Dictionary of

Art  &  Artist

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Cabanel-Carrington Carrucci-Chia Chicago-Copley Coptic-Czech

Cabanel Alexandre (b Montpellier, 28 Sept 1823; d Paris, 23 Jan 1889). French painter and teacher. His skill in drawing was apparently evident by the age of 11. His father could not afford his training, but in 1839 his département gave him a grant to go to Paris. This enabled him to register at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts the following October as a pupil of François-Edouard Picot. At his first Salon in 1843 he presented Agony in the Garden (Valenciennes, Mus. B.-A.) and won second place in the Prix de Rome competition (after Léon Bénouville, also a pupil of Picot) in 1845 with Christ at the Praetorium (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). Both Cabanel and Bénouville were able to go to Rome, as there was a vacancy from the previous year. Cabanel’s Death of Moses (untraced), an academic composition, painted to comply with the regulations of the Ecole de Rome, was exhibited at the Salon of 1852. The pictures he painted for Alfred Bruyas, his chief patron at this time (and, like Cabanel, a native of Montpellier), showed more clearly the direction his art had taken during his stay in Italy. Albaydé, Angel of the Evening, Chiarruccia and Velleda (all in Montpellier, Mus. Fabre) were the first of many mysterious or tragic heroines painted by Cabanel and show his taste for the elegiac types and suave finish of the Florentine Mannerists.

Cabaret Voltaire.
Founded by H. *Ball for avant-farde artists and writers, it opened on S March 1916 in the Meierci Cafe in Zurich. *Arp, *Janco, *Tzara and other Dadaists gathered and launched the *Dada movement.
cabinet picture. Small easel painting. The minor Netherlands painters specialized in this type of picture.

Cadmus Paul (1904- ). U.S. painter, also highly accomplished draughtsman and print maker, of contemporary life and social interaction. His The Fleet's In! (1934) was controversial due to its depiction of sailors and women carousing in an uninhibited sexual manner. This atmosphere permeates much of his work. Satire and *Social Realism were also characteristic of his subsequent Sailors and Floosies (1938). His subject matter means, however, that his remarkable technique, in the tradition of Renaissance painting and drawing, which he self-consciously emulates, is sometimes overlooked.

Cahun Claude ( 1894 – 1954) was a French photographer and writer. Her work was both political and personal, and often played with the concepts of gender and sexuality.

Caillebotte Gustave  (1848-94). French Impressionist painter and an early collector of Impressionist paintings. He bequeathed his coll.
to the Musee du Luxembourg and it is now in the Musee d'Impressionnisme (Pans).

Cairo Francesco (b Milan, 26 Sept 1607; d Milan, 27 July 1665). Italian painter. He led a successful career as court painter at Turin and painted many large altarpieces for religious orders; the range of his stylistic development during nearly 40 years is enormous, yet his early cabinet pictures, of macabre and morbid subjects, remain his most fascinating achievement. They mark the end of the brilliant originality and passionate feeling that had distinguished early 17th-century Milanese painting.

Calascione Collette. Surrealism

Calder Alexander
(1898-1976). U.S. artist who first trained as an engineer. In Pans in the 1930s he was influenced by the work of Mondrian and Miro and broke new ground with his wire figure sculptures; these 'stabiles' gave place to C.'s new concept in sculpture, the mobile. C's mobiles, sometimes several feet from extremity to extremity, are carefully balanced constructions of metal plates, rods and wires which are activated by either air currents, mechanical means or the push of a hand. With their continually changing configurations they provide a new medium for the artist of space. C. also produced book ills and stage sets.

Caliari Paolo. *Veronese

Calligraphy. This has been classified as a fine art in China since the 4th с AD. The brush is used both for writing and painting, and the written word is a visual ideogram and not, as in the West, the equivalent of a sound by phonetic symbols. While brush-strokes in China must be life-containing and spontaneous, their execution and appreciation are bound by strict rules. Each character must distribute its ink-intensities and lines m a rectangular field of its own; it is both an abstract composition and part of the sentence's flow. The aesthetic concentration on brushstrokes has recently been taken up as a style in painting by modern Western painters, such as *Kline, Michaux anil *Tobey, under direct Japanese influence.

