Dictionary of

Art  &  Artist


- C -


Cabanel-Carrington Carrucci-Chia Chicago-Copley Coptic-Czech

Carrucci Jacopo. Jacopo *Pontormo

Cartellino (It. label). Scroll or piece of paper painted either on the background of a picture or on a ledge in the foreground. It is used for the artist's signature or sometimes for a motto or inscription. Examples occur in the paintings of Giovanni Bellini and Antonello da Messina.

Cartoon. The term has 2 well-defined meanings. Originally it was used for a full-scale and detailed preparatory drawing or painting for a tapestry, painting or fresco; famous examples are the c.s by Raphael (7 in the V. & A., London) for tapestries originally intended for the Sistme Chapel and now in the Vatican, and c.s by Leonardo da Vinci on the Madonna and Child with Si Anne.
The term c. is now generally used, in a 2nd meaning, of a satirical drawing with a specific point, usually political.

Cartouche. Originally a form of ornamentation in the shape of a scroll, such as a volute of an Ionic capital, it was later adapted in engraving and sculpture as a ground for titles and armorial bearings, and in this form is usually oval with a scrolled frame.

Carus Gustav (b Leipzig, 3 Jan 1789; d Dresden, 28 July 1869). German painter and draughtsman. As well as being an artist, he achieved considerable success as a doctor, a naturalist, a scientist and a psychologist. As an artist, he was concerned almost exclusively with landscape painting, although he never practised it professionally. While still at school in Leipzig, he had drawing lessons from Julius Diez; he subsequently studied under Johann Veit Schnorr von Carolsfeld (1764–1841) at the Oeser drawing academy. From 1813 he taught himself oil painting, copying after the Dresden landscape painter Johann Christian Klengel, whom he visited in his studio. In 1811 after six years at university he graduated as a doctor of medicine and a doctor of philosophy. In 1814 he was appointed professor of obstetrics and director of the maternity clinic at the teaching institution for medicine and surgery in Dresden.

Casorati Felice (b Novara, 4 Dec 1883; d Turin, 1 March 1963). Italian painter, sculptor and printmaker. Casorati spent his formative years in Padua where he developed a passion for music and literature. He began to paint in 1902 but to please his mother he read law at the University of Padua, graduating in 1906. He continued to paint meanwhile and to frequent the studio of Giovanni Viannello (1873–1926). In 1907 he exhibited at the Venice Biennale and his Portrait of a Woman (Turin, priv. col., see 1985 exh. cat., p. 242), an elegant portrait of his sister Elvira, was praised by the jury. It is representative of his early works, which were marked by the influence of the Viennese Secession, Art Nouveau and Symbolism. From 1908 Casorati lived in Naples where he first saw works by Pieter Bruegel I at the Museo di Capodimonte. He was also in touch with contemporary northern European artistic circles. He continued to exhibit at the Venice Biennale where, in 1910, he met Gustav Klimt, whose work he had admired since 1905.

Cassandre. Pseud. of Adolphe Mouron (1901—68), Ukrainian-born French artist noted for poster designs. These included F.toile dn Nord (1927) for Pullman and a 1930s advertisement, for Nicolas wines, related to *Orphism and pre-figuring *Op art.

Cassatt Mary (1844-1926). U.S.-born painter of the French Impressionist school. She studied in Pans, where she settled and became a disciple of Degas. Her finest paintings were studies of mother and child, scrupulously firm and unsentimental, e.g. The Bath, Mother and Child, and her studies of everyday life in dry point and aquatint have recently received recognition. Young Woman Sewing is a fine example of her work in oil. She made an exquisite series of colour prints under Japanese influence.

