miscellanea  |  visual history
 



 



Dictionary of


Art  &  Artist








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  Eakins-Eyck  

Eakins Thomas (1844—1916). U.S. painter and photographer. Trained as a painter in Paris am) influenced by Manet, E. became one of the major American Kcahsts, e.g. his studies of surgeons operating. His paintings include brilliantly composed sculling pictures, e.g. The Biglen Brothers Turning the Slake. E. revolutionized U.S. art teaching, insisting on drawing from the nude and sound anatomical knowledge. As a photographer he continued Muybndge's experiments in the photography of motion, improving on them by using I camera to produce a series of images on a single plate rather than a number of cameras producing single images. E.'s composite plates inspired Duchamp's famous painting Nude Descending a Staircase.

Earth art. Trend which emerged in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Works were the result of the preoccupation with natural processes: often monumental and realized with the aid of earth-moving equipment, they were created in remote locations, e.g. *Smithson's Spiral Jetty of boulders, 1500 ft (457 m.) long, in Great Salt Lake, Utah (1970). Such works were concerned with the notion of 'sites and non-sites1 and geology. Works were often presented in photographs (often taken from the air because of the scale of the work), sometimes juxtaposed with piles of material selected from the site of the work. *Long.

Earth colours. Figments such as yellow and red ochres, raw sienna, raw umber and terre verte which are found in their natural state in the earth. Ochres in particular were used in prehistoric cave painting. They are among the most permanent and least expensive colours.

Easter Island. *Oceanic art

Eastlake Charles Lock (1793—1865). British painter, writer on art and administrator. As keeper (1843—7) and Ist director (1855—65) of the N.C., London, he devoted energy, scholarship and taste to building up one of the greatest colls of Italian art, particularly the work of the so-called 'primitives'. E.'s early landscapes deserve attention.

Eckmann Otto (b Hamburg, 19 Nov 1865; d Badenweiler, 11 June 1902). German designer, illustrator and painter. He trained as a businessman before entering the Kunst- und Gewerbeschule in Hamburg. He studied at the Kunst- und Gewerbeschule in Nuremberg and from 1885 attended the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich. His early paintings are naturalistic landscapes but around 1890 he shifted towards Symbolism (e.g. the Four Ages of Life, 1893–4; untraced). In 1894 he decided to devote himself to the decorative arts. Encouraged by Justus Brinckmann, a collector and museum director, and Friedrich Deneken (later Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Museum, Krefeld), Eckmann studied the Japanese woodcut collection at the Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg. Using traditional Japanese techniques, he began producing his own woodcut designs in 1895. Three Swans on Dark Water (1895; Hamburg, Mus. Kst & Gew.) reflects a general preoccupation with late 19th-century music, art and literature with swans as symbolic images, and they were a frequent motif in many of his subsequent works. Eckmann’s woodcuts, as well as ornamental borders, vignettes, bookplates and other graphic designs, were illustrated in such periodicals as Deutsche Kunst und Dekoration, Jugend and Pan. In 1899–1900 he collaborated with Karl Klingspor at Rudhardsche Schriftgiesserei, Offenbach, to develop a new typeface named Eckmann.

Eclecticism. Loosely definable as the drawing on many styles by an artist, more specifically the practice of selecting the best from various styles in an attempt to create a style of greater perfection. The term used to be applied to the work of the Carracci who were believed (wrongly) to have deliberately formulated such a programme.

Ecole de Paris (Fr. School of Paris). Term used to describe the modernist artists, many of them from other countries, who were centred in Paris during approximately the first forty years of the 20th с They included *Bonnard, *Chagall, *Matisse, *Miro, *Modigliani and *Mondrian.

Ecole de Paris. Term applied to the loose affiliation of artists working in Paris from the 1920s to the 1950s. It was first used by the critic André Warnod in Comoedia in the early 1920s as a way of referring to the non-French artists who had settled and worked in Paris for some years, many of whom lived either in Montmartre or Montparnasse, and who included a number of artists of Eastern European or Jewish origin

Ecological art. Art which first appeared с 1968 and which is concerned with natural processes, as in the work of artists *Sonfist and *Haacke.

Ecorche figure (Fr. flayed). Term used to describe human or animal figure drawing or engraving, practised widely since c. 16th c, displaying the muscles of the body.

Eder Martin.  Born 1968, Augsburg, Germany. Lives and works in Berlin.

Edo. Period of Japanese history (1616-1868) ruled by the Tokugawa shogunate, secured in 1615 by T. leyasu (1542—1616), from its capital Edo (modern Tokyo). In the arts sculpture stagnated except in nctsukc carving. The new graphic art of ukiyo-e (*Japanese prints) produced popular masterpieces. Painting was represented by the courtly school of *Kano Tanyu at Edo; the Tosa school; Ogata Korin (1658—1716), working in a revived *yamato-e tradition of great decorative splendour; and the 18th-c. nanga school. Based on Chinese ideals (*wen-jen) and on Zen Buddhist principles, this admired self-expression above academic expertise.

Ehn Karl (1884-1957), architect.

Eight, the [Cz. Osma].