Callot Jacques (1592—1635). French etcher, one of the masters of this technique who made it a respectable medium in its own right. Fie spent about 10 years in Rome and Florence but from 1622 worked mainly in Nancy. He drew court figures, etc., but is most famous for Les Grandes Miseres de la Guerre (1633) illustrating the horrifying brutalities of the 30 Years War. His use of etching rather than line engraving enabled him to make extensive use of aerial perspective.

Camaino, Tino di (b Siena, c. 1280; d Naples, 1337).Italian sculptor. He led an itinerant career, working in Siena, Pisa, Florence and Naples for some of the most powerful Guelph and Ghibelline patrons of the day. The roots of his style lie in late 13th-century Siena, but during his long stay in Ghibelline Pisa it gradually grew nearer to that of Giovanni Pisano. Tino’s return to Siena and the change in his political affiliation in 1315 were accompanied by a new artistic orientation, in which he drew inspiration from painting, particularly the work of Simone Martini. This period of artistic maturity extended also to his time in Florence (1318–1323/4). He was the most important and inventive sculptor of funerary monuments in Tuscany at this time, and in this capacity he was summoned to Naples by the House of Anjou, the leaders of the Guelph party in Italy. Through his influence on local sculptors, the innovations of Tuscan Gothic sculpture were spread throughout southern Italy, and his influence there was felt long after his death. His style is characterized by powerful figures in which are united an impression of substantial volume and geometric structure with a sense of grace and a rhythmic flow of form.

Cambio, Arnolfo di. Florentine sculptor and architect Arnolfo di Cambio (1245-1302) was greatly inspired by the heroic classical style of Nicola Pisano, who he assisted as a young man. His work also shows an awareness of the French Gothic linear values. Among the many buildings in Florence attributed to him are Santa Croce and the Palazzo Vecchio. He was master mason of the new cathedral of Florence, begun in 1296.

Camden Town Group. The. Inspired by *Sickert and formed in 1911 by British painters who introduced *Post-Inipressiomsni into Britain, this group, which later merged with the London Group, included *Gore and *Gilman.
Camden Town Group. Exhibiting society of 16 British painters that flourished between 1911 and 1914. It was created from the inner core of artists who regularly attended the informal Saturday afternoon gatherings first established by Walter Sickert in 1907 in a rented studio at 19 Fitzroy Street, London. Sickert, Lucien Pissarro, Spencer Gore, Harold Gilman and Robert Bevan, together with disciples, pupils and sympathetic colleagues, met weekly to display their work to each other and to a small band of patrons while discussing the politics of art in London. Although Fitzroy Street was never intended to represent a movement or school, between 1907 and 1911 it did nurture a distinct episode in the history of British art, which is most suggestively described as Camden Town painting. The pictures tended to be small: ‘little pictures for little patrons’, to quote one of the latter, Louis Fergusson. A Sickert-inspired vocabulary of favourite themes was established: nudes on a bed or at their toilet, informal portraits of friends and coster models in shabby bed-sitter interiors, mantelpiece still-lifes of cluttered bric-a-brac, and views of commonplace London streets, squares and gardens. Every theme was treated with objective perceptual honesty. The handling developed by many of these painters, influenced above all by Lucien Pissarro, represents a late and temperate flowering in England of French Impressionism. With qualifications, interest in colour analysis and the development of a broken touch were characteristics common to the inner core of ‘Camden Town’ painters.

Camera obscura ('dark') and lucida ('light'). Devices using light to throw an image of a landscape, portrait, etc., on to paper; the artist can then copy or trace it. The с.о. (in which an inverted image is thrown through a small opening on to a surface in a darkened room) uses an optical principle which makes photography possible. The c.l. uses a prism to throw an image on to a drawing surface.

Cameron Charles (1743-1812) was a Scottish architect who introduced the Adam style into Russian architecture. Little is known about his early life in Europe, except for the fact that he studied in Italy and France. Having read his book about Roman thermae, Catherine the Great summoned him to Russia to reconstruct her summer residence in Tsarskoe Selo. In that village, he designed the so-called Cameron Gallery with the Agate Rooms, the Hanging Gardens, and the Cold Baths. In these structures, Cameron skilfully reproduced the colorful decoration of Roman public baths. Sophia Cathedral was the only notable church designed by him. For the future Emperor Paul he built an extensive residence, the Pavlovsk Palace, somewhat plain in exterior appearance but dazzlingly luxurious inside. In 1799-1803 he rebuilt the Razumovsky palace in Baturyn, Ukraine.

