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Cabanel-Carrington Carrucci-Chia Chicago-Copley Coptic-Czech

Chicago Judy (1939— ). U.S. controversial feminist artist (organizer of the 1st Feminist Art Program in the U.S.A. in 1970). Her most famous work is the installation, The Dinner Party (1974—9), 'a symbolic history of women's achievements and struggles', executed by about 400 women working as ceramicists, needle-workers, china painters, etc. It represents 39 successful women with place settings at the triangular-shaped table, with ceramic plates on an embroidered runner, set on a porcelain floor of triangles painted in gold with the names of 999 'supporting' women. In 1980—5 she created The Birth Project, consisting of 100 pieces and 85 exhibition units, using various needlework techniques. C. and her husband have been working on a complex project on the Holocaust since 1987.

Chinese art. Carvings and ritual bronze figures and vessels survive from the Shang, Chou and ('bin dynasties (c 1500—206 BC). The 1st great flowering of C. a. was during the *Han dynasty (206BC-AD 220). Chinese Buddhist art achieved an individual classic style under the *Six Dynasties (3rd-6th cs). The Six Principles of the 6th-c. Hsieh Ho laid the foundations of all C. a. By the principle of ch'i yun (vital spirit), the artist must be in consonance with the cosmic spirit. Hsieh Ho then deals with the brush-stroke, basic to all Chinese painterly techniques; fidelity to reality, colour; design; and the duty to copy and so perpetuate ancient models. Under the *T'ang dynasty Buddhist painting and sculpture reached a peak; the scholar-painter (*wen-jen) Wang Wei, a southern T'ang painter, worked in monochrome landscape painting. The classical style of the *Sung dynasty (960—1279) continued its brilliant evolution under Yuan. *Ming art tended to be backward looking. *Tung Ch'i-ch'ang enunciated his theory of the two schools of landscape painting: the 'northern' (i.e. courtly academic, *T'ang) and the 'southern' (i.e. scholarly). The latter, supposedly originating with Wang Wei, was superior since it expressed the individual cultured man's understanding of universal moral law revealed m nature. The *Ch'ing period (1644—1912) produced much fine minor work. The classical landscape style, in ink and colour on silk, was much influenced by *calligraphy and verses were often incorporated m the design. Bamboo painting was considered a virtuoso vehicle for the calligraphic brush-stroke.

Ch'ing. The Manchu dynasty of China (1644-1912). Some court artists, traditionally the academics of *Chinese art, studied European techniques of shading and perspective. In reaction scholar-painters (*wen-jen), e.g. the I7th-c. 'Four Wangs', turned to a delicate but strict academicism. The 'Early C. Individualists' e.g. Chu Та (1625— с. 1705), K'un ts'an (c. 1610-c 1670) and Shih-t'ao (1641-c 1717), among the most original figures in Chinese art, aimed at a truly Chinese nonacadennc style. Other groups were the 'Eight Masters of Nanking' and the 18th-c. 'Eccentrics of Yang-chou'. The reigns of the emperors K'ang Hsi (1662-1722) and Ch'ien Lung (T736-95) were remarkable for the high technical achievement and the last decadent flourish of traditional Chinese porcelain, lacquer furniture and the minor arts, including a revived use of jade for highly ornamented and intricately carved cups, brush-pots, snuff-bottles and the like. During this period Chinese exports of porcelain and furniture flooded into Europe.

Chinoiserie. European imitation of Chinese, or sometimes nondescript oriental forms and designs. It was popular throughout Europe from about 1670, but is associated especially with the Rococo movement. The motifs were applied to architecture, room decoration, both pictorial and sculptural, porcelain (itself a direct imitation of the Chinese), silver and furniture.

Chirico Giorgio de (1888—1974). Italian painter born in Greece where he studied painting in Athens. *Bocklm and *Klinger influenced him during studies in Munich, and 15th-c. painting during a stay in Italy. C. worked in Paris (1911 — 15) and came into close contact with the avant-garde movement and the poet *Apollinaire. Fie was then painting, in what he later called his *metapliysical' style, pictures of strange pseudo-classical buildings, shown in exaggerated perspective framing empty squares and dreamy sculpture. This dream-like quality was increased by the juxtaposition of unexpected objects m an incongruous setting painted with calm objectivity. His 2nd *'Surrealist' phase was characterized by mannequins, mechanical drawing instruments and strange haunted interiors. The work of this period is considered among the highest points of pictorial modernism. From 1929 his work took an entirely new turn, developing into a mannered naturalism and after 1933 he openly repudiated the modern movement.

Choki Eishosai (1789-1795) Japan Artist

Chola. S.E. Indian dynasty (r. 850-1267 AD). It conquered Bengal (1023) and established colonies in Sumatra. Early C. sculpture shows *Pallava influence; the Rajarajeshvara temple (r. 1000) at the C. capital of Tanjore, Tamilnadu, and the Shiva temple at Gangaikondachola-puram, near Kumbakonam, Tamilnadu (c. 1025) carry stone sculpture in the classical C. style. Magnificent *cire perdue bronzes include the famous Shiva Nataraja ('Lord of the Dance').

