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History of Religions




History of religions

Human beings’ relation to that which they regard as holy, sacred, spiritual, or divine. Religion is commonly regarded as consisting of a person’s relation to God or to gods or spirits. Worship is probably the most basic element of religion, but moral conduct, right belief, and participation in religious institutions are generally also constituent elements of the religious life as practiced by believers and worshipers and as commanded by religious sages and scriptures.

For treatment of particular religious systems, as well as founders, reformers, and other religious personages, see

biblical literature; Buddhism; Calvinism; Christianity; Confucianism; Daoism;
Eastern Orthodoxy; Greek religion; Hinduism; Islam; Jainism; Jesus Christ; Judaism; Lutheranism; Middle Eastern religion; Moses; mystery religion; Protestantism; Roman Catholicism; Shinto; Sikhism; Zoroastrianism.

For cross-cultural discussion of religious beliefs and practices, see

ceremonial object; creed; death rite; dietary law; doctrine and dogma; feast; myth; nature worship; prayer; purification rite; religious dress; religious experience; religious symbolism and iconography; rite of passage; ritual; sacrament; sacrifice; sacred; theology; worship.

For philosophical and ethical aspects, see
ethics; metaphysics; philosophy of science.

For a review of the efforts to systematically study the nature and classify the forms of religious experience, see
philosophy of religion;
study of religion.

see also:
DAVID HUME "The Natural History of Religion"
A Brief History of Western Philosophy

Egyptian religion
Key Ideas: Judaism; The history of Judaism
Hinduism, Buddhism, Daoism, Confucianism, Shinto; Hundred Schools of Thought
Greek Mythology
Manichaeism; Zoroaster
Key Ideas: Christianity; The history of Christianity
Key Ideas: Islam
In Focus: The Reformation; Reformation; Lutheranism; Protestantism; Calvinism



Rite of passage

ceremonial event, existing in all historically known societies, that marks the passage from one social or religious status to another. This article describes these rites among various societies throughout the world, giving greatest attention to the most common types of rites; explains their purposes from the viewpoints of the people observing the rites; and discusses their social, cultural, and psychological significance as seen by scholars seeking to gain an understanding of human behaviour.

Nature and significance
Many of the most important and common rites of passage are connected with the biological crises, or milestones, of life—birth, maturity, reproduction, and death—that bring changes in social status and, therefore, in the social relations of the people concerned. Other rites of passage celebrate changes that are wholly cultural, such as initiation into societies composed of people with special interests—for example, fraternities. Rites of passage are universal, and presumptive evidence from archaeology (in the form of burial finds) strongly suggests that they go back to very early times. One aspect of rites of passage that is often overlooked by interpreters (perhaps because it appears obvious) is the role of the rites in providing entertainment. Passage rites and other religious events have in the past been the primary socially approved means of participating in pleasurable activities, and religion has been a primary vehicle for art, music, song, dance, and other forms of aesthetic experience.

The worldwide distribution of these rites long ago attracted the attention of scholars, but the first substantial interpretation of them as a class of phenomena was presented in 1909 by the French anthropologist and folklorist Arnold van Gennep, who coined the phrase rites of passage. Van Gennep saw such rites as means by which individuals are eased, without social disruption, through the difficulties of transition from one social role to another. On the basis of an extensive survey of preliterate and literate societies, van Gennep held that rites of passage consist of three distinguishable, consecutive elements: separation, transition, and reincorporation—or, respectively, preliminal, liminal, and postliminal stages (before, at, and past the limen [Latin: “threshold”]). The person (or persons) on whom the rites centre is first symbolically severed from his old status, then undergoes adjustment to the new status during the period of transition, and is finally reincorporated into society in his new social status. Although the most commonly observed rites relate to crises in the life cycle, van Gennep saw the significance of the ceremonies as being social or cultural, celebrating important events that are primarily sociocultural or human-made rather than biological.

Classification of rites
No scheme of classification of passage rites has met with general acceptance, although many names have been given to distinguishable types of rites and to elements of rites. The name purification ceremonies, for example, refers to an element of ritual that is very common in rites of passage and also in other kinds of religious events. In most instances, the manifest goal of purification is to prepare the individual for communication with the supernatural, but purification in rites of passage may also be seen to have the symbolic significance of erasing an old status in preparation for a new one (see also purification rite).