Castagno Andrea del (c. 1423-c 1457). Florentine painter whose style shows clearly the influence of Masaccio, but which borrows sculptural qualities from Donatello, with whom C. had a close emotional affinity. He is Ist heard of as the painter of a cautionary or propaganda picture showing the bodies of rebels hung in chains. This work gave C. the reputation of pursuing realism to the point of violence. Few of his paintings survive, but the Assumption of the Virgin in Berlin is a fine work. C.'s masterpiece is undoubtedly his Last Supper, a fresco of great intellectual and emotional intensity. By keeping alive and vital the harsh preoccupation with figure drawing and tactile values of the early painters and sculptors of Florence, C.'s work was of great importance to the later Florentines, Signorelli, Leonardo da Vinci and, above all, Michelangelo.

Castaneda Alfredo (1923-1981). Alfredo Castaсeda was born in Mexico City in 1938. He received a degree in architecture from the University of Mexico in 1964 and in 1969 he had his first one-man show at the Galerнa de Arte Mexicano, the gallery which represents him worldwide outside of the U.S. His surrealist imagery intrigues viewers and his works are included in private collections in Mexico and Latin America, the United States, Europe and Japan. In 1983 he had his first individual show in the United States at Mary-Anne Martin/Fine Art and has been represented by MAM/FA in the U.S. since then. A retrospective of his work was held at the Monterrey (Mexico) Museum in 1990 and a monograph celebrating twenty years of work was published in the same year. Since then he has had a number of exhibitions in the U.S. and Latin America which are detailed below. Castaсeda currently lives in Madrid, where he and his family own and run a highly successful Mexican restaurant.

Castello Valerio (b Genoa, 22 Dec 1624; d Genoa, 17 Feb 1659). Painter and draughtsman, son of Bernardo Castello. He was one of the leading Ligurian painters of the 17th century, whose art developed from a continuous and passionate study of a wide range of sources. His paintings of mythological and religious subjects unite an elegant figure style with an interest in dramatic and violent compositions; his touch is spontaneous and his palette vibrant with reds and pinks, blues and yellows. His brilliant decorative frescoes introduced the splendour of the High Baroque to Genoese painters. He was well known for his rapid oil sketches, with light and lively brushwork, which anticipate aspects of the Rococo. Few of his paintings are dated or datable, and his stylistic development remains highly controversial.

Castiglia Vincent. Visionary art.

Castiglione Giovanni Benedetto called 'II Grechetto' (c. 1610—65). Genoese painter of genre and monumental religious and mythological subjects in Baroque style and usually including animals; from 1648 court painter at Mantua. Also an etcher, he followed the Netherlandish school, particularly Rembrandt. He is the 1st artist known to have used monotype. He evolved a lively sketching technique in oil paint on paper.

Casting. *bronze, *cire perdu

Catel Franz Ludwig (b Berlin, 22 Feb 1778; d Rome, 19 Dec 1856). German painter. As a child, Catel helped carve small wooden figures in the toyshop owned by his father. With the encouragement of the printmaker Daniel Chodowiecki, Catel enrolled at the Berlin Kunstakademie, becoming a full member in 1806. In 1807, after already making a name for himself as a watercolourist and book illustrator, he began several years of study at the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where his main subject was oil painting. In 1811 he moved to Italy, where he stayed for the rest of his life. Initially he wavered between Joseph Anton Koch’s classically heroic style of landscape painting and the Romantic lyricism of the Nazarenes. Eventually he found that he could best exercise his technical ability, and most quickly achieve fame and fortune, by producing Italian landscapes. He specialized in Neapolitan scenes depicting festive folk customs; and such paintings proved popular with the mass of wealthy travellers who came to Italy after the Napoleonic Wars.

Catena Vincenzo di Biagio called (c. 1475— 1531). Italian painter of the Venetian school, his early work, e.g. Virgin and Child, closely resembling that of Giovanni Bellini and Cima. Later he was more strongly influenced by Giorgione, Titian and Palma Vecchio. An inscription on the back of Giorgione's Laura refers to C. as a 'colleague' of his; Virgin and Child with Kneeling Warrior, once attributed to Giorgione, is now attributed to C. Also by C. is the portrait of Doge Andrea Gntti previously attributed to Titian.