Camouflage [Fr. camoufler: ‘to hide or disguise’; It. camuffare: ‘to disguise or deceive’]. Term used to describe the means of disguising or hiding an object, vehicle or vessel used on combat. Throughout both World Wars the great majority of French, British, German and American artists (whether soldiers or civilians) were employed as camouflage experts. After developments in photography and in aviation, camouflage was evolved in an attempt to conceal weapons from aerial surveillance. The French were among the first to seek the help of artists in such attempts, and the first service de camouflage in military history was established on 12 February 1915, in response to a proposal by Lucien-Victor Guirand de Scevola (1871–1950), an artist in the infantry who painted disruptive patterns on the surface of the artillery to reduce its visibility. The word ‘camouflage’ was quickly accepted, as was the deployment of artists as ‘camoufleurs’, resulting in Britain in the establishment of the British Camouflage Service as part of the Royal Engineers in 1916 and in the USA as the American Camouflage Corps in 1917. The latter was partly the consequence of the enthusiasm of Abbott Handerson Thayer, co-author of Concealing Coloration in the Animal Kingdom (1909), who was an heroic example for dozens of young American artists, led by Homer Saint-Gaudens (son of Augustus Saint-Gaudens), who enlisted in the war on the understanding that they would be used as camouflage experts. During World War I, in addition to camouflaging equipment, Allied artists such as Jacques Villon, André Dunoyer de Segonzac, Jean-Louis Boussingault, Henri Bouchard, Pierre Laprade, Jean Puy, Charles Dufresne, Luc-Albert Moreau, Barry Faulkner, Louis Bouché (b 1896) and Grant Wood were typically asked to design armour-plated observation posts consisting of realistic replicas of dead tree trunks, periscopes disguised as tree branches, papier mâché listening posts in the form of hollow horse carcasses, disruptively patterned sniper suits, overhanging nets garnished with strips of osnaburg, false heads, life-size dummies, concealed foxhole covers, miles of painted canvas roads suspended above ground to conceal troop movements, and the alteration of landmarks in the hope of diverting attacks from the air.

Campbell Colen  (1676–1729) was a pioneering Scottish architect who spent most of his career in England, and is credited as a founder of the Georgian style. A descendent of the Campbells of Cawdor Castle, he initially trained as a lawyer, and then studied architecture.

Campin Robert. *Master of Flemalle. (b c. 1375–9; d Tournai, 1444). South Netherlandish painter. He is first mentioned in 1405–6 as a painter in Tournai. As he purchased citizenship there in 1410, he may have been born elsewhere. There is evidence of some connection with Valenciennes, where the name Campin is said to have been common, but nothing certain is known of his artistic training and background.
Canadian Art Club. Society of artists active in Toronto from 1907 to 1915. Among its 20 members were William Brymner, Maurice Cullen, Clarence Gagnon, James Wilson Morrice, Edmund Morris (1871–1913), A. Phimister Proctor (1860–1950), Horatio Walker, Homer Watson and Curtis Williamson (1867–1944). The Club was formed in reaction to the low standards and ‘truth to nature’ aesthetics of the Ontario Society of Artists and was modelled on Whistler’s International Society of Sculptors, Painters and Gravers. Its eight exhibitions concentrated on small, carefully hung groups of works by leading Canadian artists and attempted to establish a high standard for other artists. The Club applauded individual achievement and was nationalistic in persuading expatriates to exhibit at home but, unlike the Group of Seven, defined nationality in only the broadest terms. The artists who exhibited at the Club were influenced by the Barbizon school, the Hague school and British plein-air painting, by Whistler and the Impressionists. Their works were well received by critics, and the Club’s activities were an important catalyst for artistic and institutional change. Its major influence was that of its Quebec Impressionist members on the emerging Group of Seven. After the death of Morris in 1913, however, and with the distractions of World War I, the Club disbanded; personalities clashed, finances were shaky and the membership was too dispersed to sustain the enthusiasm to keep it alive.