Group of Bohemian painters established in 1906 with the aim of making colour the dominant element in their art. The members, all graduates of the Academy of Fine Arts in Prague, were Emil Filla, Friedrich Feigl (1884–1965), Antonín Procházka, Willy Nowak (1886–1977), Otokar Kubín, Max Horb (1882–1907), Bohumil Kubista and Emil Artur Pittermann-Longen (1885–1936). Filla, Feigl and Procházka had undertaken further study journeys in Europe, which had opened up their artistic horizons and convinced them of the need for innovation in Czech art. At their initial meetings, held at a Prague coffee-house, the Union, they planned to publish their own magazine and put on an exhibition in the prestigious Topic salon in Prague. Eventually they succeeded in renting a shop in Králodvorská Street, Prague, where a hastily organized exhibition was opened on 18 April 1907, with a catalogue consisting of a sheet of paper headed Exhibition 8 Kunstausstellung. The number 8 in the title of the exhibition was intended to represent the number of members in the group; in fact there were only seven, because Pittermann-Longen was only allowed at his own request to exhibit ‘behind the curtain in the cubby-hole’, since he was still a student at the Academy. The catalogue was in German as well as Czech, as Nowak, Horb and Feigl were of German birth. The majority of the paintings exhibited showed the artists’ tendency towards an expressionism in the manner of Munch (who had an exhibition in Prague in 1905), van Gogh, Honoré Daumier and Max Liebermann. Only Max Brod gave the exhibition a positive review; otherwise the reaction of the public and critics was negative. A second exhibition of the Eight took place in the Topic salon in 1908, though it was without the participation of Horb (who had died) and Kubín (who was in Paris). The new exhibitors were Vincenc Benes and Linka Scheithauerová (1884–1960), the future wife of Procházka. The catalogue of exhibitors does not include Pittermann-Longen, and they were therefore once again seven. Among the artists’ aims on this occasion was the enhancement of expression (Filla) and the liberation of colour splashes (Procházka). The exhibition produced an even more negative reaction than the first. Although it was never officially disbanded, the members of the group maintained contact until 1911, when some of them were co-founders of the Cubist-orientated Group of Plastic Artists. Kubín and Filla turned to Neo-primitivism, and Nowak to Neo-classicism; Feigl remained in the Expressionist tradition.


Eight, The.
Group of 8 U.S. painters — Henri, Luks, Sloan, Glackens, Shinn (previously the Philadelphia Realists), joined by Prendergast, Lavvson, Davics — formed in 1907 as a gesture of protest against the National Academy. Stylistically the members differed considerably and they exhibited together only once (N.Y., 1908); they were, however, united m seeking independence of the Academy and supporting progressive trends in art; and they played a vital role in organizing the *Annory Show and in founding the Society of Independent Artists (1917)
Eight, the.

Group of eight American painters who joined forces in 1907 to promote stylistic diversity and to liberalize the exclusive exhibition system in the USA. They first exhibited together at Robert Henri’s instigation at the Macbeth Galleries, New York, in February 1908, following the rejection of works by George Luks, Everett Shinn, William J. Glackens and others at the National Academy of Design’s spring show in 1907, of which Henri was a jury member before resigning in protest. Henri, the driving force behind the group, was joined not only by Luks, Shinn and Glackens but also by John Sloan, Ernest Lawson, Arthur B. Davies and Maurice Prendergast. Henri was a painter of cityscapes and portraits who worked in a dark and painterly, conservative style influenced by Frans Hals and Velázquez; a gifted teacher, he encouraged his students to depict the urban poor with vitality and sensitivity.

Eight, the [Hung. Nyolcak].

Hungarian avant-garde group founded in early 1909 and consisting of the painters Róbert Berény, Béla Czóbel, Dezso Czigány, Károly Kernstok, Odon Márffy, Dezso Orbán (1884–1986), Bertalan Pór and Lajos Tihanyi. Later the sculptors Márk Vedres (1870–1961) and Vilmos Fémes Beck and the industrial designer Anna Lesznai (b 1885) also became members. The group was originally called the Searchers (Keresok) and had formed the most radical section within MIENK (Hungarian Impressionists and Naturalists), a broad-based group of artists. They left MIENK in order to develop a more modern aesthetic. The name the Eight was adopted on the occasion of the second exhibition in 1911, and its leader and organizer was Kernstok. Unlike the earlier Nagybánya school or other contemporary Western movements, the Eight had no homogeneous style, individual artists being influenced by a variety of sources ranging from Cézanne to Cubism. Though unified by a sense of the social function of art, the details of this belief again varied with each artist.

Eisen Keisai (1790-1848)Japan Artist

Eishi Chobunsai  (1756-1829)  Japan Artist

Eisho Chokosai (1790-1799) Japan Artist

Eisui Ichirakutei (1790-1823) Japan Artist

Eitoku Kano (1543-1590) Japan Artist

Eizan Kikugawa (1787-1867) Japan Artist

Ekman Harry. Pin -Up Art.

Electrography [electrophotography; xerography].

Term for processes involving the interaction of light and electricity to produce images and for the production of original works of art by these processes. Since these processes are used by nearly all photocopiers, the production of such works has also been referred to as ‘copy art’, although this is misleading, since it suggests the mere replication of already existing works. Artistic photocopies were made in California in the late 1950s, but electrography proper as an international art form dates from the early 1960s, when electrographers developed its basic techniques. Bruno Munari’s pioneering works, workshops and publications, starting in 1963, foreshadowed the preponderant role played by Europe in the history of electrography, to which important exhibitions at the Musée National d’Art Moderne in Paris (1980) and in Valencia (1988) later testified. Electrographs vary widely in size and can be over 1 km in length; materials used include not only paper but also canvas and leather. In the mid-1970s xeroradiography (a xerographic process in which an X-ray gun is used to obtain X-ray pictures) and telecopy respectively gave rise to electroradiographic art and fax art. The advent in the 1980s of the digital copier, with its creative programmes, also created new possibilities, and from 1989 the colour laser copier could be connected to a computer or a video camera, thereby increasing the creative potential of electrography. At the end of the 20th century it was one of the most practised technological art forms, with Pol Bury and David Hockney among its prominent exponents. The Museo Internacional de Electrografía in Cuenca, Spain, is the leading institution devoted to the subject.

Elementarism. A successor to the Neo-plasticism promoted by the Dutch artists connected with De Stijl, this new movement was announced by Van *Docsburg in a manifesto published m the magazine De Stijl in 1926. Forms were still to be right-angled, as in Neo-plasticism, but inclined planes could now be used.

Elementarism.