Christo full name Christo Javacheff (1935- ). U.S. artist born in Bulgaria who made his mark by wrapping public buildings and landscapes. Wrapped ("oast, Little Bay, Australia (1969) draped 1 million sq. ft (9300 sq. m.) of coastline in plastic sheeting. Running Fence, completed in 1976 in California, was described by C. as '40 kilometres of diaphanous white fabric running over the hills, emerging from the sea and disappearing into the sea again." In his extraordinary homage to Monet, Surrounded Islands, Biscayne Bay, C,reater Miami, Florida (1980—3), 6 million sq. ft (560,000 sq. m.) of pink and shiny polypropylene fabric was used around 11 small islands, transforming them into waterhlies. The work was seen for 2 weeks in May 1983. The Umbrellas, Japan—USA (1984—91) literally linked the two countries by the simultaneous erection of an enormous number of blue and yellow umbrellas. All C.'s installations are time-based and site-specific and are planned over several years. The documentation of the complex preparatory planning stages, of fund raising and of political, environmental and bureaucratic procedures with the drawings and collages, etc. are all that remains of these temporarily installed works which after their brief realization are subsequently only memories.

Christus Petrus (r. 1400—72?). Early Netherlands painter. He was made a master at Bruges in 1444. He may have been a pupil or assistant of Jan van Eyck, and all his pictures have been confused with the greater master's at some time. It is still not clear whether C. visited Italy and was thus responsible for transmitting the style and technical achievements of the best northern painting to Antonello da Messina and other Italian painters. The delightful Portrait of a Lady by С is a major work of the Netherlands school.

Church Frederic Edwin  (1826-1900). U.S. landscape painter in the Romantic tradition of the *Hudson River school; a pupil of T. Cole.

CIAM [Congrès Internationaux d’Architecture Moderne]. International organization of modern architects founded in June 1928 at the chateau of La Sarraz, Switzerland. It was instigated by Hélène de Mandrot (who had offered her château as a venue for a meeting of architects interested in discussing developments in modern architecture), Le Corbusier and Sigfried Giedion. Its foundation was stimulated by the campaign in defence of Le Corbusier’s unexecuted competition entry (1927) for the League of Nations Building, Geneva, as well as the success of the Weissenhofsiedlung (1927) in Stuttgart—a permanent, model exhibition of social housing in which several noted European Modernists had participated . The creation of CIAM established the MODERN MOVEMENT in architecture as an organized body, with a manifesto, statutes, a committee and an address in Zurich: that of Giedion, who became its first secretary-general. Karl Moser was its first president, followed by Cornelis van Eesteren (1930–47) and Josep Lluís Sert (1947–56).

Cimabue (c. 1240-1302?). Florentine painter. C.'s reputation as the 1st artist of the Italian Renaissance rests upon his mention by Dante in a famous passage, which, literally trs., states that 'C. believed he held the field in painting, but now the cry goes out for Giotto so that the fame of the former is obscured.' Tradition may be right in calling C. the teacher of Giotto. He was also believed by Vasari and others to be the painter of the Rucellai Madonna now given by most authorities to Duccio. However, in spite of difficulties of attribution which may never be resolved, it seems certain that C, or another Tuscan artist, was responsible for the allimportant break with the rigid conventions of painting in Byzantine art, giving greater scope to the natural, as opposed to the conventional ami stylized form, and in choosing from a far wider range of subjects. О is known to have been in Rome in 1272 and is documented to have been working on the mosaic figure of St John in the apse of Pisa cathedral in 1302. No attributions except for the St John are certain, but C. was probably the painter of the very damaged frescoes in the choir of the upper church and ot the Madonna Enthroned with Four Angels and St Francis in the lower church at Assisi. The superb Crucifix, a second Crucifix, the large Madonna and Child Unthroned and a few other works are given to C. on the grounds of style and the authority of tradition which dates back almost to his own lifetime.

Cima da Conegliano Giovanni Battista (1459/60—1517/18). Venetian painter strongly influenced by Giovanni Bellini. His many works include a Virgin and Child.

Circle of Artists [Rus. Krug Khudozhnikov]. Russian group of painters and sculptors, active from 1926 to 1932. It was founded in 1926 by graduates in painting from the Higher (State) Artistic and Technical Institute (Vkhutein) in Leningrad (now St Petersburg); most of them had been students of Aleksey Karev (1879–1942), Kuz’ma Petrov-Vodkin and Aleksandr Savinov (1881–1942). The group’s goal, similar to that of the SOCIETY OF EASEL PAINTERS and the FOUR ARTS SOCIETY OF ARTISTS, was to promote the professional role of painters and sculptors and to play an intermediary role between conservative artists and those who were avant-garde extremists. Seeking a modern art that actively drew on the painterly achievements of the past and yet was an expression of contemporary life, the group declared its rejection of literary content and ‘agitprop’ intention. Instead, it concentrated on easel painting and sculpture in the round while at the same time encouraging formal experimentation.

