graphic artists Pyotr Miturich, Lev Bruni and Vladimir Favorsky, the sculptor Aleksandr Matveyev and painters such as Pavel Kuznetsov and Kuz’ma Petrov-Vodkin, who had previously exhibited with the Blue Rose group. At different times the group included such architects as Ivan Zholtovsky, Aleksey Shchusev, Vladimir Shchuko and El Lissitzky, together with artists such as Ivan Klyun, Vladimir Lebedev (1891–1967) and the sculptor Vera Mukhina contributing to one or more of the society’s four Moscow exhibitions (1925, 1926, 1928 and 1929).

Fra Angelico (Angelico Fra)  (b nr Vicchio, c. 1395–1400; d Rome, 18 Feb 1455). Italian painter, florentine school, illuminator and Dominican friar. He rose from obscure beginnings as a journeyman illuminator to the renown of an artist whose last major commissions were monumental fresco cycles in St Peter’s and the Vatican Palace, Rome. He reached maturity in the early 1430s, a watershed in the history of Florentine art. None of the masters who had broken new ground with naturalistic painting in the 1420s was still in Florence by the end of that decade. The way was open for a new generation of painters, and Fra Angelico was the dominant figure among several who became prominent at that time, including Paolo Uccello, Fra Filippo Lippi and Andrea del Castagno. By the early 1430s Fra Angelico was operating the largest and most prestigious workshop in Florence. His paintings offered alternatives to the traditional polyptych altarpiece type and projected the new naturalism of panel painting on to a monumental scale. In fresco projects of the 1440s and 1450s, both for S Marco in Florence and for S Peter’s and the Vatican Palace in Rome, Fra Angelico softened the typically astringent and declamatory style of Tuscan mural decoration with the colouristic and luminescent nuances that characterize his panel paintings. His legacy passed directly to the second half of the 15th century through the work of his close follower Benozzo Gozzoli and indirectly through the production of Domenico Veneziano and Piero della Francesca. Fra Angelico was undoubtedly the leading master in Rome at mid-century, and had the survival rate of 15th-century Roman painting been greater, his significance for such later artists as Melozzo da Forli and Antoniazzo Romano might be clearer than it is.

Fra Filippo Lippi. * Lippi Filippo (b Florence, c. 1406; d Spoleto, 9 Oct 1469). He was one of the leading painters in Renaissance Florence in the generation following Masaccio. Influenced by him in his youth, Filippo developed a linear, expressive style, which anticipated the achievements of his pupil Botticelli. Lippi was among the earliest painters indebted to Donatello. His mature works are some of the first Italian paintings to be inspired by the realistic technique (and occasionally by the compositions) of Netherlandish pioneers such as Rogier van der Weyden and Jan van Eyck. Beginning work in the late 1430s, Lippi won several important commissions for large-scale altarpieces, and in his later years he produced two fresco cycles that (as Vasari noted) had a decisive impact on 16th-century cycles. He produced some of the earliest autonomous portrait paintings of the Renaissance, and his smaller-scale Virgin and Child compositions are among the most personal and expressive of that era. Throughout most of his career he was patronized by the powerful Medici family and allied clans. The operation of his workshop remains a matter of conjecture.

Fra Giocondo (born c. 1433, , Verona, Republic of Venice died July 1, 1515, Rome) original name Giovanni da Verona , also called Giocondo da Verona Italian humanist, architect, and engineer, whose designs and written works signal the transition in architectural modes from early to high Renaissance.
A learned Franciscan, Fra Giocondo is said to have received an extensive humanistic education. He made an important collection of classical inscriptions and was noted by his contemporaries for his extraordinary knowledge of architectural engineering. In 1489 Alfonso, duke of Calabria, summoned Fra Giocondo to Naples, where he conducted archaeological studies, advised on fortification and road building, and may have helped design the gardens of Giuliano's palazzo, Poggio Reale.In 1495 Fra Giocondo went to France, where he may have helped design several chateaus and laid the foundations andsupervised construction of the bridge of Notre-Dame over the Seine in Paris (1500–04). He helped introduce Italian Renaissance styles into France through his designs.After returning to Italy, Fra Giocondo worked on fortifications and civic-engineering projects in Venice, Treviso, and Padua before being called to Rome in 1513 by Pope Leo X to aid Giuliano da Sangallo and Raphael on the building of St. Peter's. He was evidently needed for his expertise on statics, as the foundation piers of the structure were shifting and had begun to crack.Among his written works, an annotated and illustrated edition (1511) of the Roman architect Vitruvius' treatise De architectura proved highly influential.

