Art of the 20th Century



 



Art Styles in 20th century Art Map



 

   

 

 

 

 



Salvador Dali




If You Act the Genius, You Will Be One!  1910-1928
The Proof of Love  1929-1935
The Conguest of the Irrational 1936-1939
The Triumph of Avida Dollars  1939-1946
The Mystical Manifesto  1946-1962
Paths to Immortality  1962-1989

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appendix

Illustrations:
Biblia Sacrata, Marquis de Sade, Faust, The Art of Love,
Don Quixote, Divine Comedy, Decameron,
Casanova, Les Caprices de Goya

 


 


 
 





The Conquest of the Irrational
 



1936-1939




 


Dali at Coco Chanel's villa in Roquebrune in 1938.

 

The Invisible Object
 

On 17 January 1938, the International Surrealist Exhibition opened at the Galerie des Beaux-Arts in Paris. It was to mark the pinnacle of the movement's influence and impact. Despite his exclusion from the group, Dali was exhibited at the show, as was another shortly to be in the same position, Max Ernst. Dali's Rainy Taxi, the installation referred to by Orwell in his essay as "Mannequin Rotting in a Taxi-cab", occasioned controversy, as we have seen (Orwell was to call it "diseased and disgusting"). The Surrealists were exhibiting everywhere - from May to June at the Guildhall in Gloucester; that spring at Robert's in Amsterdam; that November at Alex Reid's and Lefevre in London; from 13 October till 4 December at the Carnegie Institute in Pittsburgh, and at the Wads-worth Atheneum in Hartford. Dali was featured in all of these shows, and also worked with Andre Breton and Paul Eluard on the Dictionnaire du Surrealisme, published by the Galerie des Beaux-Arts.

Dali was now travelling a good deal. On 19 July, accompanied by Edward James and Stefan Zweig to perform the introductions, he met Sigmund Freud in London. Zweig had written to Freud that in his view Dali was the sole genius among the painters of the age, the one whose work would endure - a fanatic, but also the most loyal of all Freud's disciples among artists. For Dali, meeting Freud was like meeting God; Julien Green noted in his diary on one occasion that Dali had spoken of Freud as a Christian would speak of the Gospels. " Contrary to my hopes," recalled Dali, "we spoke little, but we devoured each other with our eyes. Freud knew nothing about me except my painting, which he admired [...] Before his imperturbable indifference, my voice became involuntarily sharper and more insistent." The day after their meeting, Freud wrote to Zweig that he was glad to have met the young Spaniard because hitherto he had been inclined to suppose the Surrealists (who had taken him as their patron saint) complete fools. But Dali's technical mastery and fanatical gaze had persuaded him that it might indeed be worth analysing a Surrealist painting. Dali felt flattered by Freud's comment to Zweig: "I have never seen a more complete example of a Spaniard. What a fanatic!"
 


Impressions of Africa
1938

 


Apparition of Face and Fruit Dish on a Beach
1938

 


The Endless Enigma
1938


 


Invisible Afghan with the Apparition on the Beach of the Face
of Garcia Lorca in the Form of a Fruit Dish with Three Figs
1938


 


 

 

At this time, Dali frequently painted telephones or sardines (or both) on plates, as in Beach with Telephone, The Sublime Moment, Imperial Violets and The Enigma of Hitler. The telephone was a symbol of the age, of modernity: "A telephone is talking to a man," as Auden put it. In the era of appeasement and Munich, as the Second World War approached, the telephone must have seemed an emblem of menace. Dali was forever questing for the secrets of images both visible and invisible, as we clearly see in The Image Disappears, Old Age, Adolescence, Infancy (The Three Ages), and the Voltaire pictures. Later in life, in 1971, Dali recalled that for six years he systematically investigated the nature of vision and perception, only to conclude that we have not the smallest grasp of the psychological meaning of vision. We see what we are inclined to see, what we suppose we have occasion to see; and if our preconceptions are clouded, we see something else, in which event visual responses can be manipulated. Dali used an analogy from the world of radio: impressions can be broadcast in bundles, or subjected to purely psychological interference. Dali himself had eventually come to the conclusion that the adoption of psychological disguise was a real option in visual perception, and simply a question of research and experience.

 

 
Beach with Telephone
1938

 

 
Imperial Violets
1938

 


The Sublime Moment
1938

 


The Enigma of Hitler
c. 1939

 


Debris of an Automobile Giving Birth to a Blind Horse Biting a Telephone
1938

 

 
Telephone in a Dish With Three Grilled Sardines at the End of September
1939

 
 
Landscape with Telephones on a Plate
1939

 
 
The Image Disappears
1938

 

 
Study for The Image Disappears
1938

 


Metamorphosis of a Man's Bust into
a Scene Inspired by Vermeer
1939

 


Metamorphosis of a Man's Bust into
a Scene Inspired by Vermeer
1939

 


Apparition of the Figure of Vermeer on the Face of Abraham Lincoln.
Study for "The Image Disappears"
1938

 


Philosopher Illuminated by the Light of the Moon and the Setting Sun
1939

 


Enchanted Beach with Three Fluid Graces
1938


 

The Transparent Simulacrum of the Feigned Image
1938



 

The Warning
1938


 

Gradiva
1938


 

Portrait of Freud
1937


 

Portrait of Sigmund Freud
1938


 

Portrait of Sigmund Freud - Morphology of the Skull of Sigmund Freud.
Illustration for "The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí"
1938


 

Portrait of Sigmund Freud from "The Secret Life"
1939


 

Study for the Self-portrait in "Impressions of Africa"
1938

 


Study for the Self-portrait in "Impressions of Africa"
1938

 


Imaginary Figures with a Background of Spanish Monuments
(Study for the Costumes for Coco Chanel)
1938


 

Composition - Two Women with a Town in the Background
1938

 

Fantastic Beach Scene with Skeleton and Parrot
1938

 


Coccyx Women
1938


 

Beach at Cape Creus with Seated Woman
Seen from the Back Mending a Sail and Boat
1938

 

Mandolin, Fruit Dish With Pears, Two Figs on a Table
1938

 

Greyhound
1938

 

Mythological Beast
1938

 

Face of the Great Cyclopean Cretin
1938

Philosopher Reclining
1938

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