Term coined by Theo van Doesburg and applied to painting and architecture to describe the constructive use of line, plane, volume and colour not only as the primary means of art but as an end in itself. In his article, ‘L’Elémentarisme et son origine’, he stated that the movement had been born in Holland in 1924 via the DE STIJL group. He then listed Elementarist contributors to the arts: ‘Georges Antheil in music, César Domela, Vordemberge-Gildewart and the author of this article (the founder of the movement) in painting, Constantin Brancusi in sculpture, Mies van der Rohe, van Eesteren, Rietveld and the author in architecture, I. K. Bonset [one of van Doesburg’s pseudonyms] in literature, Friederich Kiesler in the rejuvenation of the theatre’. The term is intimately related to the notion of abstraction and has roots extending back as far as Plato’s Philebus. In its broader definition it can provide an insight into the development of abstraction. As early as 1915, in his article on the development of modern art, van Doesburg wrote about the ‘fundamental elements’ of art and analysed how they had been treated during different historical periods.

Elvgren Gil. Pin -Up Art.

Emblems. Books of e.s were not uncommon in the 17th c. They consisted of short poems, etc., based on passages of Scripture and with quotations from the fathers of the Church and were decorated with engravings. A well-known example was publ. by Francis Quarles.

Encaustic wax. A technique of painting in which the *medium for the powdered colour is hot wax; the method was used in classical antiquity and revived in the 20th c, e.g. *Johns.

Engraving. The term covers many techniques for multiplying prints, either of a picture designed by the engraver himself for the medium, or of a reproduction of a work in another medium by another artist. Correctly e. refers only to *intaglio techniques. All these involve a metal plate, usually copper, on which the ink is held in furrows and crevices cut or bitten by acid into its surface: a print is obtained by rolling the plate, covered by a sheet of dampened paper, through a press; so that the paper is forced into the engraved markings, thus picking up the ink.

LINE ENGRAVING. A copper plate is polished and often covered with chalk. The main contours of the picture are marked m the chalk and the lines cut in the copper with a shaver or burin; graduated tones can be obtained by hatching. Line e. achieved its greatest expressiveness in the N. schools, especially in the work of Durer. Later it was used mainly for making reproductions.

DRY POINT. A steel stylus is used on a copper plate; but whereas in line e. the burr of copper is polished away, in dry point it is left. In printing, the ink caught in this burr gives a characteristic 'bloom' to the line. This technique is often used with etching, notably in Rembrandt's work.

ETCHING. The plate is covered with л thin resinous film impervious to acid. The artist draws on this ground with a needle, exposing lines on the copper which are bitten away when the plate is dipped in acid. Since shallow lines will hold less ink than deep ones, graduations of tone cm be obtained by briefly immersing the plate for the faintest lines, 'stopping' these out and immersing for longer and longer periods as the darker lines are drawn in, 'stopping out' each successive set of lines when they have been etched. Tonal gradations in etching are far more subtle than those possible in line engraving. Aerial *perspective is one effect thus obtainable. Developed in the early 16th c, etching was first fully explored by *Callot; its greatest exponent was Rembrandt. In soft ground etching the artist draws on to the ground (mixed with tallow) with a pencil through a sheet of paper; parts of the ground cling to the paper and the final picture from the plate has a grainy texture.

MEZZOTINT. Unlike line e. or etching, mezzotint (invented in the mid-17th c.) works with tones rather than lines; it was thus suitable, and in the 18th с widely used, to reproduce paintings. A curved file or 'rocker' is rocked over the plate to give a uniformly burred surface like sandpaper. This, when inked, would print as a solid black. By scraping off the burr to a greater or lesser extent or by burnishing it away entirely, the amount of ink carried by different areas can be controlled and gradations of tone or highlight (the burnished areas will carry no ink) obtained. AQUATINT. A tone process (invented by *Leprince) which uses acid as in etching. The plate is covered with a porous ground which allows the acid to bite away a fine mesh of tiny dots. The artist first stops out the white areas of the picture, immerses the plate briefly for the next lightest tone, stops out these areas in turn and repeats the process for the successively darker tones. Unlike the mezzotint, the aquatint is incapable of fine modulations of tone, each tone being uniform and bounded by an abrupt contour.

SUGAR AQUATINT is a linear technique combined with aquatint tone. The design is brushed on to the copper with a black ink or gouache dissolved in sugar-water, and the plate is covered with a ground and dipped in warm water. The sugar mixture dissolves, leaving the plate exposed where the drawing was. A second ground is laid and the plate bitten as for an ordinary aquatint.

Enkyo Kabukido (1749-1803) Japan Artist

Ensor James (1860-1949). Belgian painter and engraver, born in Ostend of an British father and a Flemish mother. E. studied at the Brussels Academy, but otherwise seldom left Ostend. Neglected by all but a few writers such as Verhaeren and Maeterlinck, E. was awarded later recognition in the 1920s and created a baron in 1930. Today he is considered a major pioneer of both Expressionism and Abstract Expressionism. E. began by painting sombre interiors, portraits, landscapes and seascapes (The Rower) as well as a few superb still-life studies. About 1883 his palette changed to lighter, brilliantly contrasted colours. This very Flemish choice of colour can first be seen in a variation in a self-portrait by Rubens, Portrait of the Artist in a Flowered Hat. Of E.'s engravings of this period, one of the greatest is The Cathedral (1886). The macabre carnival paintings of fighting skeletons and masked revellers, with the echoes of the Dance of Death, Bosch, Bruegel the Elder, ("allot, Goya and Magnasco, now made their appearance. The most celebrated of these, Christ's Llntry into Brussels, was rejected in 1889 after a scandal by Les XX, an avant-garde group which E. had helped to found. E. continued to paint until 1939; his later work is less fierce in character, e.g. Coup de lumiere (1935).
 

Entartete Kunst [Ger.: ‘degenerate art’].