Caulfield Patrick (1936— ). British painter; studied at Chelsea School of Art (1956-60), and at the R.C.A. (1960-3) at the same tune as *Boslner, *Hockney, A. *Jones, *Kitaj, P. *Pbillips. His work is figurative but formally rigorous, using familiar imagery which is sub]ect to cool, spare, sophisticated treatment in the tradition of J. Gris and F. Leger.

Cava Paul. Born 1949, NY, USA.

Cavallini Pietro (fl. 1273—1308). Italian painter who worked m Rome and, at about the same time as Cimabue, began to move away from stereotyped Byzantine forms towards naturalism. There are mosaics (1291) by him in S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome, and fragments of a fresco, The Last Judgement, in S. Cecilia, Rome.

Cavallino Bernardo (1616—56). Neapolitan painter of religious subjects who worked 111 an individual style both graceful and sophisticated. His figures were slightly elongated, his colour combinations unusual and his background landscapes approached the romanticism of Salvator Rosa.

Cave art of the upper palaeolithic era was discovered in 1879 in the Spanish cavern of Altamira, where the roof is painted with polychrome bison. Archaeologists accepted these as prehistoric only after the discovery in 1894 of engravings and paintings in the previously sealed cave of La Mouthe, in the Dordogne. Discoveries have multiplied ever since in limestone areas N. and S. of the Pyrenees. In contrast to upper palaeolithic sculpture on limestone overhangs, the pictorial art is in caverns away from daylight. Beasts of the chase are depicted naturalistically (oxen, horses, reindeer, bison, etc., less commonly mammoth) in various techniques, engraving, drawing in black or coloured outline, and painting (chiefly reds and ochres). Engraving and pigment are frequently combined, and images were often suggested by the shape of the rock. Crude composition occurs, though images are mostly superimposed. This C. a. was ritual, beyond which its purposes are disputed, recent opinion holding that myths were frequently depicted. The artists were homo sapiens whose migrations into a sub-glacial Europe began c. 30,000 isc:. The art spans about 18,000 years, the developed polychrome naturalism belonging to the millennia before 12,000 ВС, when the retreat of the glaciers brought the hunting cultures to an end.

Cellini Benvenuto (1500—71). Florentine goldsmith, sculptor, medallist and adventurer whose boastful and entertaining autobiography (written 1558—62; publ. 1728; trs. 1771) is an invaluable record of life in Renaissance Italy. Commissioned by emperors, kings, popes and princes, he was renowned throughout Italy. His famous gold salt-cellar for Francis I is a typically florid piece, superbly executed. His work in coins, medals and medallions includes the famous gold Leda and the Swan. His large bronze sculpture of Perseus Holding the Head of Medusa is an intense early Mannerist work. Among lost bronzes are a pair of doorways and a huge statue of Mars.

Celtic art. The art produced by Celtic peoples in Western Europe from c. 450 lie: to с AD 650, notable for its use of asymmetrical and curvilinear abstract ornament, often combined with zoomorphic decoration. It falls into two main phases: an earlier, which was produced on the continent and often called the La Тёпе style (to the beginning of the 1st с. АD), and a later, confined to Britain and Ireland, from c. AD 150, and often showing signs of contact with Roman art. Jewellery, wood carving, pottery and metalwork are some of the most typical products of C. a.

Cephisodotus. Name of 2 Greek sculptors (1) (fl. early 4th с. не:) probably the father of Praxiteles. A copy of his Irene Bearing the Infant Plutus is in the Glyptothek Museum, Munich, and one of Dionysus in the B.M., London; (2) (fl. late 4th c.) the son of Praxiteles. No complete work of his survives but among the work he is known to have executed was a statue of Menander in the Theatre at Athens.