Fragonard Jean-Honore (1732—1806). French Rococo painter who studied under *Ohardin, Boucher and Van Loo, then in Italy. There he was influenced by the painting of Tiepolo and Murillo. A large historical painting won him immediate fame, but be abandoned the grand manner to paint the familiar lovers in gardens, e.g. The Swing, and the incidents of clandestine love-affairs, e.g. The Stolen Kiss. Some of his finest works are the rapid drawings he made with pencil, sepia and *bistre wash, or red chalk, 2 examples of these are The Bed and Villa d'Este.

Francesca Piero della (b Borgo San Sepolcro [now Sansepolcro], c. 1415; bur Borgo San Sepolcro, 12 Oct 1492). Italian painter and theorist. His work is the embodiment of rational, calm, monumental painting in the Italian Early Renaissance, an age in which art and science were indissolubly linked through the writings of Leon Battista Alberti. Born two generations before Leonardo da Vinci, Piero was similarly interested in the scientific application of the recently discovered rules of perspective to narrative or devotional painting, especially in fresco, of which he was an imaginative master; and although he was less universally creative than Leonardo and worked in an earlier idiom, he was equally keen to experiment with painting technique. Piero was as adept at resolving problems in Euclid, whose modern rediscovery is largely due to him, as he was at creating serene, memorable figures, whose gestures are as telling and spare as those in the frescoes of Giotto or Masaccio. His tactile, gravely convincing figures are also indebted to the sculpture of Donatello, an equally attentive observer of Classical antiquity. In his best works, such as the frescoes in the Bacci Chapel in S Francesco, Arezzo, there is an ideal balance between his serene, classical compositions and the figures that inhabit them, the whole depicted in a distinctive and economical language. In his autograph works Piero was a perfectionist, creating precise, logical and light-filled images (although analysis of their perspective schemes shows that these were always subordinated to narrative effect). However, he often delegated important passages of works (e.g. the Arezzo frescoes) to an ordinary, even incompetent, assistant.
Francesco da Sangallo. Italian architect and sculptor (b. 1445, Firenze, d. 1516, Firenze)

Francesco del Cossa (b Ferrara, c. 1435; d Bologna, 1476–7). Italian painter. Together with Cosimo Tura and Ercole de’ Roberti, Cossa was one of the most important painters working in Ferrara and Bologna in the second half of the 15th century. With them he shared an expressive use of line and solidity of form, but he also had a gift for decorative and anecdotal scenes, most evident in the frescoes in the Palazzo Schifanoia, Ferrara.

Francesco di Giorgio Martini (1439-1501/2). Sienese painter, sculptor, architect and engineer. There are a few paintings by F. but after 1477 he devoted himself to other work. This included a great chain of fortifications for the duke of Urbino, the church of S. Maria delle Grazie al Calcinaio at Cortona, a series of bronze reliefs, most famous of which is the Deposition in S. Maria del Carmine, Venice, and four bronze Angels for Siena cathedral. He also wrote a technical treatise on architecture, Trattato d'architettura (publ. 1841).

Frances Esteban (Spanish Painter, 1913-1976).

Frances Nicolas Spanish painter (active 1424-1468 in Leon)

Francia Francesco (Francesco Raibolmi) (c. 1450—1517/18). Bolognese goldsmith and from 1486 painter in an eclectic style derived mainly from Perugino and L. Costa; until 1507 he worked in partnership with the latter. An altar-piece The Virgin with St Anne with a Pieta in the lunette is probably his best-known painting.