Term used by the Nazis in Germany from the 1920s to refer to art that did not fall into line with the arts policies of National Socialism, chiefly avant-garde work. The term ‘degenerate art’ has been used generally to describe art perceived as signifying decay, and usually forms of art production in chronological proximity. It has been used in a polemical context to enhance the value of a specific aesthetic viewpoint. The first known example is the assessment made by the Italian bourgeoisie of the 14th century of medieval art as a barbaric relapse when compared with antiquity. The Italian writer and statesman Niccolň Machiavelli employed the term ‘degeneration’ (corruzione) in his Discorso of 1581. It was used by Giovanni Pietro Bellori in his polemic against Giorgio Vasari and Michelangelo. It is also used generally to mean irregular or against the rules, in contrast with the dominant aesthetic trend, which is set up as the rule. In this sense the term ‘Baroque’ was also initially intended to be disparaging. At the end of the 19th century the term was used in association with Nietzsche’s concept of decadence. It was later used in this sense by Thomas Mann, who regarded the artist as ‘a social outsider prone to be tired of life’ (1987–8 exh. cat.) and considered this predisposition to be the basis of the need for artistic creativity. Familiarity with crises and melancholy was viewed as the cause and driving force of artistic genius, which found its expression in a new artistic subjectivity. In contrast, in his book Entartung (1892–3), Max Nordau viewed Naturalism, Symbolism and Realism as decadent art movements that had originated in the ‘degeneracy’ of their founders, and he proposed that they be combated in the interest of health. This perception was essentially in line with Emperor William II’s ideas on art and with the imperial criticism of art, which, on occasion, even stigmatized Impressionism as ‘gutter painting’ (Gossenmalerei). William II had attempted to regulate art, claiming, in his speech at the inauguration of Siegesallee in Berlin in 1901: ‘Art that goes beyond the laws and limits imposed on it by me ceases to be art.’ In 1913 a resolution ‘Against degeneracy in art’ was passed in the Prussian house of representatives. In Germany these defamations were always closely linked to nationalistic tendencies.

Environmental art. Term used from the late 1950s for works of art which are three-dimensional environments, i.e. which the spectator can enter, e.g. *Kienholz.

Environmental art.

Art form based on the premise that a work of art should invade the totality of the architecture around it and be conceived as a complete space rather than being reducible to a mere object hanging on a wall or placed within a space. This idea, which became widespread during the 1960s and 1970s in a number of different aesthetic formulations, can be traced back to earlier types of art not usually referred to as environments: the wall paintings of ancient tombs, the frescoes of Roman or of Renaissance art and the paintings of Baroque chapels, which surround the spectator and entirely cover the architectural structure that shelters them. Indeed, the whole of art history prior to the transportable easel picture is linked to architecture and hence to the environment. A number of artists in the 1960s conceived environmental art precisely in order to question the easel painting.

Epstein Jacob (1880—1959). U.S.-born portrait and monumental sculptor who settled in London in 1905. His tame and notoriety were established with the 1 8 figures in semi-relief carved for the British Medical Association Building in the Strand. Many sculptures of his early and middle period were rejected by the general public as ugly and attacked by the critics either for the deliberate distortion of the human figure or on formal grounds: the Risen Christ (1919) showed Christ as a Jew, and the influence of primitive art is apparent in the Esse Homo (1914—5) and the alabaster Adam (1938—9), a barbaric and energy-charged figure. The 3 major religious commissions of E.'s last years, the Madonna and Child (1951—2), the Christ in Majesty (1953-7) and the St Michael and the Devil (1955—7) were more traditional compositions. His bronze portrait heads of children and of great contemporaries are notable.
 

Equipo Cronica [Sp.: ‘the chronicle team’].

Spanish group of painters formed in 1964 and disbanded in 1981. Its original members were Rafael Solbes (1940–81), Manuel Valdés (b 1942) and Juan Antonio Toledo (b 1940), but Toledo left the group in 1965. They worked collaboratively and formed part of a larger movement known as Crónica de la Realidad, using strongly narrative figurative images that were formally indebted to Pop art and that had a pronounced social and political content directed primarily against Franco’s regime.

Erbit Jules. Pin -Up Art.

Ercole de' Roberti (b Ferrara, c. 1455–6; d 18 May–1 July 1496). Italian painter and draughtsman. He was, together with Cosimo Tura and Francesco del Cossa, one of the most important painters working in Ferrara and Bologna in the 15th century. Although many of his works have been destroyed, those that survive show that he raised the depiction of human emotion and narrative drama to remarkable heights. From 1486 he worked as court painter to Ercole I d’Este, Duke of Ferrara.

Erlach Johann Bernhard Fischer von (1656-1723) Austrian  architect. Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach (the honorific was granted by the emperor in 1696 when Fischer was ennobled) was the son of Johann Baptist Fischer, a sculptor and decorator active in Graz, near the Austrian border with Italy. Johann Bernhand became the last great architect of the Renaissance and Baroque periods, occupying a central role in the buildings of the imperial court circle in Vienna. His eclectic approach was adopted as the official style of the Habsburg court. His second son, Joseph Emanuel Fischer von Erlach, was trained by his father as his successor and completed his unfinished work after his death.

Ernst Max (1891-1976). German painter who first studied philosophy at Bonn (1909—14). Untrained as an artist, he visited Paris in 1913 and met Маске, Delannay and — more significantly — Apollinaire and Arp. After the war he founded the Cologne *Dada group in 1919. By this time he had seen the work of De Chinco,Klee, Picasso and the Zurich Dadaists, and his paintings combined found objects (pieces of wood, wallpaper, etc.) with painted objects into a fantasy imagery whose disturbing ambiguity was emphasized by the titles — The Little Lear Cland that says Tic Tac (1920). His one-man exhibition in Paris in 1920 was acclaimed by the *Surrealists. His invention of 'frottage' paralleled the automatic writing of *Breton and Eluard in eliminating the conscious creative role of the artist, e.g. Histoire Naturelle (publ. Paris 1926).
The painting and sculpture which now make him regarded as one of the major influential figures of international Surrealism depend either on the irrational juxtaposition of unrelated elements, e.g. O/ this Men shall know Nothing (1923) or on a more imaginative nightmare improvisation of organic forms (The Horde, 1927). E. spent the war years in the U.S.A., later settling in France. In 1961 he publ. An Informal Life of Max Ernst.

