Art of the 20th Century



Postwar Developments & Contemporary Art





Art Styles in 20th century Art Map

 



The New Avant-garde & Postmodernism


 



 

               

                 
               

Contemporary Realism
Eric Fischl 

Claudio Bravo
Sidney Goodman
Warren Criswell
Bo Bartlett
Vincent Desiderio
Andrew Wyeth
Sylvia Sleigh
William Bailey
Philip Pearlstein
Avigdor Arikha
David Salle

               

Photorealism & Hyperrealism
Chuck Close

Richard Estes
Audrey Flack
Robert Cottingham

Duane Hanson
John De Andrea
Richard Phillips
John Kacere
Luciano Ventrone
Ron Mueck
Kiki Smith
Bernardo Torrens
Istvan Sandorfi
Cynthia Westwood
Hilo Chen
John Stezaker
Victor Burgin
Malcolm Morley
Barbara Kruger
Jerry Ott
Gottfried Helnwein
Denis Peterson
Latif Maulan

               

Art Now (Artists at the Rise of the New Millennium)
Cris Brodahl
Olaf Breuning
Daniele Buetti
Jake & Dinos Chapman

Keith Edmier
Damien Hirst
Mark Jenkins
Elke Krystufek
Sarah Lucas

Takashi Murakami
Yoshitomo Nara
Patricia Piccinini
Marc Quinn
Paula Rego
Mark Ryden
Jenny Saville

 




 


Contemporary Realism


 is the straightforward realistic approach to representation which continues to be widely practiced in this post-abstract era. It is different from Photorealism, which is somewhat exaggerated and ironic and conceptual in its nature.

Contemporary Realists form a disparate group, but what they share is that they are literate in the concepts of Modern Art but choose to work in a more traditional form. Many Contemporary Realists actually began as abstract painters, having come through an educational system dominated by an professors and theorists dismissive of representational painting.

Among the best-known artists associated with this movement are
William Bailey, Neil Welliver and
Philip Pearlstein. There is an identifiable "group" of Contemporary Realists, but we have used a fairly loose definition to allow inclusion of a larger number of 20th-century realists.

 



Eric Fischl



Claudio Bravo

 



Sidney Goodman



Warren Criswell

 

 



Bo Bartlett



Vincent Desiderio

 



Andrew Wyeth



Sylvia Sleigh

 

 



William Bailey



Philip Pearlstein

 

 



Avigdor Arikha



David Salle



 


Photorealism
[Hyper Realism; Super Realism].

Style of painting, printmaking and sculpture that originated in the USA in the mid-1960s, involving the precise reproduction of a photograph in paint or the mimicking of real objects in sculpture. Its pioneers included the painters Malcolm Morley, Chuck Close, Richard Estes, Audrey Flack (b 1931), Robert Bechtle (b 1932), Robert Cottingham (b 1935), Richard McLean (b 1934), Don Eddy and the English painter John Salt (b 1937), and sculptors such as Duane Hanson and John De Andrea. Though essentially an American movement, it has also had exponents in Europe, such as Franz Gertsch.
 

Hyperrealism

Hyperrealism is an emerging school of painting that grew out of the American school of photorealism. Through counterfeit photographic imagery, hyperrealist painters routinely create a simulated two-dimensional image of a three-dimensional reality. Hyperreal paintings are optically convincing visual illusions of reality based upon reductive photographic images that initially attempt to represent reality. Hyperreal paintings create an almost tangible solidity and physical presence through subtle lighting and shading effects where shapes, forms and areas closest to the forefront of the image can appear beyond the frontal plane of the canvas. Hyperrealist painters include Alicia St. Rose, Pedro Campos, Jacques Bodin, Denis Peterson,
Gottfried Helnwein, Gilles Esnault, Istvan Sandorfi, Luciano Ventrone, Latif Maulan, Luding Meng, Glennray Tutor, Suzana Stojanovic, Bert Monroy (hyperrealist digital painter), and Ron Mueck (hyperrealist sculptor).

Certain of these hyperrealists have further incorporated social, cultural and political thematic elements as an extension of a visual illusion; a distinct departure from the school of Photorealism. Denis Peterson, Gottfried Helnwein, and Latif Maulan are three provocative hyperrealist painters who have depicted the political and cultural deviations of societal decadence, its enigmatic imagery, and the aftermath of its tragic, ideological and insane consequences. Thematically, these controversial artists aggressively confront the corrupted human condition through narrative paintings as a phenomenological medium. The paintings are historical commentary on the grotesque mistreatment of human beings.

Peterson’s latest provocative work on human oppressions has focused on diasporas, genocides and refugees around the globe as a political statement through visually disturbing and highly charged images that have recorded an abhorrent period in history that has marked the decadence of the human condition. Helnwein developed unconventionally narrative work centered around past, present and future deviations of the Holocaust and its grotesque darkness. Maulan’s work is primarily a critique of society’s disregard for the helpless, the needy and the disenfranchised. These three hyperrealists have exposed totalitarian regimes and evocatively raised political and moral conflicts with third world military governments through narrative and hyperrealistic depictions of the legacy of hatred and intolerance. Subjects of these iconoclastic artists are often statuesque figures and stoic faces that eerily seem to share an internalized calm in the face of the surrounding horrors of deadly disease, impending torture, terrorizing fear and irrational hatred.

Early 21st century hyperrealism is contrasted with the similarly literal, photorealistic style found in traditional photorealist paintings of the late 20th century. Painters in both schools of art make allowances for some mechanical means of transferring images to the canvas, including preliminary drawings or grisaille underpaintings. Photographic slide projections onto canvases and rudimentary techniques such as gridding may also be used to ensure accuracy. Both styles require a high level of technical prowess and virtuosity to simulate reality; however, despite any apparent similarities, the two styles are distinctly apart from one another.

Photorealist painters tended to systemically imitate photographic images, often consciously omitting pictorial details, human emotion, political value and narrative elements. The photorealistic style of painting is uniquely tight, precise, and mechanical with an emphasis on mundane everyday imagery.

The more recent hyperrealist style tends to be much more literal as to pictorial detail with an emphasis on social, cultural or political themes. This is in stark contrast to the concurrent Photorealism with its avoidance of photographic anomalies including digital fractalization, image degradation, and subtractive versus additive color creation, i.e. CMYK versus RGB color wheels.

As such, hyperrealism incorporates and often capitalizes upon photographic limitations such as depth of field, perspective and range of focus to create a new hyperreality.
 



Chuck Close



Richard Estes



Audrey Flack

 

 

 



Robert Cottingham



Duane Hanson



John De Andrea

 

 

 



Richard Phillips



John Kacere



Luciano Ventrone

 

 

 


Ron Mueck



Kiki Smith



Bernardo Torrens

 

 

 



Istvan Sandorfi



Cynthia Westwood



Hilo Chen

 

 

 



John Stezaker



Victor Burgin 



Malcolm Morley

 

 

 



Barbara Kruger



Jerry Ott



Gottfried Helnwein

 



Denis Peterson
(born in 1944)
Moto



Latif Maulan
(born in 1974)
Butterfly Dreams

 



Art  Now
 


(Artists at the Rise of the New Millennium)
 

 



Cris Brodahl



Olaf Breuning

 

 



Daniele Buetti



Jake & Dinos Chapman

 

 



Keith Edmier



Damien Hirst

 

 



Mark Jenkins



Elke Krystufek

 

 



Sarah Lucas



Takashi Murakami

 

 



Yoshitomo Nara



Patricia Piccinini

 

 



Marc Quinn



Paula Rego

 

 



Mark Ryden



Jenny Saville

 

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