Other names that have been given to passage rites often overlap. Life-cycle ceremonies and crisis rites are usually synonymous terms referring to rites connected with the biological crises of life, but some modern scholars have included among crisis rites the ritual observances aimed at curing serious illnesses. Ceremonies of social transformation and of religious transformation overlap and, similarly, overlap crisis rites. Religious transformations, such as baptism and rites of ordination, always involve social transformations; social transformations such as at coming-of-age and induction into office may also bring new religious statuses, and life-cycle ceremonies similarly may or may not involve changes in religious statuses. It is nevertheless sometimes useful to distinguish the various rites by these names.

Classification of rites » Life-cycle ceremonies
Life-cycle ceremonies are found in all societies, although their relative importance varies. The ritual counterparts of the biological crises of the life cycle include numerous kinds of rites celebrating childbirth, ranging from “baby showers” and rites of pregnancy to rites observed at the actual time of childbirth and, as exemplified by the Christian sacrament of baptism and the fading rite of churching of women, to a ceremony of thanksgiving for mothers soon after childbirth. These rites involve the parents as well as the child and in some societies include the couvade, which in its so-called classic form centres ritual attention at childbirth upon the father rather than the mother. At this time the father follows elaborate rules of ritual procedure that may include taking to bed, simulating labour pains, and symbolically enacting the successful birth of a child.

In all societies some ritual observances surround childbirth, marriage, and death, though the degree of elaboration of the rites varies greatly even among societies of comparable levels of cultural development. Rites at coming-of-age are the most variable in time in the life span and may be present or absent. In some societies such rites are observed for only one sex, are elaborate for one sex and simple for the other, or are not observed for either sex. Characteristically, rites at coming-of-age are not generally observed in modern industrial and postindustrial societies. For example, the Jewish bar mitzvah and bat mitzvah and Protestant confirmation are, in their current forms, more or less vestiges of formerly important religious rites. Similarly, in East Asia, performances of rites at coming-of-age have waned in recent times. The elaborate rites observed a century ago in Japan, for example, when young men and young women reached social maturity are only rarely observed today and are virtually unknown to the general population.

Death is given social attention in all societies, and the observances are generally religious in intent and import. In societies that fear dead bodies, the deceased may be abandoned, but they are nevertheless the focus of ritual attention. Most commonly, rites at death are elaborate, and they include clearly all of the stages of separation, transition, and reincorporation first noted by van Gennep (see death rite).

Classification of rites » Ceremonies of social transformation
Ceremonies of social transformation include all the life-cycle ceremonies, since these involve social transitions for the subjects of the ritual and also for other persons. A man or woman who dies, for example, assumes a new social role as a spirit that may be socially important to the living, the bereaved spouse becomes a widow or widower, and the children have an unnamed but changed status as lacking one parent.

A vast number of rites of social transformation, such as rites of initiation into common-interest societies, have no direct or primary connection with biological changes, however. These are abundant in the United States and in Europe, usually as secular ceremonies. In lineage-based or tribal societies, rites of this kind mark induction into age-graded societies, principally limited to males, and a variety of common-interest societies such as warrior societies, curing societies (special groups whose purpose is to cure illnesses), and graded men’s societies that are hierarchically ranked in prestige. Whether hereditary or achieved by appointment or election, assumption of important office in various kinds of societies is often observed by elaborate ritual. Any other events involving changes in social status tend to become the subjects of institutionalized ritual, which is then a prerequisite for the new status. Common examples are initiation ceremonies of college fraternities, sororities, and honorary societies; adult fraternal societies; and social groups of other kinds centred on common interests. Other social changes of importance that apply to a substantial number of people but do not involve initiation into organized social groups are also given ritual attention. Common among these are graduation exercises, festivities marking retirement from work, and various kinds of award ceremonies.

Classification of rites » Ceremonies of religious transformation
Religious transformation ceremonies signal changes in religious status, which may be matters of the greatest importance to the people. Making sacrifices and offerings are rituals that may be required in the normal course of life; further, these acts may be regarded as conferring a new religious status or state of grace. Sacrifices are a frequent feature of rites of passage, and important ceremonies like the coronations and funerals of rulers have sometimes required the sacrifice of many human beings. Among the laity, entry into a religious society or the assumption of any other new religious role is customarily an event celebrated by such rites as those of baptism and confirmation. Among professional religious personnel, the achievement of any distinct status of specialization is ordinarily observed by rites corresponding to the Christian rites of ordination—the rites through which religious functionaries become entitled to exercise their respective functions. As with other rites of passage, these rites may be simple or complex, and their degree of complexity may generally be easily seen as reflecting the religious and social importance of the newly acquired status. A single element of an elaborate rite in one society, such as circumcision or the dressing of the hair in a distinctive way, may in another society be the central or sole event of rites of either social or religious transformation. These ceremonies may, accordingly, be called rites of circumcision or be identified by the name of the style of hairdress.