Cerano, II. *Crespi Giovan Battista
Cercle et Carre. Movement founded in Paris in late 1929 during a meeting between the writer Michel Seuphor (born 1901) and the Uruguayan painter Joaquín Torres García, which became public in 1930. Though having no official manifesto, it is best characterized as broadly Constructivist in outlook. It comprised mainly abstract artists from Constructivism, Futurism, Purism, Neo-plasticism, Dada and Bauhaus, whose common motivation was to create an artistic opposition to the dominant Surrealists. The movement comprised both a periodical, which ran for three issues in 1930, and a single exhibition held at Galerie 23, Rue la Boëtie, Paris, from 18 to 30 April 1930. There were 130 exhibits, covering painting, sculpture, architecture and stage design, by 46 artists, including Hans Arp, Vasily Kandinsky, Le Corbusier, Fernand Léger, Piet Mondrian, Amédée Ozenfant, Antoine Pevsner, Luigi Russolo and Georges Vantongerloo. Notably, Theo van Doesburg refused to join, instead forming a rival group, Art concret. The exhibition closed with a lecture by Seuphor on ‘Art poétique’, with musical accompaniment from Russolo, but it was a commercial and critical failure.

Ceruti Giacomo (b Milan, 13 Oct 1698; d Milan, 28 Aug 1767). Italian painter. He was one of a group of artists working in Bergamo and Brescia who observed reality with an unusual freshness and directness. He painted religious subjects and portraits but was most distinguished as a painter of genre and low-life scenes. These included many pictures of beggars and vagabonds ( pitocchi), hence his nickname ‘il Pitocchetto’. He married in Milan in 1717 but settled in Brescia in 1721. In 1723 he received a horse in payment for three altarpieces and four frescoes for the parish church of Rino di Sonico; they were mediocre works executed in an unadventurous blend of Lombard and Venetian traditions derived from contemporary Venetian painters working in Brescia. Ceruti’s early portraits and genre scenes are less conventional and more intensely felt; in 1724 he signed and dated the strikingly naturalistic portrait of Giovanni Maria Fenaroli. Other portraits of local nobility, such as the Gentlewoman of the Lechi Family, may be dated to the same period. These eminent Brescian families showed some sensitivity to social problems, especially poverty, and were linked to religious currents close to Jerusalem.

full name Cesar Baldaccini (1921—98). French sculptor of mainly figurative work: *assemblages adding up to figures made with found and discarded iron scraps and machine parts (e.g. La maison de Davotte, 1960). C. was one of the members of the *Nouveau reahsme group founded in Paris in 1960 by the critic Pierre Restany and *Klem. *decollage, *Rotella, *Villegle, *Hams and *Vostell.

Cesari Arpino Giuseppe. *Arpino Giuseppe Cesari.