Francken Frans the Younger (Antwerp, 1581–6 May 1642), was a Flemish Baroque painter and the best-known member of the large Francken family of artists. Many of his works are small historical, allegorical and biblical cabinet paintings with the focus on figures. He also invented or popularized several new themes that became popular in Flemish painting, such as genre scenes populated by monkeys (later imitated by David Teniers the Younger) and Kunstkamer paintings displaying a wealth of natural and artistic treasures against a neutral wall. Francken frequently collaborated with other artists, adding figures to works by Tobias Verhaecht and Abraham Govaerts. Later in his life he also painted large altarpieces. 

Frazetta Frank
(born February 9, 1928) is an American fantasy and science fiction artist. He is one of the most emulated artists of these genres in the world. Frazetta was born and raised in Brooklyn, New York. At the age of eight, with the insistence of his school teachers, Frazetta's parents enrolled him in the Brooklyn Academy of Fine Arts. He attended the academy for eight years under the tutelage of Michael Falanga, an award-winning Italian fine artist. Falanga was struck by Frazetta's significant talent. Frazetta's abilities flourished under Falanga, who dreamed of sending Frazetta to Europe, at his own expense, to further his studies. Unfortunately, Falanga died suddenly in 1944 and with him, his dream. As the school closed about a year after Falanga's passing, Frazetta was forced to find work to earn a living. At 16, Frazetta started drawing for comic books that varied in themes: westerns, fantasy, mysteries, histories and other contemporary themes. Some of his earliest work was in funny animal comics, which he signed as "Fritz". During this period he turned down job offers from giants such as Walt Disney. In the early 1950s, he worked for EC Comics, National Comics (including the superhero feature "Shining Knight"), Avon and several other comic book companies. Much of his work in comic books was done in collaboration with friends Al Williamson and Roy Krenkel. Through the work on the Buck Rogers covers for Famous Funnies, Frazetta started working with Al Capp on his Li'l Abner comic strip. Frazetta was also producing his own strip, Johnny Comet at this time, as well as assisting Dan Barry on the Flash Gordon daily strip. In 1961, after nine years with Capp, Frazetta returned to regular comics. Having emulated Capp's style for so long, Frazetta's own work during this period looked a bit awkward as his own style struggled to reemerge. Work in comics for Frazetta was hard to find, however. Comics had changed during his period with Capp and his style was deemed antiquated. Eventually he joined Harvey Kurtzman doing the parody strip Little Annie Fanny in Playboy magazine.

Freddie Wilhelm (1909-1995). Danish painter and sculptor. He studied briefly at technical college and at the school of graphic arts of the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen, but he was largely self-taught. Freddie painted his earliest abstracts in 1926, but in 1929 he became acquainted with André Breton’s periodical La Révolution surréaliste. The following year he introduced Surrealism to Scandinavia with the painting Liberty, Equality and Fraternity (priv. col.), which he showed at Kunstnernes Efterarsudstilling (‘Artists’ Autumn Exhibition’). In 1934 he met the painters Harry Carlsson and Vilhelm Bjerke-Petersen. Through Bjerke-Petersen, Freddie became involved with the international Cubist-Surrealist exhibition at Den Frie (the Free Exhibition) in Copenhagen in January 1935. Freddie exhibited there along with Magritte, Man Ray, Arp, Miró, Dalí, Yves Tanguy and others. He also participated in later large international Surrealist exhibitions.

Frederic Leon
(b Brussels, 26 Aug 1856; d Schaarbeek, 27 Jan 1940). Belgian painter and draughtsman. He studied briefly under Charle-Albert before attending the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, where he became a pupil of Jules Vankeirsbilck (1833–96) and Ernest Slingeneyer (1820–94), also working in the studio of Jean-François Portaels. In 1878 he went to Italy with the sculptor Julien Dillens; he stayed there for over a year, making numerous studies after the artists of the Quattrocento. In 1878 he made his début at the Triennial Salon in Brussels and became a member of the group of Realist painters known as L’ESSOR. The very early work still shows the influence of E. Wauters (1846–1933), with whom he collaborated on the Panorama of Cairo (untraced).