Canaletto Bellotto Bernardo. *Bellotto Bernardo

Canaletto. Name adopted by Giovanni Antonio Canal(e) (1697-1768), Italian painter of the Venetian school. Trained by his father and by Pannini in Rome, C. became the painter of Venice, its canals, the Rialto, the Riva del Schiavoni, the Salute. His pictures were sold to tourists, including Englishmen on the Grand Tour, with whom he became so popular that he placed most of his business through Joseph Smith, later British consul in Venice. In 1746 C. was in London, and for the next 10 or so years he painted English scenes, but he appears to have been less in demand when he came to this market than he was in Venice. C. gives his studies of buildings, sky and water a shimmering effect and the rapid, stylized drawings of small figures in landscapes and town scenes were to influence artists and illustrators in every part of Europe to the present day. The Royal Colls contain much of his best work, both of the Venetian and the English period.

Canas Benjamin. Neo-Figurative Art. Benjamin Canas was born in El Salvador, 1933. He died in Arlington, Virginia, 1987.

Cano Alonso (1601—67). Spanish court painter, architect and sculptor called, on account of his versatility, the 'Michelangelo of Spain'. Like Velazquez he studied under *Pacheco. He painted portraits and religious subjects in soft golden brownish tones but often with hard contours. There is an excellent portrait of C. by Velazquez.

Canova Antonio (1757—1822). Italian sculptor, the most celebrated exponent of Neoclassicism in sculpture. In Rome he executed monuments of Popes Clement XIII (1787-92; St Peter's) and Clement XIV (1782-7; SS Apostoli) and in Vienna the tomb of the Archduchess Maria Christina (completed 1805). Other work included Pauline Bonaparte Borghese as Venus (1807) and the charming Amor and Psyche (1793); C. also executed 2 huge nudes of the Emperor Napoleon, one of which was captured by Wellington.

Cappiello Leonetto. (b. 1875 in Livorno, Italy; d. 1942 in Cannes, France) was an Italian poster art designer who lived in Paris. He is now often called 'the father of modern advertising' because of his innovation in poster design. The early advertising poster was characterized by a painterly quality as evidenced by early poster artists Jules Chéret, Alfred Choubrac and Hugo D'Alesi. Cappiello, like other young artists, worked in way that was almost the opposite of his predecessors. He was the first poster artist to use bold figures popping out of black backgrounds, a startling contrast to the posters early norm.Cappiello had no formal training in art. The first exhibition of his work was in 1892, when a painting was displayed at the municipal museum in Florence.Cappiello started his career as a caricaturist illustrating in journals like Le Rire, Le Cri de Paris, Le Sourire, L'Assiette au Beurre, La Baionnette, Femina, and others. His first album of caricatures, "Lanterna Magica," was made in 1896. In 1898, he moved to Paris, and his caricatures were published in Le Rire for the first time.Cappiello made his name during the poster boom period in the early 20th century, with designs markedly different from premier poster artist (ref. "Cappiello, the posters of Leonetto Cappiello by Jack Rennert ISBN 0-9664202-7-6) Jules Chéret. His first poster, for the newspaper Frou-Frou, was made in 1899. He signed first contract for posters with printer P. Vercasson in 1900. He was married to Suzanne Meyer Cappiello in 1901. Between 1901 and 1914, he created several hundred posters in a style that revolutionized the art of poster design.Cappiello redesigned the fin-de-siècle pictures into images more relevant to the faster pace of the 20th century. During this period, Capiello continued as a caricaturist. During World War I, Cappiello worked as an interpreter in Italy. Afterwards, he devoted his career fully to poster design. In 1919, he signed a contract with publisher Devambez.and he remained with the agency until 1936. Over the course of his career Cappiello produced more than 530 advertising posters (ref "Cappiello. the posters of Leonetto Cappiello by Jack Rennert) which surprise and delight the viewer. Today, his original posters are still collected, sold at auction and by dealers around the world.

Caracciolo Battistello (Caracciolo Giovanni Battista) called 'Battistello' (1578-1635). Neapolitan painter whose Caravaggesque style strongly influenced I7th-c. Neapolitan painting.