Cire perdue (Fr. lost wax). A very ancient technique of casting in bronze. The sculptor first makes a plaster core, roughly the shape of the finished work and pierced with iron rods; on this lie models, in wax, the details of the sculpture. Next the wax surface is coated with a liquid clay which is left to harden. There is now an outer mould (pierced with vents) and an inner core, held together by rods and 'sandwiching1 the thin wax 'outline' of the projected work. The wax is melted and molten bronze poured in its place. Mould and core are removed. The method was used in ancient Greece and Rome and revived in the Renaissance: it was also used by the *Benm sculptors.

CIRPAC [Comité International pour la Résolution des Problèmes de l’Architecture Contemporaine]. Elected executive organ of CIAM (Congrès Internationaux d’Architecture Moderne), which was founded in 1928 at La Sarraz, Switzerland, on the initiative and leadership of Le Corbusier and Sigfried Giedion to coordinate the international forces of modern architecture. CIRPAC was formally constituted as the executive organ by statutes adopted at CIAM II (1929), held in Frankfurt am Main. The congress of CIAM members elected their delegates and their deputies by a two-thirds majority; these delegates then became members of CIRPAC. The election was held with a view to providing representation for each national CIAM group on the executive board. The President and Deputy President of CIAM (and concurrently of CIRPAC) were also elected by the congress with a two-thirds majority. The President could select a Secretary. The mandate was carried over from one congress to another, and the officers could be re-elected. CIRPAC was involved in the organization of congresses; its President determined the time and place of the next convention, and it operated an office during congresses and executed the resolutions passed at them. Every national group could delegate a further member with an advisory status only to meetings of CIRPAC, and more members could be drafted into work in progress on the suggestion of the President. In practice it fell to the members of CIRPAC to organize and administer the CIAM group of their country while keeping in contact with the leaders of CIAM. It was the task of CIRPAC members to publicize the aims of CIAM in their own countries by organizing exhibitions and drawing on the press; they were also required to recruit new supporters, to carry through the resolutions passed by previous congresses and to prepare subsequent ones. CIRPAC organized ten congresses between 1929 and 1959, when CIAM was formally disbanded.

Ciurlionis Mikolajus (1875—1911). Lithuanian composer and later painter of quasi-abstract works given musical titles, e.g. Sonata of the Stars. From 1906 until his death he worked in St Petersburg where he exhibited with The * World of Art group.

Claeys Jean Claude. Provocative art.

Claesz Pieter (1597/S 1661). Dutch still-life painter. From a few commonplace objects standing on part of a sideboard or table he created an uncommon, almost mystical harmony between each of these objects and a plain background. He used brownish tones occasionally enlivened by a brighter colour.

Clairin Georges (b Paris, 11 Sept 1843; d Belle-Ile-en-Mer, Morbihan, 2 Sept 1919). French painter. In 1861 he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he studied with François Picot and Isidore Pils. He sent the first of many contributions to the Salon in 1866, an Episode of a Conscript of 1813 (untraced). By 1868 he had joined the painter Henri Regnault in a visit to Spain, where he was evidently impressed by Moorish architecture and influenced by the Spanish Orientalist painter Mariano Fortuny y Marsal; Clairin’s Volunteers of Liberty: Episode from the Spanish Revolution (untraced) was exhibited at the Salon of 1869. From Spain, Clairin and Regnault travelled to Tangier, where Clairin made a close study of local costume and constructed a house and studio in partnership with Regnault.

Claudel Camille (born Dec. 8, 1864, Villeneuve-sur-Fиre, Fr. died Oct. 19, 1943, Montdevergues asylum, Montfavet). French sculptor of whose work little remains and who for many years was best known as the mistress and muse of Auguste Rodin. She was also the sister of Paul Claudel, whose journals and memoirs provide much of the scant information available on his sister's life.Between the ages of about 5 and 12, Camille Claudel was taught by the Sisters of Christian Doctrine. When the family moved to Nogent-sur-Seine, the educationof the Claudel children was continued by atutor. Camille had little formal education from that point on, but she read widely in her father's well-stocked library. By her teenage years she was already a remarkably gifted sculptor, and her abilities were recognized by other artists of the time. When in 1881 her father was once again transferred, he moved his family to Paris. There Camille entered the Colarossi Academy (now the Grande Chaumiиre) and met a lifelong friend, Jessie Lipscomb (later Elborne). Her first extant works are from this period.
Claudel and Rodin probably first met in 1883. Shortly thereafter she became his student, collaborator, model, and mistress. While continuing to work on her own pieces, she is believed to have contributed whole figures and parts of figures to Rodin's projects of that period, particularly to The Gates of Hell. She continued to live at home until 1888, when she moved to her own quarters near Rodin's studio at La Folie Neubourg. By 1892 her relationship with Rodin had begun to crumble, and by 1893 she was both living and working alone, though she continued to communicate with him until 1898. From this point on she worked ceaselessly, impoverished and increasingly reclusive. She continued to exhibit at recognized salons (the Salon d'Automne, the Salondes Indйpendents) and at the Bing and Eugиne Blot galleries, though just as often she would utterly destroy every piece ofwork in her studio. She became obsessed with Rodin's injustice to her and began to feel persecuted by him and his “gang.” Alienated from most human society, living at a great distance from Paul—the one family member close to her—her condition overwhelmed her. On March 10, 1913, she was committed by force to an asylum at Ville-Ivrard. In September 1914 she was transferred to the asylum of Montdevergues, where she remained until her death.