Fredi Bartolo di. *Bartolo di Fredi (c. 1330-1410). Sienese painter, pupil of A. Lorenzetti. His best 2 fresco cycles are at S. Gnnignano, one dealing with Old Testament subjects in the Collegiata (1356) and one in the church of S. Agostino on the birth and death of the Virgin (1366).

Freminet Martin (1567—1619). French painter of the 2nd school of *Fontainebleau who spent about 15 years in Italy and was strongly affected by the Mannerism of the Chevalier d'Arpino. In 1603 Henry IV recalled him to France, where his works included decorations for the Trinite chapel, Fontainebleau (begun 1608).

French Jared (1905-1988) was a painter who specialized in the ancient medium of egg tempera. He was one of the masters of Magic Realism, part of a circle of friends and colleagues who all painted surreal imagery in egg tempera. Others include George Tooker and Paul Cadmus.Jared French received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Amherst College in 1925. He met and befriended Paul Cadmus in New York City, became his lover and persuaded Cadmus to give up commercial art for "serious painting". In 1937 French married Margaret Hoening, another artist. For the next eight years the Cadmuses and Frenches summered on Fire Island and formed a photographic collective called PAJAMA ("Paul, Jared, and Margaret"). French painted numerous murals for the WPA.Jared French's early paintings are eerie, colorful tableaux of still, silent figures derived from Archaic Greek statues. His later work shows "a kind of classical biomorphism," strange, colorful, suggestive organic forms.

Fresco. Properly, the technique of wall painting on unset plaster. In true or buon f. layers of lime-plaster are applied; while the final layer (intonaco) is still wet the painter applies his colours so that they become integrated with the wall. This technique, perfected in Renaissance Italy, produces very durable works m suitable climatic conditions; the most famous example is the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel by Michelangelo. In f. secco, painted on lime-plaster which has set, flaking tends to occur and the range of colours is restricted; but it produces light colours and delicate tones which made it a popular technique in the Rococo period.

Freud Lucian (1922— ). Berlin-born British painter, grandson of Sigmund Freud. His earlier work until the late 1950s was painted with a hard, linear realism, consisting mostly of portraits, but also paintings showing a mysterious relationship between plants and human beings, which are Surrealist in character. His work since about 1952 is primarily portraits and nudes painted with extraordinary expressive subtlety. He is considered one of the few modern innovators in the representational tradition.

Freytag-Loringhoven (Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven) (German, 1874–1927, DADA)

Friday Club.
British group of painters, active 1905–22. Vanessa Bell conceived of and created the Friday Club in the summer of 1905. She was inspired by her experience of Parisian café life and the artists introduced to her in Paris by Clive Bell, and she hoped to create in London a similar milieu in which artists and friends could meet to exchange ideas. The Club met for lectures and held regular exhibitions in rented rooms, one taking place in Clifford’s Inn Hall in 1907, another at the Baillie Gallery in 1908. Its members were oddly assorted: Vanessa Bell drew upon students from the Royal Academy Schools and the Slade School of Fine Art, as well as her own family and family friends. Lecturers included Clive Bell, Basil Creighton, Walter Lamb and Roger Fry. Virginia Woolf remarked that in its early stages the Club was split: ‘one half of the committee shriek Whistler and French Impressionists, and the other are stalwart British’. In 1913 Essil Elmslie replaced Vanessa Bell as secretary to the Club, and meetings and discussions outside the annual exhibitions ceased. However, between 1910 and 1914 its exhibitions included young artists of talent, among them J. D. Innes, Derwent Lees (1885–1931), John Currie (c. 1890–1914) and Henry Lamb, and drew much comment from the press. Despite this, the history of the Club remains shadowy because no minutes of its meetings exist and not all its exhibition catalogues can be traced.