Cezanne Paul (1839-1906). French painter born in Aix-en-Provence the son of a well-to-do banker. He studied in the same school as Zola, and formed a close friendship which had a decisive effect on the course of C.'s life. Destined by his father to study law he was eventually, at the age of 22, allowed to devote himself entirely to painting; a yearly allowance from his father enabled him to work without distraction for the next 23 years until his father's death, when he became a man of means. His 1st visit to Paris proved disappointing and he returned to Aix as a clerk in his father's office, but in 1862 C. was in Paris again for a decisive stay. He worked hard, and with Zola became involved in the revolutionary creative ferment directed against the bourgeoisie and academism. Yet he submitted work for the Salon and applied for admission to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. He failed in both. For the rest of his life he regularly sent paintings to the Salon. In 1882 he succeeded in having a portrait accepted as the result of friendly intervention. He exhibited in the Salon des Refuses of 1863. In 1886 he married his mistress; they had had a son in 1872. About this time C. worked with his friend Camille Pissarro, taking part in the 1st Impressionist exhibition of 1874. Chocquet, a collector, became his friend and patron. Again he showed with the Impressionists in 1877, then refused to take part m any more exhibitions and retired to the south. His friendship with Zola was broken off in 1886 and later he also broke with Chocquet. He withdrew more and more, but his fame was growing and he was becoming an almost legendary figure. In 1895 the dealer Vollard gave him a i-man show consisting of 150 canvases, and in the same year 2 of his paintings entered the Luxembourg Mus. as part of the Caillebotte bequest. He was invited to show in Brussels and with the Vienna and Berlin *Sezession. In 1901 Maurice Denis exhibited his painting Homage to Cezanne and the 1904 Salon d'Automne showed his paintings in a separate room. A large retrospective Cezanne exhibition was organized in the 1906 Salon d'Automne.
C.'s development divides into a number of phases. From 1862 to 1870 was a time of fervent research, study devoted to the museums absorbing influences of Courbet, Zurbaran, Poussm, Manet and the sculptor Puget. С was striving for a realism, searching for exactitude in revolt against the banality of the bourgeois Salons and the official Academy. His paintings tended to be clumsy, coarse in texture, painted with a palette-knife, turbulent almost brutal: greys, browns, earth colour and heavy black shadows with occasional flashes of brilliant colour. Characteristic of this period is a portrait, painted in 1866, of his father reading a newspaper and the Still-life with black clock. Both are monumental, showing an interest in architectural composition and a sense of plasticity.
C. retired to 1'Estaque during the 1870 Pans Commune and here, in close contact with the landscape, his sensibility developed. When he joined Pissarro at Pontoise in 1872 a radical change was inevitable. The former heaviness slowly gave way to a more controlled and subtle surface, his palette lightened with the increased use of primary colours, their division and related tones. C. acknowledged Pissarro as his master, but he also influenced Pissarro, though to a lesser extent. Both painters preserved their identity.
La Maison du Pendu shown at the 1st Impressionist exhibition (1874) typified this new palette. The realization of this change was of necessity slow and painful as increasingly colour and a colour-tone hierarchy became his dominant sensation and means of expression. A false note meant a fresh start - hence the deliberate brush-stroke, the incessant work in front of the model requiring countless sittings, immense effort, patience and genius to maintain and nourish the intensity of emotion. From 1880 onwards this research is intensified in his portraits, self-portraits, still—lifes, landscapes and in compositions such as the Card Players (1890-2) where the subject is interpreted in the classical tradition of Poussm. C. used watercolour for its heightened purity and brilliance, especially during his last years when his strong feeling for nature was surest. He was now an heir to the great colounsts of the past, from the Venetians to Delacroix and he expressed volume and light in his own way by a system of superimposed glazes of pure colour and tone relations, where each colour temperature corresponded to a mood both of the physical world and of the world of painting. Thus he achieved a synthesis of reality and abstraction as in his Bathers (1900—6) and showed the way to the developments of the 20th c, first fully expressed by the painters of Cubism.

Chagall Marc (1887-1985). Russian artist of a devout Jewish family, born in Vitebsk. He went to St Petersburg in 1907 where he entered a minor art school, at the same time-working as a sign painter; throughout his work a foundation of Russian art and the sign painter's technique was evident. He went (1910) to Paris where he came in contact witli the Cubists; his work began to show Cubist influence (e.g. Homage to Apollinaire, 1911-12) but subjects generally remain of life in Vitebsk. In 1914 he returned home and contributed to Lanonov's exhibitions and the *Knave of Diamonds group. He was drawn back to his Jewish heritage, expressed now with a deep sense of pathos, as in The Praying Jew (1914). His marriage resulted in a series of exuberant paintings of lovers, e.g. Birthday (1915—23). After the Revolution, in 1918, C. was appointed director of the Vitebsk art school, which became a centre of avant-garde ideas, but was soon ousted by *Malevich and left for Moscow. From 1919 to 1922 he worked as theatrical designer for the Jewish State Theatre, executing murals there. In 1922 he went to Berlin, executing Mein leben etchings for *Vollard who then invited him to Pans (ills for Gogol's Dead Souls). In 1925-6 he completed a set of ills for an ed. of La Fontaine's Fables and held a i-man show in N.Y. In 1930 his autobiography, Ma Vie, was publ., and C. began to prepare ills for the Bible, travelling to the Middle East. He went to the U.S.A. in 1941, producing the decor for Massine's ballet Aleke (1942) and Bolm's firebird (1945) both for the Ballet Theater. He returned to France after the war. Of later work, his designs for stained-glass windows should be mentioned, and his paintings for the ceilings of the Pans Opera.