Caravaggio. The name taken from his birthplace by Michelangelo Merisi or Amerighi (1571 —1610), an Italian painter. He was trained in Milan by an undistinguished Mannerist. By 1593 he was in Rome working for other painters, very poor and already appearing in police records as a bravo. In about 1596 his fortunes changed dramatically. Some of his paintings were bought by the influential Cardinal del Monte and he was commissioned to paint a series of large religious paintings for the Contarelh chapel, S. Luigi de' Francesi. Previous to this C. has painted some of the 1st true still—lifes, notably The Basket of Fruit, a series of paintings of a model as 'Bacchus', The Musical Party and a masterly double half-portrait of a man and woman entitled The Fortune Teller, which obviously owes something to Giorgione in subject and composition, though the lighting and feeling reveal a quite new and original talent.
For the Contarelh chapel C. painted an altarpiece, Si Matthew and an Angel, and 2 large canvases for the side walls, The Calling of St Matthew and The Martyrdom of Si Matthew. These pictures caused a sensation. The 'St Matthew' (original destroyed 1945) of the altarpiece was considered vulgar and sacrilegious by the clergy and C. painted the 2nd version, still in the church. Other major works of the period are The Conversion of St Paul, 'The Martyrdom of St Paul for S. Maria del Popolo, The Supper at F.mniaus, The Death of the Virgin and The Deposition of Christ. At the height of his success C. killed a companion in a brawl and had to flee Rome. The last years of his life consisted of short periods of asylum, spent painting, at Naples, in Malta and Sicily. Each period ended in a brawl and renewed flight. Wounded in Palermo he reached Porto Ercole where he died. Although recent scholarship has modified C.'s reputation as a revolutionary, he remains one of the true innovators. He declared early in his career that he had rejected the Renaissance search for the ideal and would study no teacher but nature. His method of painting directly from the model and Ins choice of models from low life, presented just as they were even in his large religious works, were both complete breaks with tradition. However, to consider him a realist before his time is to miss his other innovation: a heightening of dramatic effect by the use of lighting that was always contrived and often highly artificial showing his emphatic sense of chiaroscuro. Attacked by many, his works were protected by powerful patrons during his life and after his death. The imitation of his work inspired a school of painting in Spain, the Carai'aggisti, and led to the art of Velazquez. In N. Europe he had even more followers; the most directly affected were De *La Tour in France and *Honthorst in Holland and Rembrandt learned much from him.

Caricature. The representation of a person's characteristic features or attitudes in an exaggerated manner so as to produce a ludicrous effect; in frequent use as an instrument of social and political satire. The grotesque figures found in medieval sculpture and the physiognomical studies of Leonardo da Vinci are among the predecessors of the c, which was developed as we know it by the Carracci; the word 'c' first appears in Italian writings of the 17th c. Apart from its use in the Press of the 19th (e.g. Gillray) and 20th cs, its exponents have included Daumier, Goya, Grosz and Hogarth.

Carlevaris Luca (1665—1731). Italian painter and etcher who lived in Venice from 1679 and painted scenes of the city for foreign visitors. In this he was a precursor of Canaletto and Guardi, though he maintained a greater interest in figure groups.

Carlone Carlo Innocenzo (1686-1775), was in great demand in Italy. The Carlone workshop painted series of frescos in the cathedrals of Asti and Monza, in palaces in Brescia, Bergamo, and Como, as well as in churches and palaces across Austria. Germany, Poland, and Switzerland. Most notable were the decorations in Augustus Castle in Brtihl, Ludwigsburg Castle, and the Belvedere in Vienna, where the frescos comprised enchanting mythological scenes and allegories celebrating the life of Prince Eugene. Carlones style was very explicitly Rococo, both in his drawing technique, brimming with vivacity, and also in his use of subtle pastel hues, without the strong effects of chiaroscuro. Carlone produced many easel paintings, which were also executed in a similar style; he had considerable influence on Austrian and German painters, who usually sought inspiration from the Venetian masters, as did Carlone himself.

Carolingian Renaissance. Name given to the revival of scholarship and the arts under the Frankish emperor, Charlemagne (d. 814). The revival of education, promoted by the founding of schools throughout the empire, sprang from the return to Latin literature and scholarship directed at Charlemagne's court at Aachen by the Anglo-Saxon scholar, Alcuin. A major achievement of the C. R. was the copying of classical mss and the development of the strongly formed and clear minuscule script. In architecture the C. R. marked the return, in Europe, to large-scale building; works such as the cathedral at Aachen led to the development of the *Romanesque style.