Friedrich Caspar David (1774—1840). Leading German Romantic landscape painter and engraver who studied in Copenhagen (1794—8) and settled in Dresden. His characteristic subjects, depicted in a sharply delineated style, were Gothic rums, stark contorted trees, bleak seascapes and mountain crags often seen under mysterious lighting effects and peopled with lonely figures, insignificant before nature. Well-known examples are Abbey Graveyard under Snow, Capuchin Friar by the Sea and Wreck of the 'Hope'.

Frith William Powell (1819—1909). British painter of anecdotal subjects, so popular when 1st exhibited at the R.A. that they required special railings for protection; best known is Derby Day (1858). Although possessed of formidable technical skill he sacrificed the overall effect of his pictures to various independent incidents and human 'types'.

Fromentin Eugene (1820—76). French 'oriental' painter who followed P. Marilhat and Delacroix. He is, however, remembered for his discerning criticism of Dutch and Flemish painting, Les Matties d'antrcfois (1876; The Masters of Past Time, 1913). He also wrote a nostalgic autobiographical novel, Dominique (1862; 1932), and 2 books describing N. Africa.

Froment Nicolas (15th c). Provencal painter who worked in Italy and at the court of Rene of Anjou. There are 2 documented works, both triptychs but stylistically far apart — the awkwardly realistic Raising of Lazarus (1461) and the symbolical and more accomplished Burning Bush (1475/6).

Fronte nuovo delle arte. Movement in Italian art founded after World War II by painters and sculptors who recognized the need for Italian artists to free themselves from tradition and come to terms with modern movements elsewhere in Europe. The group (originally the Nuova Secessione Artistica) broke up after exhibiting in Milan (1947) and at the Venice Biennale (1948) because of the disparate opinions of its members, who included both Realists and Abstractionists.

Fronte Nuovo delle Arti.

Italian group of artists. It was founded by Renato Birolli in 1946 as the Nuova Secessione Artistica Italiana and renamed in 1947. The manifesto of 1946 was signed by Giuseppe Santomaso, Bruno Cassinari, Antonio Corpora, Renato Guttuso, Ennio Morlotti, Armando Pizzinato (b 1910), Giulio Turcato, Emilio Vedova and the sculptors Leonardo Leoncillo (1915–68) and Alberto Viani. During the first group exhibition, which was held at the Galleria della Spiga in Milan in 1947, Cassinari resigned, and the sculptors Pericle Fazzini and Nino Franchina (b 1912) joined. This was the vanguard of Italian painters and sculptors who, in the wake of the fear and stagnation brought on by World War II, endeavoured to revitalize Italian 20th-century art, which they felt had died with Futurism and Pittura Metafisica. Although the artists were stylistically very different, ranging from abstraction to naturalism, they were united by left-wing politics and by their wish, as stated in their manifesto, to give their ‘separate creations in the world of the imagination a basis of moral necessity’. While the group also shared an admiration for Picasso, the polarization of the abstract formalists and the realists became increasingly evident during the Venice Biennale of 1948. That year the Communist journal Rinascita published an article highly critical of works exhibited in Bologna by Fronte Nuovo members. The assumption that the Communists had no artistic preferences was shattered and this helped to destroy the group. Its stylistic diversity is indicated in a comparison of Guttuso’s powerfully figurative Mafia (1948; New York, MOMA) with Turcato’s Revolt (1948; Rome, G.N.A. Mod.); the latter evokes the resistance to German repression in near abstract forms derived from Picasso’s Guernica (Madrid, Prado). The group had disintegrated by 1952, when Birolli, Corpora, Turcato and Vedova were among the abstract painters gathered together in Lionello Venturi’s GRUPPO DEGLI OTTO PITTORI ITALIANI.

Frottage. Transferring a relief design on to paper by placing the paper over the design and rubbing the paper with charcoal or crayon, etc. Brass rubbings are taken in this way, but the technique received its French name when it was introduced into painting by M. *Ernst.