Chalukya. Style of S. central medieval Indian sculpture and architecture which fl. under the C. dynasty. Architecture includes the early Ladkhan temple (r. 450 ad), the 'Durga' temple (f. 550) at Aihole and the 4 rock-cut shrines of Badami (begun 578). Sculptures include the majestic figure of Vishnu in Cave III, Badami (c. 580), and some fragmentary wall painting also survives.

Chambers William (b. Gothenburg, Sweden, 1723; d. London, 1796). Born the son of a Scottish merchant in Gothenburg, Sweden in 1723, William Chambers studied in England. He returned to Sweden at the age of sixteen to join the Swedish East India Company. His subsequent travels through Bengal and China gave him an Oriental perspective on art and design. By 1749 he had saved enough money from his travels to make architecture his only profession. Chambers studied in Paris and Italy, absorbing ideas current at the French Academy in Rome. Upon his return to England, Chambers became the architectural tutor to the Prince of Wales. This led to a long and fruitful patronage by the royal family. In 1761 Chambers was appointed as one of the Joint Architects of the King's Work and by 1769 he was so indispensable that he was appointed Comptroller of the King's Works. When the office was reorganized in 1782 he became the Surveyor General and the Comptroller.
William Chambers was a confidant of George III and the first Treasurer of the Royal Academy of the Arts, which became public in 1768. He wrote a Treatise on Civil Architecture, and was a patron of John Soane while Soane was a student at the Academy.
Chamber's architecture blended the symmetrical, well-ordered facades of Palladianism with early forms of Neoclassicism. He died in London in 1796.

Champaigne, Philippe de (1602-74). Painter of portraits and religious subjects, born in Brussels and trained as a landscapist there. In 1621 he moved to Paris and with N. Poussin assisted on decorations for the Luxembourg Palace. In 1628 he was appointed painter to Marie de' Medici and was patronized by Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu. For the latter he painted frescoes in the dome of the Sorbonne church, a full-length portrait (1635) and a triple portrait as a model for Bernini's bust. During this period his portraits, though more sculptural, resembled Van Dyck's and his religious paintings, e.g. Adoration of the Shepherds (e, 1630), showed the influence of Rubens's Baroque, though much restrained. His most original work was produced after с 1647 when he began to associate with the Jansenists of Port-Royal. Under the influence of the harsh, puritanical doctrines of this Catholic sect his tendency to coldness and restraint was accentuated and all Baroque contrapposto eliminated, his work achieving a beauty new in French art founded on extreme simplicity and austerity. Outstanding examples of this period are his half-length Portrait of an Unknown Man (1650) and the picture Ex Voto, 1662 painted in thanks for the wonderful healing of his daughter, a nun at Port-Royal.

Champfleury. The pseud. of Jules Hussar of Henry (1828-89). French writer and art historian. He applied the term Realist to his own fiction and was a great supporter of *Courbet, opposing idealizing traditional religious and classical subjects. His critical study, Le Realisme (1857), was one of the 1st studies of the movement. He wrote many books on ceramics, caricature and popular art, including Histoire de la caricature antique (1865—90). His novels include Souffrances de professenr Delteil (1S53; Naughty Boys, or the Sufferings of Mr Delteil, 1855).

Chan Chan. Ancient city near Trujillo, Peru, capital of the Chimu empire (c. 1000—1466). The ruins include great step-pyramids, terraced houses and stone cisterns. The adobe walls arc-decorated with lively, repeating-pattern reliefs of plant, animal and bird motifs.