See also:
Ernst Max  "A Week of Kindness"
 

Erotic art.

Term applied to art with a sexual content, and especially to art that celebrates human sexuality. It is derived from eros, the Greek word for human, physical love for another person (as opposed to agape, the spiritual, unselfish love for a god). The imagery of erotic art may be either explicitly or implicitly sexual, instances of the latter being more common in many cultures because of such factors as codes of behaviour, prudery and censorship. The majority of sexually explicit works of art in the Western world have been produced as part of an overall desire to express the totality of human experience: very few artists have made eroticism their only motivation. In many other societies and cultures, however, sex has provided a far more evident source of inspiration.

See also:
Erotica in Art.

Erte (d'Erte) Romain de Tirtoff (pseudonym Erté, a French pronunciation of initials R.T.) (November 23, 1892 – April 21, 1990) was a Russian born, French artist and designer. Tirtoff was born as Roman Petrov de Tyrtov (Роман Петрович Тыртов) in St. Petersburg, Russian Empire in a very distinguished family with roots traced back to 1548. His father Pyotr Ivanovich de Tyrtov was a Fleet Admiral. In 1910-1912 Romain moved to Paris to pursue a career as a designer. This decision was made over strong objections of his father, who wanted Romain to continue a family tradition and to become a naval officer. Romain assumed the pseudonym to avoid disgracing the family. In 1915 he got his first significant contract with Harper's Bazaar magazine, and he went on to an illustrious career that included designing costumes and stage sets.
Erté is perhaps most famous for his elegant fashion designs which capture the art deco period in which he worked. His delicate figures and sophisticated, glamorous designs are instantly recognizable, and his ideas and art influence fashion into the 21st century. His costumes and sets were featured in the Ziegfeld Follies of 1923, many productions of the Folies Bergčre, and George White's Scandals. In 1925, Louis B. Mayer brought him to Hollywood to design sets and costumes for a film called Paris. There were many script problems so Erte was given other assignments to keep him busy. He designed for such films as Ben-Hur, The Mystic, Time, the Comedian, Dance Madness and La bohčme.
By far his best known image is Symphony in Black, depicting a tall, slender woman draped in black holding a thin black dog. The influential image has been reproduced and copied countless times.
Erté continued working throughout his life designing revues, ballets and operas. He had a major rejuvenation and much lauded interest in his career during the 1960s with the art deco revival. He branched out into the realm of limited edition prints, bronzes and art to wear. Museums around the world purchased dozens of his paintings for their collections.
A sizeable collection of work by Erté can be found at Museum 1999 in Tokyo.
 

See also: d'Erte (Cards and Posters)

Escher M.C. Maurits Cornelis Escher (June 17, 1898 – March 27, 1972), usually referred to as M. C. Escher, was a Dutch graphic artist. He is known for his often mathematically inspired woodcuts, lithographs and mezzotints. These feature impossible constructions, explorations of infinity, architecture and tessellations.

Escuelas de Pintura al Aire Libre.

Open-air painting schools developed in Mexico as artistic teaching projects for broad sections of the population during the period of the Revolution (1910–17). The first phase of their existence took place under Victoriano Huerta’s government (1913–14), and their structure was established under the government of Alvaro Obregón (1920–24). Alfredo Ramos Martínez was the project’s main promoter, supported by civil servants, intellectuals and artists. The precepts by which art was to be taught were based on those of John Dewey’s Action School in the USA; children and adolescents, farmers and factory workers were to meet and develop their own ideas with sincerity and simplicity, taking as their model the Barbizon school of landscape painting, with its devotion to contact with untamed nature. The first of the escuelas, situated at Santa Anita Ixtapalapa on the outskirts of Mexico City, was named Barbizon. Impressionism, a great deal of naive art and a certain involuntary expressionism were all blended together in the works of the students, who needed no formal qualifications to enter the schools. David Alfaro Siqueiros was among them. The project was extended to Chimalistac and moved on in 1921 to Coyoacán, where an attempt was made to involve native Mexicans and mestizos in order to encourage the production of a uniquely Mexican art. Under the government of Plutarco Elías Calles (1924–8), the open-air painting schools system was expanded to include branches in Xochimilco, Tlálpan and Guadalupe Hidalgo. This expansion, which reached the states of Michoacán and Puebla in the 1930s, was due to the enormous need for expression that arises in periods of transition and social upheaval, when a society’s cultural traditions are under attack. In 1932 the schools’ name was changed to Escuelas Libres de Pintura; entry requirements were also changed. In 1935 government subsidies, already reduced, finally ceased, and the schools went into decline. The Tasco school, under the Japanese director Tamiji Kitagawa (1894–1990), was the last to disappear in 1937, having survived for two years on local resources. Several thousand students attended the open-air painting schools, and their works were exhibited in Berlin, Paris and Madrid in 1926 with great success. During their rise to fame, the schools were enthusiastically supported by Diego Rivera, Alfonso Reyes (1889–1959), Pierre Janet (1859–1947), Eugenio d’Ors and Dewey; during their decline, they were criticized by Siqueiros and Rufino Tamayo.


Eskimo. Name commonly applied to a group of Arctic tribal peoples occupying the area from N.E. Siberia to Labrador and Newfoundland. They have a powerful oral tradition of myths and legends and a sculptural tradition stretching back more than 2000 years to the stone carvings of the Old Bering Sea culture. This was maintained up to the early decades of the 20th c. with outstanding miniature carvings in wood, bone, walrus ivory and antler, depicting animal figures with vigorous economy of line. In recent decades the bulk of E. art has degenerated into tourist 'airport' art.