Claude Lorrain originally named Claude Gellee (1600-82). French landscape painter and draughtsman. Little is known about his personal life. He went to Rome as a youth, and is thought to have earned his living as a pastrycook before returning to Paris in 1625. He lived m Rome from 1627, devoted to his work and famous for his picturesque landscape compositions. To prevent forgeries he recorded his paintings in a portfolio of drawings, the Liber V'eritatis, in the coll. of the Duke of Devonshire since c. 1770, publ. in mezzotint in 1777. C. was a passionate observer of light and atmospheric changes, and he made numerous line and brush drawings of dawn and dusk, working out or doors. Many ot these studies are now in the Print Room of the 13.M., London. Compared with the landscapes of N. *Foussin, his contemporary, G.'s work is more sensual and atmospheric and his drawings retain the spontaneity of an impression. He painted many large compositions — biblical, mythological, religious and pastoral subjects, views of Rome and sea views which have made him famous and influential. C. was a stimulus and inspiration to the great landscape painters of the 17th—19th cs, Hubert Robert, Watteau, Wilson and Turner, who painted his Dido Building Carthage in emulation of C.

Clemente  Francesco (1952— ). Italian figurative, *Neo-Expressionist artist who, along with *Chia, *Kiefer, *Schnabel, etc. came to prominence in the late 1970s.

Cleve Joos van. *Joos van Cleve

Cliche-verre. Type of print invented by Corot, combining photographic and graphic techniques. A design was scratched on a sheet of glass which had been covered with black paint or albumen and made opaque through exposure to the sun; this was then used as a
negative and printed on sensitized paper. The technique was also used by Daubigny, Delacroix, Millet and Rousseau.

Clodion Claude Michel
called (1738—1814). French sculptor, in Rome (1762—71). He produced many statuettes of pastoral figures but his sensual manner fell out of favour in the period following the Revolution; he then turned to monumental sculpture.

Cloisonnism (derived from cloisonne). Technique used by the French Symbolist painters, notably *Gauguin. It is characterized by flat colour areas and heavy outlines. *Bernard claimed to have been its originator, though this was denied by Gauguin.

Close Chuck (1940— ). U.S. artist of portraits — heads from photographs — sometimes associated with *Pop art and a pioneer of *Photo Realism, but also related to *Minimalist aesthetics through the use of grid points.

Clouet Francois (c. 1510—72). French court portrait painter, miniaturist and draughtsman, son of Jean С. His work, e.g. portrait of the apothecary Pierre Zuthe (1562) shows Florentine influence. His drawings were more meticulous and his paintings more brilliant and
more elaborate than his father's and he acquired a great contemporary reputation.

Clouet Jean (c. 1485-1540/41). Flemish portrait painter, miniaturist and draughtsman; father of Francois C. He worked at the court of Francis I of France. His paintings show earlier Flemish influence but his drawings in black or red chalk have the solid modelling of form typical of the Italian Renaissance.

COBRA. An international art group (founded 1948) named from the 1st letters of the cities Copenhagen, Brussels and Amsterdam. The best-known participants were *Alechinsky, *Appel and *Jom, who aimed to revive *Expressionism. The group was coordinated by Christian Dotremont and was dissolved in 1951. It held an exhibition at the Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, in 1949; animals and insect life treated in a free abstract style showed the artists' admiration for pre-historic, primitive and unsophisticated art.

International group of artists founded in the Café Notre-Dame, Paris, on 8 November 1948 and active until 1951. The name was a conflation of the initial letters of the names of the capital cities of the countries of origin of the first members of the group: Copenhagen, Brussels and Amsterdam. The initiators and spokesmen of the group were Asger Jorn, Christian Dotremont and Constant. All were searching, by way of experimental methods, for new paths of creative expression, and all shared similar expectations of the years following World War II: a new society and a new art. Inspired by Marxism, they saw themselves as a ‘red Internationale of artists’ that would lead to a new people’s art. They rejected Western culture and its aesthetics. They also emphatically repudiated Surrealism, as defined by André Breton, although they had found useful points of departure within the movement. Their working method was based on spontaneity and experiment, and they drew their inspiration in particular from children’s drawings, from primitive art forms and from the work of Paul Klee and Joan Miro.