Chapman Jake & Dinos
. Jake Chapman (born 1966) and Dinos Chapman (born 1962) are brothers and English conceptual artists who work almost exclusively in collaboration with each other. They came to prominence as part of the Young British Artists movement promoted by Charles Saatchi.
Jake Chapman was born in Cheltenham and Dinos Chapman in London. Their father was a British art teacher and their mother an orthodox Greek Cypriot. They were brought up in Cheltenham but moved to Hastings where they attended a local comprehensive before attending the University of East London's Art college in Greengate, Plaistow and then enrolling at The Royal College of Art, when they worked as assistants to the artists Gilbert and George. They began their own collaboration in 1992. The brothers have often made pieces with plastic models or fibreglass mannequins of people. An early piece consisted of eighty-three scenes of torture and disfigurement similar to those recorded by Francisco Goya in his series of etchings, Disasters of War (a work they later returned to) rendered into small three-dimensional plastic models. One of these was later turned into a life-size work, Great Deeds Against the Dead, shown along with Zygotic Acceleration, Biogenetic, De-Sublimated Libidinal Model (Enlarged x 1000) at the Sensation exhibition in 1997. The Chapman brothers continued the theme of anatomical and pornographic grotesque with a series of mannequins of children, sometimes fused together, with genitalia in place of facial features. Their sculpture Hell (2000) consisted of a large number of miniature figures of Nazis arranged in nine glass cases laid out in the shape of a swastika. In 2003 with a series of works named Insult to Injury, they altered a set of Goya's etchings by adding funny faces. As a protest against this piece, Aaron Barschak (who later became famous for gate-crashing Prince William's 21st birthday party dressed as Osama bin Laden in a frock) threw a pot of red paint over Jake Chapman during a talk he was giving in May 2003. The Chapmans' oeuvre has also referenced work by William Blake, Auguste Rodin and Nicolas Poussin. Jake Chapman has published a number of catalogue essays and pieces of art criticism in his own right, as well as a book, Meatphysics, published by Creation Books in 2003. The brothers have also designed a label for Becks beer as part of a series of limited edition labels produced by contemporary artists. Using a title from the Tim Burton film, in 2004 they curated A Nightmare Before Christmas as part of the occasional All Tomorrow's Parties music festival at Camber Sands. Jake and Dinos Chapman. Death, 2003, in the Turner Prize.The Chapman brothers were nominated for the Turner Prize in 2003. As well as including Insult to Injury, their Turner Prize exhibit debuted two new works Sex and Death. Sex directly referenced their previous work Great Deeds against the Dead. The original work shows three dismembered corpses hanging from a tree, Sex shows the same scenario, but in a heightened state of decay. Additionally clown's noses are now present on the skulls of the corpses; snakes, rats and insects (like those found in joke shops) cover the piece. Death is two sex dolls, placed on top of each other, head-to-toe in the 69 sex position: despite appearing to be made of plastic it is in fact cast in bronze and painted to look like plastic. On 24 May 2004, a fire in a storage warehouse destroyed many works from the Saatchi collection including Hell. The brothers subsequently made a very similar, though more extensive, work called Fucking Hell. In 2007, they were criticised by journalist Johann Hari for adopting an anti-Enlightenment philosophy, and for Jake Chapman saying that the boys who murdered Liverpool toddler Jamie Bulger performed "a good social service". Jake Chapman responded by calling Johann Hari "fat-faced ugly [and] four-eyed" and "a fascist", and claimed the Bulger quote and others had been "stripped from the serious debate in which they belong".
It was announced in December 2007 that the brothers would play Big Brother during 2008's Big Brother: Celebrity Hijack. They had to pull out for undisclosed reasons. In May 2008 the White Cube gallery exhibited 20 authenticated watercolours and oils painted by Adolf Hitler, which the brothers have defaced with hippie motifs. Jake Chapman described most of the dictator's works as 'awful landscapes' which they had 'prettified'. Also included in the exhibition was Fucking Hell, the (somewhat altered) remake of Hell.