Estes Richard (born May 14, 1932 in Kewanee, Illinois) is an American painter who is best known for his photorealistic paintings. The paintings generally consist of reflective, clean, and inanimate city and geometric landscapes. He is regarded as one of the founders of the international photo-realist movement of the late 1960s, with painters such as Ralph Goings, Chuck Close, and Duane Hanson. At an early age, Richard's family moved to Chicago. As a young adult, Richard studied fine arts at The School of the Art Institute of Chicago. He frequently studied the works of realist painters such as Edgar Degas, Edward Hopper, and Thomas Eakins, who are strongly represented in the Art Institute's collection. Richard moved to New York City in 1956, after he had completed his course of studies, and worked for the next ten years as a graphic artist for various magazine publishers and advertising agencies in New York and Spain. During this period, he painted in his spare time. By 1966, he had the financial resources to devote himself full-time to painting. Most of Richard's paintings from the early 1960s are of city dwellers engaged in everyday activities. Beginning around 1967, Richard began to paint storefronts and buildings with glass windows, and more importantly, the reflected images shown on these windows. The paintings were based on color photographs he would take, which trapped the evanescent nature of the reflections, which would change in part with the lighting and the time of day. While some amount of alteration was done for the sake of aesthetic composition, it was important to Richard that the central and the main reflected objects be recognizable, but also that the evanescent quality of the reflections be retained. Richard had his first of many one-man shows in 1968, at the Allan Stone Gallery. His works have also been exhibited at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Whitney Museum, and the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. In 1971, Richard was granted a National Council for the Arts fellowship.

Estonian Artists’ Group [EKR; Est. Eesti Kunstnikkude Ruhm].

Estonian group of painters and sculptors active from 1923 to c. 1930. The group continued the progressive internationalist orientation of their predecessors in the YOUNG ESTONIA movement and united a new generation of painters committed to Cubist experimentation. The group was founded in Tartu by Eduard Ole (b 1898) and Friedrich Hist (1900–41), joined by Felix Randel (1901–77, named Johansen until 1936). Their work, like that of much of their colleagues, was primarily distinguished by modest geometricized abstraction and decorative colourism suggested by Synthetic Cubism, rather than by explorations of simultaneity, collage etc. It also often displayed strong characteristics of NEUE SACHLICHKEIT and PURISM. The earliest Estonian practitioners of Cubism were among the group’s members: Jaan Vahtra (1882–1947) and Hist, who from 1921 studied in Latvia, where he kept company with the modernists of the RIGA ARTISTS’ GROUP. In 1924 EKR exhibited in Tartu and Tallinn with the Latvians, by which time membership had grown with the critical additions of Märt Laarmann (1896–1979), Arnold Akberg (1894–1984) and Henrik Olvi (1894–1972). Akberg and Olvi created some of EKR’s most radical work, with Akberg investigating non-objectivity in a Cubo-Constructivist manner and Olvi executing rigorous architectonic compositions. Laarmann is credited as the group’s ideologue, having written their manifesto, The New Arts Book, published in 1928. Other members included the sculptor Juhan Raudsepp (1896–1984) and Edmond-Arnold Blumenfeldt (1903–46). While Blumenfeldt’s art was more Expressionistic, Raudsepp worked in the group’s distinctive abstract geometric style, which was revived in the 1970s by Estonian nonconformist artists such as TONIS VINT and LEONHARD LAPIN.

Estridentismo.

Mexican group of writers and artists, active between 1921 and 1927. The group’s members included Silvestre Revueltas (1899–1940), Fermín Revueltas, Leopoldo Méndez, Ramón Alva de la Canal and Germán Cueto, and the writers Arqeles Vela and Germán List Arzubide, with Diego Rivera and Jean Charlot as sympathizers. All were keen to stress the importance of cosmopolitanism. They followed Futurism in a complete rejection of academicism and Symbolism in the arts, although no limits were imposed on what should replace these, and their ideal of making art public and accessible corresponded with that of the mural movement in Mexico. This aim at a cultural revival was initially expressed through a manifesto published in the first issue of the periodical Actual, written by the poet Manuel Maples Arce, who initiated the trend. The manifesto included a directory of avant-garde artists and writers of all contemporary styles, probably compiled with the help of Rivera and Charlot, who had recently returned from Paris. It called on Mexican intellectuals to unite and form a society of artists, claiming ‘the need to bear witness to the vertiginous transformation of the world’. Maples Arce recommended rapid action and total subversion as an immediate strategy, and looked to the USSR for ideological inspiration. Taking an iconoclastic attitude, he condemned religiosity and patriotism. The generally incoherent and aggressive manifesto borrowed from Marinetti’s Futurist manifestos and Spanish Ultraist ideas. The group’s ideas were further propagated by the periodicals Irradiador (1924) and Horizonte (1926–7), the latter being published by their own publishing house, Ediciones Estridentistas. Public meetings and casual exhibitions at the Café de Nadie, Mexico City, were also held.


Etching. *engraving

Etty William (1787-1849). British painter best remembered for his studies of the nude, e.g. The Bather.

European School [Hung. Európai Iskola].