Coello Alonso Sanchez
(1531/2-88). Spanish court portrait painter, pupil of *Mor. His figures are stiff and melancholy but elaborate details of dress are given meticulous care, e.g. Portrait of a Young Man.

Coello Claudio (1642—93). Late Baroque Spanish painter, influenced by J. de Carreno and the last important representative of the Madrid school. Of his huge decorative works his masterpiece is La sagrada forum (1685—90), a religious and historical picture with portraits of Charles II and his court, composed to give the illusion of being a continuation of the sacristy.

Colantonio. Colantonio Niccolo (Antonio). (b ?Naples, c. ?1420; d Naples, after 1460). Italian painter. A certain ‘Cola de Neapoli’ is documented in Rome in 1444, but he cannot be definitely identifed with Colantonio. The main source for the reconstruction of Colantonio’s activity is Pietro Summonte’s letter of 1524 to the Venetian Marcantonio Michiel on the history of the arts in the Kingdom of Naples. Despite the small number of undisputed works, scholars unanimously assign to Colantonio a primary role in the history of Neapolitan painting in the period of Aragonese rule between 1440 and 1470. In those years Naples was the capital of a vast realm and a centre of culture and art where many international styles came together.

Cold art [Ger. Kalte Kunst]. Term used primarily in reference to a branch of Constructivism based on geometric forms of unmodulated colour, organized by simple mathematical formulae in such a way that the end result clearly bears this mathematical imprint, especially as found in the work of Swiss artists such as the painter Karl Gerstner (b 1930) and Richard Paul Lohse. Although the label is sometimes applied to other types of art structured on mathematical principles, such as Op art and Kinetic art, in its stricter sense it relates more closely to the ideas propounded by Max Bill within the context of CONCRETE ART. In his essay ‘The Mathematical Approach in Contemporary Art’, he wrote of mathematical problems as ‘the projection of latent forces...which we are unconsciously at grips with every day of our lives; in fact that music of the spheres which underlies each man-made system and every law of nature it is within our power to discern. Hence all such visionary elements help to furnish art with a fresh content.’ As early as his series of lithographs, 15 Variations on a Single Theme (Paris, 1938;, Bill subjected basic geometric shapes to variations through the application of simple rules.

Cole Thomas (1801-48). British-born U.S. landscape painter, a founder of the *Hudson River school. С considered his allegorical and religious pictures his best work but these have been far less influential or lastingly popular than his Romantic landscapes of the Hudson Valley.

ollage. С'oniposition made up of various materials — cardboard, string, fabric, newspaper cuttings, photographs, etc. - pasted to a canvas or board and sometimes combined with painting or drawing. It was a technique used by the Cubists, Dadaists and Surrealists. Matisse and others used a similar technique, called papier colic, which involved the pasting not of found material, but ot cut-outs of paper in different flat colours.

Collingwood Robin George (1889—1943). British philosopher and historian. C.'s aesthetic theories were strongly influenced by *Croce. The Principles of Art (1938) emphasizes the communicative function of art, which generates the emotions necessary to a healthy social life. С also wrote a study of the development of his thought, An Autobiography (1939).

Collinson James (1825?-81). British painter, an original member of the *Pre-Raphaehte Brotherhood; he painted An Incident in the Life of St Elizabeth of Hungary (1851) according to their ideals. The breaking of his engagement to Christina Rossetti was the occasion of many of her saddest and most exquisite poems.

Color-field painting. Term used primarily with reference to some *Abstract Expressionist U.S. artists of the 1950s to differentiate them from the *Action painters (e.g. *De Kooning, *Klein, *Pollock). Color-field painters (e.g. *Gottlicb, *Motherwell, *Newman, *Reinhardt, *Rothko, *Still) were concerned with the abstract image which was constituted by a unified colour shape or large area.

Colossi of Memnon Thebes (c 1400 BC). 2 colossal seated statues of Amenophis HI believed by classical historians to represent the mythical king, Memnon. Carved from quartz and orginally e. 68 ft (21 m.) high, the figures flanked the gateway of the Pharaoh's mortuary temple. Before restoration, that on the north emitted a musical note at sunrise and was consequently known as the 'singing Memnon'.

Colossus of Rhodes. Bronze statue (105 ft/32 m. high) of Helios, the sun god, by Chares of Lindos, erected by the harbour at Rhodes, с 280 BC, and one of the 7 wonders of the ancient world. It was overthrown by an earthquake in 225 BС The remains were not removed until AD 656.

Colour field painting. Term referring to the work of such Abstract Expressionists as Barnett Newman, Mark Rothko and Clyfford Still and to various subsequent American painters, including Morris Louis, Kenneth Noland, Frank Stella, Jules Olitski and Helen Frankenthaler. The popularity of the concept stemmed largely from Clement Greenberg’s formalist art criticism, especially his essay ‘American-type Painting’, written in 1955 for Partisan Review, which implied that Still, Newman and Rothko had consummated a tendency in modernist painting to apply colour in large areas or ‘fields’. This notion became increasingly widespread and doctrinaire in later interpretations of ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM, until the movement was effectively divided into ‘gesturalist’ and ‘colour field’ styles despite the narrow and somewhat misleading overtones of each category.