Charcoal. Sticks of charred wood, usually willow. There is literary evidence that с was used as a drawing medium by the Creeks, but extant drawings date only from с 1500. It is very soft and needs to be 'fixed' if used on paper. In general it is unsuitable for detailed work but lends itself to the bold statement; it is widely used for compositional sketches because it is so easily rubbed off that corrections can be made indefinitely. It is often used in conjunction with white chalk on toned paper.

Chardin Jean-Baptiste-Simeon (1699-1779). French painter, master of still-life and genre. The son of a court craftsman, he was trained in the Rococo tradition of P.-J. Cazes and Noel-Nicolas Coypel and worked as a restorer of the Vanloo decorations at Fontainebleau. Despite this, his early work was mistaken by contemporaries for that of the Dutch masters of still-life. His modest nature, individual style and choice of subjects from everyday middle-class life retarded his success in the age of Boucher and Fragonard, but he was elected a member of the French Academy in 1728, while his genre subjects were made popular by engravers. When the court art of the 18th c. went out of favour the reputation of C. rose. The simplicity of his composition, his single figures of kitchen-maids at work and children absorbed in their games, had an influence upon the painters of everyday life in the 19th с. Manet was greatly influenced by the unstressed brilliance of C.'s still-life painting, as Courbet had been before him.

Charonton Enguerrand
. *Quarton. (b. ca. 1410, Laon, d. 1461, Avignon)
Enguerrand Charonton (or Quarton), French painter. His career is unusually well documented for a provincial artist of his date (he was active in Aix, Arles, and Avignon), but there are only two extant works that are certainly by him. These are the Virgin of Mercy (1452) in the Musée Condé at Chantilly, painted in collaboration with an obscure artist called Pierre Villatte, and the Coronation of the Virgin (1454) in the Musée de l'Hospice at Villeneuve-les-Avignon. They are both highly impressive works, uniting Flemish and Italian influence and having something of the monumental character of the sculpture of Charonton's region. Indeed, they show Charonton to have been a painter of such commanding stature that there is an increasing tendency to attribute to him the celebrated Avignon Pietà (Louvre, Paris), the greatest French painting of the period.

Chase William Merritt (1849-1916). U.S. portrait, landscape, genre and still-life painter. He went to Munich in 1872 and worked under F. Wagner and K. von Piloty; after returning to the U.S.A. he gained a great reputation as a teacher.

Chasseriau Theodore (1819-56). French historical and portrait painter and engraver. C. was born in the French West Indies; he studied in Paris and Rome, chiefly under Ingres, but was later influenced by *Delacroix and the Romantics, particularly ш his use of colour and his choice of subjects. In the Chaste Susanna this combination of firm drawing with Romantic feeling can be seen. C. painted murals for a number of churches and in the Palais D'Orsay and fashionably romanticized versions of African life; he engraved several sets of ills to Shakespeare.

Chen Hilo (American, 1942) 

Cheret Jules (1836—1932). French colour lithographer, a pioneer of the *poster, e.g. the series for the Circus Rancy in the mid-1860s. 'La Cherette', the happy, vivacious girl of his posters, was the toast of the t88os and 1890s. His flat interlocking shapes and use of colour are reflected in such works as Seurat's Le Cirque.

Chervin Catalina 1953 born in Corrientes, Argentina Lives and works in Buenos Aires. (Surrealism).

Chia  Sandro (1946- ). Italian painter, one of the new figurative, *Neo-Expressionist artists who came to prominence in the late 1970s along with the Germans *Baselitz and *Kiefer and the American *Schnabel.
chiaroscuro (It. light-dark). In painting this refers to the use of strong contrasts of light and shade for dramatic impact, as in the paintings of Caravaggio and Rembrandt.

Chiari Giuseppe  (Italian, 1926). Visual Poetry


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