Carolsfeld, Julius Schnorr von (b Leipzig, 26 March 1794; d Dresden, 24 May 1872). Painter and draughtsman, brother of Ludwig Ferdinand Schnorr von Carolsfeld. He was taught engraving by his father and then trained under Heinrich Füger at the Akademie in Vienna (1811–15). Though not particularly excited by the curriculum, he was inspired by his friendship with Ferdinand Olivier and Joseph Anton Koch and the circle around A. W. Schlegel to an interest in both landscape sketching (examples of pen-and-ink drawings from this period in the Albertina, Vienna) and in old German and Netherlandish art, as reflected in the style of the detailed pen drawing of the Prodigal Son (1816; Dresden, Kupferstichkab.). From 1815 to 1818 he lived in the house of Ferdinand Olivier, whose step-daughter, Marie Heller, he later married. A painting of 1817, St Roch Distributing Alms (Leipzig, Mus. Bild. Kst.), is an excellent record of this period, as it contains portraits of Ferdinand Olivier and Marie Heller, and a landscape background similar to that sketched by Schnorr von Carolsfeld with Ferdinand and Friedrich Olivier around Salzburg.

Caron Antoine (b Beauvais, 1521; d Paris, 1599). French painter and draughtsman. He started his career modestly in his native city, then a relatively important artistic centre, where he painted some religious pictures (e.g. the Resurrection; Beauvais, Mus. Dept. Oise) and designed cartoons for stained-glass windows; both demonstrate his innate taste for decorative work. Caron was later active in the workshops at Fontainebleau, and his name appears in the royal accounts of Henry II between 1540 and 1550. He later became court painter to Catherine de’ Medici, the Queen Regent (1560–63). Besides Jean Cousin the younger, he was the only French artist from this period with a recognizable artistic personality and was an important witness to the activities of the Valois court during the reigns of Charles IX (reg 1560–74) and Henry III (reg 1574–89) and the violent Wars of Religion (1562–98) between Catholics and Huguenots. Like his royal patrons, Caron was an ardent Roman Catholic; he was connected with the Catholic League and a friend of its poet and pamphleteer, Louis d’Orléans.

Carpaccio Vittore (c. 1460—с 1525). Italian painter of the Venetian school, trained in the style of the Vivarini and the Bellini. C.'s best-known work is the cycle of paintings The Legend of St Ursula. A story-teller of great imagination, C. related the incidents of the legend against the background of an idealized version of the Venice he knew. Thus the enchanting Dream of St Ursula shows the bedroom of a Venetian noblewoman. Similarly in The Vision of St Augustine the artist depicts the grandiose study of some Renaissance scholar-churchman. C. has always been a popular painter and there has been considerable critical interest in his work in recent years. His range of subjects and feeling is shown by such works as Two Venetian Ladies, the St Ceorge cycle of paintings, Preparations for the Entombment of Christ, The Presentation of Christ in the Temple, Meditation on the Passion of Christ.

Carra Carlo (1881-1966). Leading Italian *Futurist painter who signed the Manifesto of futurist Painters (1910). After World War I he followed De *Chirico's 'metaphysical' style. From 1921 he produced peaceful, more naturalistic work influenced by Giotto.

Carracci. 3 Italian artists from Bologna: Lodovico and his cousins, the brothers Agostino and Annibale, who was the major artist of the 3. In 1585 the C. founded an academy in Bologna to teach painting and to revive the canons of classical art as it was then understood. All 3 of the C. painted in Bologna. In 1595 Annibale (1560-1609) was summoned to Rome to paint the decorations of the Palazzo Farnese. His most accomplished work is the Gallena Farnese of the Palace. This ambitious fresco cycle of subjects taken from classical mythology, such as The 'Triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne, at once established Annibale's fame. The frescoes were compared with those of Raphael and Michelangelo in the Vatican. In the Galleria Farnese, and in small works such as the delightful Flight into Egypt, Annibale created the ideal classical landscape, chosen by many later artists, including N. Poussin. Other important paintings by Annibale are Domine, Quo Vadis? and the unusual composition Butcher's Shop. Agostino (1557-1602) assisted his brother at the Palazzo Farnese. His chief work is The Last Communion of St Jerome. He was an important art theorist and a notable engraver. Lodovico (1555-1619) continued the Academy when his cousins left for Rome. His own paintings are chiefly large altarpieces, e.g. The Madonna of the Bargelliui. Domenichino and Guido Rein were among the many pupils of the C.