Combines. Term used by *Rauschenberg with reference to flat or, usually, 3-dimension-al found objects which are incorporated, collage-like, into a painting.

Commercial art.
Term used in the 20th century to define art, usually magazine illustrations or posters (see POSTER), designed to advertise goods, services or forms of entertainment. The usage of the term declined in the early 1960s, in favour of the more general ‘graphic art’.

'Company' paintings. Pictures of European-Indian style and subject matter, done (late 18th—19th cs) by N. Indian artists for officers of the British East India Company.

Composition. The formal arrangement of a painting or work of graphic art; also a piece of music or writing, or the act of writing or composing.
Computer art. Term formerly used to describe any work of art in which a computer was used to make either the work itself or the decisions that determined its form. Computers became so widely used, however, that in the late 20th century the term was applied mainly to work that emphasized the computer’s role. Such calculating tools as the abacus have existed for millennia, and artists have frequently invented mathematical systems to help them to make pictures. The GOLDEN SECTION and Alberti’s formulae for rendering perspective were devices that aspired to fuse realism with idealism in art, while Leonardo da Vinci devoted much time to applying mathematical principles to image-making. After centuries of speculations by writers, and following experiments in the 19th century, computers began their exponential development in the aftermath of World War II, when new weapon-guidance systems were adapted for peaceful applications, and the term ‘cybernetics’ was given currency by Norbert Wiener. Artists exploited computers’ ability to execute mathematical formulations or ‘algorithms’ from 1950, when Ben F. Laposky (b 1930) used an analogue computer to generate electronic images on an oscilloscope. Once it was possible to link computers to printers, programmers often made ‘doodles’ between their official tasks. From the early 1960s artists began to take this activity more seriously and quickly discovered that many formal decisions could be left to the computer, with results that were particularly valued for their unpredictability. From the mid-1970s the painter Harold Cohen (b 1928) developed a sophisticated programme, AARON, which generated drawings that the artist then completed as coloured paintings. Although the computer became capable of that task as well, Cohen continued to hand-colour computer-generated images (e.g. Socrates’ Garden, 1984; Pittsburgh, PA, Buhl Sci. Cent.).

Conceptual art. Art form and theory evolved in the later 1960s, the logical development from *Minimal art. It questions the whole idea ot 'art', e.g. whether it has reference outside itself, and especially the validity of the traditional art object, and uses concepts as its 'material'. Since physical form is not essential in the presentation of concepts, and as a concept is usually the starting point of a work of art, conceptual artists propose that traditional media and physical manifestations (objects) are unnecessary. Ideas and information are thereby presented as, and conveyed by, written proposals, photographs, documents, charts, maps, film and video, and above all by language itself. The U.S. artists *Huebler, *Kosuth and *Weiner, and the British based *Art & Language group have been the main exponents.

Conceptual art [idea art; information art].
Term applied to work produced from the mid-1960s that either markedly de-emphasized or entirely eliminated a perceptual encounter with unique objects in favour of an engagement with ideas. Although Henry Flynt of the Fluxus group had designated his performance pieces ‘concept art’ as early as 1961, and Edward Kienholz had begun to devise ‘concept tableaux’ in 1963, the term first achieved public prominence in defining a distinct art form in an article published by Sol LeWitt in 1967. Only loosely definable as a movement, it emerged more or less simultaneously in North America, Europe and Latin America and had repercussions on more conventional spheres of artistic production spawning artists’ books as a separate category and contributing substantially to the acceptance of photographs, musical scores, architectural drawings and performance art on an equal footing with painting and sculpture.

Concrete art (Ger. konkrete Kunsl; Fr. art concret). Artistic term introduced by Van *Doesburg m 1930 in preference to 'abstract art'. According to *Bill, its greatest propagandist, it 'refers to those works that have developed through their own, innate means and laws' and are therefore autonomous, i.e. not dependent on a process of abstraction.

Concrete art.

Term coined by Theo van Doesburg in 1930 to refer to a specific type of non-figurative painting and sculpture. Van Doesburg defined the term in the first and only issue of Art Concret, which appeared in April 1930 with a manifesto, The Basis of Concrete Art, signed by van Doesburg, Otto G. Carlsund, Jean Hélion and the Armenian painter Leon Tutundjian (1905–68). In the manifesto it was stated that ‘The painting should be constructed entirely from purely plastic elements, that is to say planes and colours. A pictorial element has no other significance than itself and consequently the painting possesses no other significance than itself.’ Natural forms, lyricism and sentiment were strictly forbidden. Taking a narrow sense of the word ‘abstract’ as implying a starting-point in the visible world, it distinguishes Concrete art from ABSTRACT ART as emanating directly from the mind rather than from an abstraction of forms in nature. For this reason the term is sometimes applied retrospectively to the more cerebral abstract works by such other artists as Mondrian, Kandinsky, Malevich and Frantisek Kupka.