Frottage [from Fr. frotter: ‘to rub’].
Technique of reproducing a texture or relief design by laying paper over it and rubbing it with some drawing medium, for example pencil or crayon. Max Ernst and other Surrealist artists incorporated such rubbings into their paintings by means of collage. It is also a popular method of making rubbings of medieval church brasses and other ancient monuments and inscriptions.

Froud Brian "Good faeries & bad faeries"

Fuchs Ernst (born February 13, 1930) is an Austrian visionary painter, draftsman, printmaker, sculptor, architect, stage designer, composer, poet, singer and one of the founders of the Vienna School of Fantastic Realism.
He studied sculpture with Emmy Steinbock (1943), attended the St. Anna Painting School where he studied under Professor Frohlich (1944), and entered the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna (1945) where he began his studies under Professor Robin C. Anderson, later moving to the class of Albert Paris von Gutersloh.
At the Academy he met Arik Brauer, Rudolf Hausner, Wolfgang Hutter, and Anton Lehmden, together with whom he later founded what has become known as the Vienna School of Fantastic Realism. He was also a founding member of the Art-Club (1946), as well as the Hundsgruppe, set up in opposition to it in 1951, together with Friedensreich Hundertwasser and Arnulf Rainer.

Fuchs Michael was born in Paris, France in 1952.  He spent his childhood and youth with his mother, Geraldine Krongold, in New York City and Los Angeles.

Fuhrich Josef (b Kratzau, N. Bohemia, 9 Feb 1800; d Vienna, 13 March 1876). Bohemian painter, printmaker and teacher. Until he was 18 he was trained by his father, Wenzel Führich, a painter and mason. In 1819, at the academy exhibition in Prague, he made his début with two history paintings. Their success enabled him to study in Prague. Dürer was the first powerful influence on his style; on a visit to Vienna in 1822, medieval and Renaissance art made a similar impression. His illustrations for Ludwig Tieck’s Leben und Tod der heiligen Genoveva (1824–5) attracted the interest of Prince Metternich, who helped him obtain a scholarship to study in Italy. On his arrival in Rome in 1827, Führich made contact with Friedrich Overbeck and other German artists there. He met Joseph Anton Koch (1768–1839) and was commissioned to complete the Tasso room (1827–9) in the Casino Massimo. In Rome he was impressed by Italian Renaissance works, particularly Raphael’s frescoes in the Vatican. On the return journey to Vienna, he admired Fra Angelico’s paintings and the frescoes in the Camposanto in Pisa. After a period in Prague, Führich obtained a teaching post in Vienna in 1834, becoming professor of historical composition at the Kunstschule in 1840. Such works as Jacob and Rachel at the Well (1836; Vienna, Belvedere) and the Legend of St Isidore (1839; Mannheim, Städt. Ksthalle) made him the leading representative of Nazarene-style painting in Austria. In 1844–6 he produced a monumental cycle of the Stations of the Cross for the church of Johann-Nepomuk and in 1850 completed the cartoons for the frescoes in the Altlerchen Church, Vienna. His late work consists largely of prints and drawings with a religious content, which brought him great popularity.

Fujiwara. Alternative name for the later *Heian period of Japanese history (late 9th—late 12th c). It was dominated politically by the Г. clan and culturally by the exquisite courtly arts of the capital, Heian-kyo. Esoteric religious sects (Early Heian) lost ground to the more accessible Anuda Buddhism. Painting portrayed the divinity surrounded by Bodhisattvas in brilliant colours and harmonized tones. From the exclusively Chinese style, kara-e, the court Painting Academy (founded 886) developed to a Japanese style, yamato-e. Its chief themes were popular life, e.g. the satirical 12th-c. Animal Scrolls and ills for courtly poems and novels, notably a 12th-c. series for Murasaki's Tale of Genji. The heavy style of Early Heian wood sculpture yielded to a gentle dignity and sinuous line, e.g. the masterly Amida byjocho (d. 1057). His school developed the yoseki-tsukuri technique, assembling a statue from separately carved blocks to form a thin outer shell and hollow space inside. Later I2th-c. sculptures, generally polychromed, developed more life-like realism.