Carracci Agostino (b Bologna, 15 Aug 1557; d Parma, 22 March 1602). Painter, engraver and draughtsman, cousin of Ludovico Carracci. He abandoned his profession as a tailor, which was also that of his father, Antonio, and began training as a painter. According to Faberi, he studied first in the workshop of the painter Prospero Fontana (like Ludovico), then trained under the engraver and architect Domenico Tibaldi and under the sculptor Alessandro Menganti (1531–c. 1594). However, it is likely that Faberi’s account was influenced by his desire to present Agostino’s career as an example of the versatile ‘cursus studiorum’ advocated by the Accademia degli Incamminati. Other sources (Mancini, Malvasia, Bellori) agree that it was his cousin Ludovico who was responsible for directing him towards painting. Only recently has it been assumed that he was a pupil of Bartolomeo Passarotti. 

Carracci Annibale (b Bologna, bapt 3 Nov 1560; d Rome, 15 July 1609). Painter, draughtsman and printmaker, brother of Agostino Carracci. Since his lifetime, he has been considered one of the greatest Italian painters of his age. His masterpiece, the ceiling (1597–1601) of the Galleria Farnese, Rome, merges a vibrant naturalism with the formal language of classicism in a grand and monumental style. Annibale was also instrumental in evolving the ‘ideal’, classical landscape and is generally credited with the invention of CARICATURE.

Carracci Ludovico (b Bologna, bapt 19 April 1555; d Bologna, 13 or 14 Nov 1619). Painter, draughtsman and etcher. His father, Vincenzo Carracci, was a butcher, whose profession may be alluded to in Ludovico’s nickname ‘il Bue’ (It.: ‘the Ox’), though this might also be a reference to the artist’s own slowness. Ludovico’s style was less classical than that of his younger cousins Agostino and Annibale, perhaps because of a mystical turn of mind that gave his figures a sense of other-worldliness. Like his cousins, he espoused the direct study of nature, especially through figure drawing, and was inspired by the paintings of Correggio and the Venetians. However, there survives in his work, more than in that of his cousins, a residue of the Mannerist style that had dominated Bolognese painting for most of the mid-16th century. Ludovico maintained a balance between this Mannerist matrix, his innate religious piety and the naturalism of the work of his cousins. With the exception of some travels during his training and a brief visit to Rome in 1602, Ludovico’s career was spent almost entirely in Bologna. In the first two decades of the 17th century he lost touch with the activities of his more up-to-date Bolognese compatriots—contemporaries and pupils alike—who were then active in Rome, including his cousin Annibale. Ludovico’s later work became overblown and eccentric. This curious ‘gigantism’ was first evidenced in paintings of the late 1590s, but the tendency seems to have been reinforced by the monumental classicism of Annibale’s ceiling of the Galleria Farnese in the Palazzo Farnese, Rome, which Ludovico saw on his visit in 1602. In spite of his isolation in Bologna, Ludovico strongly influenced the subsequent development of painting in his native city and elsewhere, especially through his pupils, who included Guido Reni, Giacomo Cavedone, Francesco Albani, Domenichino and Alessandro Algardi.

Carreno de Miranda Juan (1614-85). Spanish painter who worked in the style of Rubens and Velazquez. He painted frescoes in the cathedral of Toledo, mythological subjects and portraits. In 1669 he became court painter to Charles II.

Carriera Rosalba (1675-1757). Venetian pastellist, sister-in-law of G. A. Pellegrini; one of the first to work in pastel. She achieved European popularity as a portraitist. In Pans during 1720—1 she introduced pastel technique, revealed its possibilities to M.-Q. de Latour and kept an interesting journal of her visit, Diario ... (1865).

Carriere Eugene (1849-1906). French painter of romantic portraits and pictures of motherhood.

Carrington Leonora (1917- ). British painter and writer living and working in Mexico and the U.S.A. In the 1930s and early '40s she was closely associated with the *Surrealists. In 1942 she settled in Mexico and came into contact with a lively group of artists including *Varo, with whom she could identify. Her work of the late '30s is on themes of childhood, with magical elements, e.g. Self-Portrait (c. 1938), Celtic mythology, e.g. The House Opposite (c. 1947) and alchemical transformations, e.g. Again the Gemini Are in the Orchard (1947). Her narrative paintings of figures and animals, often in outdoor scenes, are hermetic allegories created in Early Renaissance technique and manner, although they are constructed in a highly personal style. Her books include the autobiographical Down Below, The House of Hear — Noles from Down Below and The Seventh Horse and other Tales.


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