Hungarian artistic group formed in 1945 and active in Budapest until 1948. It was modelled on the Ecole de Paris and founded on the belief that a new artistic vision could only be established from a synthesis of East and West. According to its programme, it represented Fauvism, Cubism, Expressionism, abstract art and Surrealism in Hungary. The aim of its members was to organize exhibitions, publish writings and encourage contact between artists. Members included the art historians and critics Erno Kállai, A’rpád Mezei and Imre Pán, and painters in the group included, among others, Margit Anna, Jenô Barcsay, Endre Bálint, Béla Czóbel, József Egry, Jenô Gadányi, Dezso Korniss, Tamás Lossonczy, Ferenc Martyn and Erno Schubert. Among the sculptors were Dezso Bokros Birmann, Erzsébet Forgách Hahn, Etienne Hajdu (in Paris), József Jakovitz and Tibor Vilt. Marcel Jean, the Surrealist theorist who lived for a while in Budapest, was an honorary member, while Imré Amos and Lajos Vajda were looked to as role models. The group did not adhere to a unified style; for example, while Jenô Gadányi’s Fantastical Landscape (1948; Budapest, N.G.) was Expressionist, Jeno Barcsay’s Street (1946; Budapest, N.G.) was influenced by Cubism. The members sought to use both organic and inorganic forms to balance rationalism and intuition in their work. The majority of them started from the Constructivist–Surrealist scheme introduced by Lajos Vajda. Some of them produced ‘bioromantic’ work after World War II. Others worked towards monumentality through Expressionist–Constructivist works. They organized 38 exhibitions of members’ (and some foreign) work.

Euston Road school. A group of British artists, led by *Coldstream, *Gowing, С Rogers and *Pasmore who conducted a school (1938—9) of painting and drawing in London in which artists worked alongside their students. Realistic townscapes, landscapes and interiors were painted in opposition to the abstract and Surrealist painting current in Britain.

Euston Road School.

Name given by Clive Bell in 1938 to a group of English painters associated with the School of Drawing and Painting established in October 1937 by William Coldstream, Claude Rogers (b 1907) and Victor Pasmore, in a review of the exhibition 15 Paintings of London (Oct-Nov 1938; London, Storran Gal.). The school was initially in Fitzroy Street, but it moved soon after to premises at 314/316 Euston Road. The term was quickly broadened to describe a movement encompassing as many as 30 other painters, many of them former students of the Slade School of Fine Art, including Rodrigo Moynihan, Lawrence Gowing (b 1918), William Townsend (1909–73), Graham Bell, Anthony Devas (1911–58) and Geoffrey Tibble (1909–52).

Exat-51 [Eksperimentalni atelje; Croat.: ‘experimental atelier’].

Croatian group of artists active in Zagreb from 1950 to 1956. Its members were the architects Bernardo Bernardi (1912–85), Zdravko Bregovac (b 1924), Zvonimir Radic (1921–83), Bozidar Rasica (1912–92), Vjenceslav Richter (b 1917) and Vladimir Zarahovic, and the painters Vlado Kristl (b 1922), IVAN PICELJ and Aleksandar Srnec (b 1924). On 7 December they united officially at the plenary meeting of the Association of Applied Artists of Croatia (Croat. Udruzenje likovnih umjetnika primijenjenih umjetnosti Hrvatske (ULUPUH)), at which time they proclaimed their manifesto. The group was formed to protest against the dominance of officially sanctioned Socialist Realism and the condemnation of all forms of abstraction and motifs unacceptable in Communist doctrine as decadent and bourgeois. In its manifesto, Exat-51 emphasized that such an attitude contradicted the principles of Socialist development, that the differences between so-called ‘pure’ art and ‘applied’ art were non-existent and that abstract art could enrich the field of visual communication. The activity of the group was therefore to spring from the existing social situation and, as such, to contribute to the progress of society. The principal intention was to attain a synthesis of all branches of the fine arts and to encourage artistic experimentation. At the first Exat-51 exhibition in February 1953, held in Zagreb at the Hall of the Architects’ Society of Croatia, works by Picelj, Kristl, Srnec and Rasica were featured; the exhibition was later shown in Belgrade. The group made an important contribution in helping to free Yugoslav artists from predominant Stalinist dogmas, and its members later continued to work in a more individual manner, still adhering, however, to the main ideas set out in the manifesto.

Exekias (6th c. BC). Greek potter and famous vase painter in the *black figure style whose masterpiece is an amphora now in the Vatican showing Achilles and Ajax.

Expressionism. Term used to describe works of art in which reality is distorted in order to express the artists' emotions or inner vision, e.g. in painting, emotional impact is heightened by deliberate use of strong colours, distortion of form, etc. In this sense, the paintings of El Greco and Grunewald arc sometimes called Expressionist, though the term is usually-restricted to artists of the last 100 years. Thus Van Gogh m painting and Strindberg in drama are regarded as the forerunners of modern E.
An overtly Expressionist movement developed in the German theatre after World War I (Kaiser, Toller) and there are Expressionist elements in the work of, e.g., Brecht, O'Casey and O'Neill; in other branches of literature there has been no avowed Expressionist movement, though similar effects have frequently been sought (e.g. by Kafka).
The most conscious Expressionist movements, however, have been in the visual arts, notably Die *Brucke and *Blaue Reiter groups in Germany. *Munch's influence was strong in Germany; his work had been shown in exhibitions and admired since the 1890s. Other important Expressionist painters are O. Kokoschka, C. Soutme, G. Rouault and M. Beckmann (his later allegorical works). O. Zadkine and E. Barlach arc important Expressionist sculptors. A group of Expressionist painters formed round C. Permeke at Laethcm-Saint-Martin in the Netherlands, including G. de Smet, F. van der Berghe and F. Masereel. In France the work of Edouard Georg, F. Gruber, Gromaire and B. Buffet is also described as Expressionist.
The term E. is sometimes used of architecture, e.g. of the work of P. Behrens and Eric Mendelsohn (the Einstein Tower at Potsdam, 1920), and of the picturesque Goetheanum built by Rudolf Steiner. There was much contact between architects and other artists after World War I, especially in the *Novembergruppe.

Expressionism.

International movement in art and architecture, which flourished between c. 1905 and c. 1920, especially in Germany. It also extended to literature, music, dance and theatre. The term was originally applied more widely to various avant-garde movements: for example it was adopted as an alternative to the use of ‘Post-Impressionism’ by Roger Fry in exhibitions in London in 1910 and 1912. It was also used contemporaneously in Scandinavia and Germany, being gradually confined to the specific groups of artists and architects to which it is now applied.