Fuller Meta Vaux Warrick (1877-1968). The Harlem Renaissance.

Funi Achille (b Ferrara, 26 Feb 1890; d Appiano Gentile, nr Como, 26 July 1972). Italian painter and teacher. He attended the Scuola Municipale d’Arte Dosso Dossi, Ferrara (1902–5), and studied under Cesare Tallone at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera, Milan (1906–10). Influenced by meeting Umberto Boccioni and Carlo Carrà, he formed the Gruppo Nuove Tendenze with Anselmo Bucci (1887–1955) and Leonardo Dudreville (1885–1975) and the architects Antonio Sant’Elia and Mario Chiattone. Funi adopted Boccioni’s and Carrà’s dynamic style (e.g. Man Getting Off a Tram, 1914; Milan, Gal. A. Mod.) and in 1915 volunteered to serve in World War I with other Futurists. This interruption allowed him to reassess Futurism. Influenced by the circle of Fascist intellectuals around Margherita Sarfatti, he developed an allusive realism (e.g. Self-portrait, 1918), which, in the manifesto Contro tutti ritorni in pittura (1920), he and Mario Sironi distinguished from the prevalent archaism. In 1922, with Sironi, Bucci, Dudreville and others, he formed the Sette Pittore del Novecento, exhibiting at the Galleria Pesaro, Milan, in 1922. The following year the Sette Pittore developed into the NOVECENTO ITALIANO, and further shows were held at the Galleria Pesaro, and in 1924 at the Venice Biennale. Funi treated contemporary subjects with an idealizing Renaissance realism, as in Maternity (1921).

Funk art. Term used to describe (usually) U.S. art which makes use of unlikely materials and combines painting and sculpture, sometimes in *Environmental art pieces, e.g. *Kienholz.

Fuseli Henry (b Zurich, 6 Feb 1741; d Putney Hill, nr London, 16 April 1825). Painter, draughtsman and writer, active in England, son of Johann Caspar Füssli. He spent most of his working life in England, where he established himself as the most original history painter and draughtsman of his generation. Renowned for his treatment of bizarre and psychologically penetrating subjects, he was also a prolific writer and, from 1779, Professor of Painting at the Royal Academy.

Futurism. Italian artistic and literary movement. The 1st Futurist Manifesto was publ. in Le Figaro, in 1909 by the poet and dramatist Mannetti. In 1910 3 manifestoes were publ. including the painters' 'Technical Manifesto'. F. celebrated the machine (proclaiming the racing-car more beautiful than the Victory oJSamothrace), rejected the art of the past and advocated the destruction of museums. F. paintings represented figures and objects in motion; poetry employed 'industrial' imagery and a grammar and vocabulary deliberately distorted in the interests of onomatopoeia. Artists concerned included *Bocciom, *Carlo, *Carra, *Russolo and *Balla; writers, Soffici and Papini; architects, Sant'Elia. Cinema was acclaimed as an ideal means of expression but a Futurist cinema as such never developed, despite its influence on the early Soviet films of Dziga-Vertov, Eisenstem and Kozmtsev. After World War I F. became associated with Fascism. It had several off-shoots, e.g. R. Delaunay's simultaueismc, which was also related to Cubism. More specifically a marriage of these 2 movements was Russian Cubo-futunsin, represented in, e.g. Malevich's painting and the poems of Khlebnikov, Mayakovsky and Pasternak. It also influenced such painters as M. Duchanip and F. Leger.

Fyt Jann (1611-61). Flemish painter of still-life, especially trophies of the hunt, and a few outstanding flower paintings. Trained by L. Snyders, he probably painted some of the animals in paintings byjordaens and Rubens. Typical of his rich colour and technical brilliance is Still-life with Pageboy and Parrot.

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