Concretists, the [Swed. Konkretisterna]. Swedish group of artists active in the early 1950s. The members were the painters (Olof) Lennart Rodhe (b 1916), Olle Bonnier (b 1925), Pierre Olofsson (b 1921), Karl-Axel Ingemar Pehrson (b 1921) and Lage Johannes Lindell (1920–80) and the sculptor Arne Jones (1914–76). With a number of other artists they had exhibited in Ung konst (Young art) in Stockholm in 1947 and came to be called ‘1947 års män’ (‘Men of the Year 1947’). In an article in Konstrevy in 1947, Sven Alfons (b 1918; painter and writer on art history) saw a common element in their work and described these artists as ‘young Goth[ic]s’. The ‘gothic’ aspect is especially clear in several of Jones’s sculptures (e.g. The Cathedral, 1948; Stockholm, Vastertorp).

Conner Bruce (born 1933) is an American artist (film, assemblage, drawing, sculpture, painting, collage, and photography, among other disciplines).

Coolidge C. M.
Cassius Marcellus Coolidge (September 18, 1844–January 13, 1934) was a United States painter best known for a series of nine paintings of anthropomorphized Dogs Playing Poker. Born in upstate New York to abolitionist Quaker farmers, Coolidge was known to friends and family as "Cash." While he had no formal training as an artist his natural aptitude for drawing led him to create cartoons for his local newspaper when in his twenties. He is credited with creating Comic Foregrounds, life-size cutouts into which one's head was placed so as to be photographed as an amusing character. In 1903, Coolidge contracted with the advertising firm of Brown & Bigelow of St. Paul, Minnesota, to create sixteen oil paintings of dogs in various human poses. Nine of them depict dogs playing poker. On February 15, 2005, two of these much imitated paintings, A Bold Bluff and Waterloo, went on the auction block expecting to fetch between $30,000 and $50,000 but surprisingly sold for $590,400. The auction set an auction record for Coolidge, whose previous top sale was $74,000. In 1910 Coolidge painted "Looks Like Four of a Kind" in the same style as his earlier "Dogs Playing Poker" series. His paintings inspired American illustrator Arthur Sarnoff who is famous for his Dogs Playing Pool style paintings, and hundreds of other imitators.

Constable John (1776-1837). British landscape painter. Born at East Bergholt, Suffolk, the son of a miller, C. worked for a time in his father's windmills, which he said later taught him to study 'the natural history of the skies'. He was encouraged in drawing by a village amateur and copied from Girtin and Claude. In 1795 he came to London determined to be a painter, and in 1799 entered the R.A. as a student. He grew impatient of the ltalianate landscape painting of the time, which was still under the spell of Wilson, and in 1802 he returned to Suffolk, writing the famous letter in which he says: 'there is room enough for a natural painture. Apart from discouraging periods in London painting portraits С now gave his time wholly to teaching himself how to reproduce every effect of changing light and weather in the skies and the river meadows of the Stour. The work of these years was little known or appreciated until 1888 when over 300 drawings and paintings were given to the nation by C.'s daughter. This superb coll., now at the V. & A., contains sketches for many of his major paintings in oil, as well as cloud studies, flower pieces and large watercolours such as the Study of a Tree. 'Lights — dews — breezes — blooms — and freshness' could be used to sum up the impression they give. But if the results were lyrical, the study behind them was hard, slow and not materially rewarding. Gradually C. evolved an infinitely subtle modulation of greens and a strict, though hidden, sense of composition. Recognition of his genius was almost equally slow. Although he continued to exhibit large paintings at the R.A. almost every year, it was 1819 before he became an Associate and 1829 before he was an Academician. In contrast to this, his exhibition of the Hay Wain at the Paris Salon in 1824 won him a gold medal and caused great excitement among French painters. Delacroix, it is said, repainted his Massacre of Chios on seeing it. C.'s influence on the French *Barbizon school of landscape painters is undisputed and his paintings of ships and harbours, such as the brilliant sketch in oil, Brighton Beach, (Mothers or the large work, Marine Parade and Chain Pier, Brighton, were obviously a formative influence on Boudm. In Britain, despite continuing French enthusiasm, C. suffered from comparison with Turner and from the unfavourable opinion of Ruskin. C's art seemed, curiously enough, too easy and too ordinary when contrasted with that of the Pre-Raphaelites and Turner.

