(b Miesbach, Upper Bavaria, 21 Aug 1894; d
Keilberg, nr Aschaffenburg, 25 Feb 1982).
collagist, printmaker and photographer. He studied briefly at
the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich (1913–14) and in
1913 began to make Expressionist woodcuts, which were published
in magazines such as Die Aktion (Berlin), Die Weissen
Blätter (Leipzig) and Sirius (Zurich). From 1915 to
1920 he lived in Zurich and Geneva, where he was associated with
the DADA movement. He continued creating woodcuts but also made
reliefs, paintings and collages from newspaper cuttings and
other printed papers. At the same time he became interested in
abstracting photography and using it in a more metaphoric way.
In 1918, while living in Geneva, he created his first ‘schadographs’,
such as Untitled (Fish; 1918; New York, MOMA),
contact prints of collages and objects on photosensitive paper.
Like Man Ray’s rayographs and Moholy-Nagy’s photograms, these
cameraless photographs reproduced the negative image of the
textures placed on them, creating a new form of representation.