Eyck Barthelemy d' ( fl 1444–69). Netherlandish painter, active in France. The son of Ydria Exters ‘d’Allemagne’ (d 1460) and the stepson of Pierre du Billant, he is first recorded on 19 February 1444 as a witness with Enguerrand Quarton in Aix-en-Provence and described as ‘magister Bartolomeus de Ayck pictor’, inhabitant of Aix. From c. 1447 he was ‘peintre et varlet de chambre’ at the court of Rene I, King of Naples (reg 1438–42) and Duke of Anjou (reg 1434–80). Between 1447 and 1449 Barthelemy worked at Rene’s chateau of Tarascon (Bouches-du-Rhone) in a room close to the Duke’s own apartments. There his activities may have included supervising fellow artists, providing designs and perhaps painting the ceiling decoration of the Royal Apartments in the east wing of the chateau (de Merindol). In 1451 Barthélemy travelled in the Duke’s entourage to Guyenne, and in 1456 he was at Angers, which he visited on a number of other occasions. Existing accounts show that Barthelemy was responsible for paying painters and illuminators, purchasing materials for manuscripts and obtaining gold to be made into jewellery for Rene’s second wife, Joanna of Laval. The last document relating to Barthelemy is dated 26 December 1469, when he received wages for himself, three servants and three horses. The high esteem in which he was held may be deduced from Jean Pelerin’s third edition of his treatise De artificiali perspectiva (Toul, 1521), which ends with a French poem mentioning a ‘Berthelemi’ together with Jean Fouquet, Jean Poyet and Coppin Delf.

Eyck Hubert van (b c. 1385–90; d Ghent, 18 Sept 1426). Painter.A Magister Hubertus, pictor was paid in 1409 for panels for the church of Onze Lieve Vrouwe, Tongeren, and a Master Hubert painted a panel bequeathed by Jan de Visch van der Capelle to his daughter, a Benedictine nun near Grevelingen, in 1413; considering the rarity of this given name among painters of the time, the artist may well have been Hubert van Eyck. The designation of Hubert as ‘Master’, his absence from guild records, the childlessness revealed in his heirs’ living outside Ghent and his sister’s burial beside him, all suggest that he was in minor orders, perhaps attached to the abbey church of St Bavo, Ghent (Dhanens, 1980). He must have settled in Ghent by c. 1420 and shortly afterwards begun his only surviving documented work, the retable with the Adoration of the Lamb or Ghent Altarpiece, which was commissioned for St Bavo’s by Jodocus Vijd (d 1439) and his wife Elisabeth Borluut (d 1443); to judge from its advanced state at the time of Hubert’s death it must have been designed c. 1423. The following year Hubert made two designs for a picture for the town magistrates of Ghent, some of whom visited his shop in 1425. He was probably commissioned to paint the retable with a painted or carved figure of St Anthony (untraced) for the altar in the church of the Saviour, Ghent, which Robbrecht Portier and his wife endowed on 9 March 1426. This can hardly have been started, however, since the retable for St Bavo’s must have occupied most of his time until his death six months later. The painter was buried in St Bavo’s before the altar on which the retable was to stand, a sign of the patrons’ esteem. The tombstone is still in the cathedral museum, bereft of the brass plaque with its inscription declaring that Hubert’s painting had won him fame and the highest honour.

Eyck Jan van (c. 1390—1441) and Hubert or Hubrecht (d. 1426). Early Netherlands painters. The great altarpiece of the cathedral of St Bavon, Ghent (The Adoration of the Lamb), bears an inscription stating that the work was begun by Hubert van Eyck and completed by Jan. This inscription has been a stumbling-block to scholars ever since. A number of attempts have been made to separate the work of the 2 brothers, but none has been universally accepted. Hubert's name appears only on the Ghent altarpiece, while signed and dated works by Jan are numerous.
Despite these difficulties of attribution, Jan emerges as unquestionably the greatest artist of the early Netherlands school. He was probably born at Maaseyck near Maastricht. From 1422 to 1424 he was in the service of John of Bavaria, Count of Holland. On the count's death he joined the court of Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy at Lille, acting as his envoy on missions to Spain (1426) and to Portugal (1428). From 1430 he lived at Bruges. Thereafter there is evidence of his increasing wealth and importance as a court painter, diplomat and city official of Bruges.
The earliest works attributed to Jan are the miniatures identified in 1902 as the Turin-Milan Book of Hours.
The Eycks' clarity and realism were revered and sometimes imitated, but they proved too difficult for most painters to follow and there was an inevitable reaction against such work. Although the tradition that one or other of the brothers was the inventor of oil paint has been disproved, their mastery of the technique and the improvements they introduced undoubtedly changed the whole nature of the medium. Jan's pupil, Petrus Christus, may have been responsible for teaching the secrets of the technique to Antonello da Messma and the Italians.
Jan executed a number of large commissions for donors who presented them to churches. Among these are The Virgin of Chancellor Rolin, Virgin and Child and the Canon van der Paele, Virgin and Child with Saints and a Carthusian. Similar subjects are 1'he Virgin and Child in a Church, The Annunciation and the Virgin and Child, a triptych. Among his portraits are the early Tymotheos, The Painter's wife, Margaret, Man in a Red Turban and Cardinal Niccolo Albergati. Perhaps the best known of his paintings is the The Marriage of Ciovanni(?) Arnolfini and Giovanna Cenami (?), which is, at the same time, a double-portrait of great psychological insight, a meticulously rendered interior and one of the Ist genre paintings. The greatest aspect of Jan's genius was in depicting such a scene with the utmost clarity and naturalism and yet creating from apparently mundane subjects a mystery so rich that it has eluded all analysis.

 
 

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