Constructivism. An aesthetic which arose in Russia based on the Futurist cult of the machine and first expressed in the 'Relief Constructions' of 1913—17 by *Tatlin. Its ideas became crystallized and assumed the importance of a movement in 1921/2 when there was a split between Muscovite abstract painters, some opting for the principle of'pure' art and others for utilitarian and propaganda work. The latter group became known as 'Constructivists' or 'artist-engineers'. In their attempt to overcome the isolation of the artist from society, ihey entered the fields of industrial design ( l'.itlin, *Rodchenko, *Popova, *Lissitzky), the theatre and film (Meyerhold, Eisenstem) nul architecture (Melnikov, (Jinzburg, 1 .olossov, the 3 Vesnin brothers). Apart from Tatlin's unrealized Monument to the 3rd International of 1919/20, Construedvist buildings include Lenin's mausoleum by Shchusev and the Izi'estia building by Barkhm, both m Moscow. Constructivist principles produced the 1st examples of the 'new typography' (Lissitzky) and pioneer work in poster and exhibition design (Soviet Rivihon of the International Press Exhibition, Cologne, 1930 designed by Lissitzky). Through *Kandinsky, *Gabo and *Moholy-Nagy Constructivist ideas had a basic influence on the creation of the 'international functionalist style' of architecture and industrial design in W. Europe in the 1920s, chiefly propagated by the *Bauhaus.


Avant-garde tendency in 20th-century painting, sculpture, photography, design and architecture, with associated developments in literature, theatre and film. The term was first coined by artists in Russia in early 1921 and achieved wide international currency in the 1920s. Russian Constructivism refers specifically to a group of artists who sought to move beyond the autonomous art object, extending the formal language of abstract art into practical design work. This development was prompted by the Utopian climate following the October Revolution of 1917, which led artists to seek to create a new visual environment, embodying the social needs and values of the new Communist order. The concept of International Constructivism defines a broader current in Western art, most vital from around 1922 until the end of the 1920s, that was centred primarily in Germany. International Constructivists were inspired by the Russian example, both artistically and politically. They continued, however, to work in the traditional artistic media of painting and sculpture, while also experimenting with film and photography and recognizing the potential of the new formal language for utilitarian design. The term Constructivism has frequently been used since the 1920s, in a looser fashion, to evoke a continuing tradition of geometric abstract art that is ‘constructed’ from autonomous visual elements such as lines and planes, and characterized by such qualities as precision, impersonality, a clear formal order, simplicity and economy of organization and the use of contemporary materials such as plastic and metal.


Italian group of painters and sculptors formed in 1961. With the critic Carlo Argan (b 1909) as spokesman, it included Carla Accardi, Pietro Consagra, Piero Dorazio, Gastone Novelli (1925–68), Achille Perilli (b 1927) and Giulio Turcato among its founder-members. They were soon joined by Lucio Fontana, Arnaldo Pomodoro and Giò Pomodoro. Some of these artists had previously been members of FORMA, founded in 1947 to promote abstract art. The notion of continuity was inherent not only in the group’s general aim—to regenerate the traditional greatness of Italian art—but equally as an ideal for specific works of art, each painting or sculpture reflecting the order and continuity of its creation. This was in opposition not only to the social realists, such as Renato Guttuso and Armando Pizzinato (b 1910), but also (to a lesser extent) to the Informalist trends among artists of the Fronte Nuovo delle Arti and the Gruppo degli Otto Pittori Italiani. However, some members, notably Turcato, went through all phases from Expressionism in the 1930s to geometrical abstraction in the 1960s. Accardi, Perilli and Novelli incorporated geometrical writing or ‘signs’ in their work. Fontana, the most influential and avowedly abstract artist to be associated with the group, added a further aspect to Continuità, the idea of continuity of a work within its surroundings, for example his Spatial Environment (1949; Milan, Gal. Naviglio), which was a precursor of environmental art. From the late 1950s onwards he also suggested continuity with the space behind the canvas in his slit canvases known as Tagli (‘slashes’, e.g. Spatial Concept—Expectations, 1959; Paris, Mus. A. Mod. Ville Paris). Among the sculptors, Giò Pomodoro created cast bronze reliefs with irregular surfaces, creating a sense of integration with the surrounding wall or floor. Continuità, like Forma before it, represented a convergence of artists with similar aims rather than a definitive movement.

Continuous representation. A painting which represents on the same canvas various consecutive elements m a story; the type was sometimes used by medieval and early Renaissance artists.

Contour. In a painting or drawing, the line defining a shape. A line in this sense can suggest, by modulation m thickness and intensity, spatial relationships and textures, and thus is not simply an outline.

Contraposto. Italian term used also in English to describe a posture of the human body, in a painting or sculpture, in which the upper torso is twisted on the same axis as the legs but in a different plane.

Conversation piece. A type of group portrait, common in the 1 Sth c, often of a family depicted in the setting of their library or garden. The sitters are normally engaged in some everyday occupation. There are a few 2oth-c. examples such as Orpen's Homage to Manet. To use the term of an object sounusual as to be likely to provoke conversation is a recent and unconnected idea.

Copley John Singleton (1738-1815). U.S. painter. From 1774 he lived first in Italy, then in Britain, where he was greatly influenced by *Reynolds and *West. Having won a reputation as a portrait painter, he embarked on large historical paintings, e.g. Death of Major Pierson (1783) in which C. paints himself as a child fleeing with his family from the battle. This expansion of a small incident to the proportions of a panorama was copied in both French and English 19th-c. painting.


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