Classification of rites » Other ceremonies
The term rites of passage is applied occasionally to institutionalized rites for curing serious illness and rarely to cyclic ceremonies like harvest festivals. No new social or religious status is ordinarily gained by recovery from illness or participation in harvest rites, however, and these ceremonies have probably been included among the rites of passage because of similarities in their ritual procedures. In some societies recovery from a very critical illness is regarded as a divine sign that the erstwhile invalid should assume the role of a religious specialist, but rites of ordination are quite separate. Some elements of ceremonies pertaining to changes in the seasons may be seen as incorporating acts of separation and incorporation, symbolically saying goodbye to the old season and welcoming the new, but these are not customarily called rites of passage.

Divorce, although clearly denoting a change in social status, has rarely been regarded as a rite of passage. Festive observances at this time are perhaps common in some societies, but they are often informal practices of the individual or simple acts of local custom, such as discarding wedding rings, that are not institutionalized in the entire society. The absence of divorce from the conventional roster of rites of passage illustrates an outstanding characteristic of this class of rites: all celebrate events that are either socially approved or, like death and illness, unavoidable. Rites of passage that signal the assumption of social statuses disapproved by society are both out of keeping with the prevailing interpretation of the rites as being socially supportive and would broaden them to cover such events as trials by jury and commitment to prison for serious crimes.

Classification of rites » Symbolic aspects of ceremonies
Whatever their subclassification, elaborate rites of passage are commonly rich in symbolism that prominently includes representations of the states of separation and transition and, especially, insignia of the new status. Most common among these markers of new status are alterations and embellishments of visible or invisible parts of the body, distinctive garments and bodily decorations, and insignias corresponding to symbols of office. All parts of the body that may be altered or embellished without ordinarily causing serious disability have served as the symbols of social statuses and have been elements of rites of passage. Outstanding among these insignias are special styles of hairdress, clothing, and ornaments; the filing, staining, and removal of teeth; the wearing of ornaments in pierced ears, noses, or lips; tattoos or their counterpart of scarification, which produces designs in relief; and circumcision or other genital operations (see religious dress).

Several motifs or themes of symbolism commonly recur among societies widely separated from each other geographically and culturally. One such theme symbolizes death and rebirth into the new status. Initiates may be ceremonially “killed” in a simulated sacrifice and then made symbolically to act like infants who, during the rites, are made to mature into their new statuses. Another common form of symbolism makes use of doors or other portals that signify entry into the new social domain. Ordeals are a rather common feature of coming-of-age ceremonies for both males and females, and they are also used in rites of initiation into men’s societies of various kinds. Success in passing the ordeals is customary and signifies mastery of the roles that are to be assumed.

A universal feature of rites of passage is the proscription of certain kinds of ordinary behaviour. Sexual continence is a common rule, as is the prohibition of ordinary work such as farming, hunting, and fishing. Many rites prohibit certain behaviour or prescribe the reverse of ordinary behaviour. Among Native Americans of the western United States, for example, a taboo against scratching the body with the fingers was common during ritual periods. In other societies, ritual behaviour required that the subjects of ritual sit in a remarkable fashion, wear articles of clothing inside out or backward, or wear the clothing of the opposite sex. These acts all may be seen as dramatizations, by contrast, of the events that they celebrate, thereby making them memorable.

The early work of the British anthropologists Victor Turner and Mary Douglas paid particular attention to ritual symbols. Turner investigated the use of symbols in rites of passage and other rituals. According to him, the symbols developed and employed within social systems represent oppositions, tensions, and cleavages that rites were designed to resolve. Douglas highlighted the ways in which the human body serves as a “natural symbol” of pollution and purity during rites of passage and other rituals within social systems based on taboo. Through altering or embellishing the body during the course of a rite, the body becomes “inscribed” with meaning through which a society communicates whether an individual or group is considered polluted or pure.

Classification of rites » A representative example
Rites of passage marking very important events customarily include all three stages described by van Gennep: separation, transition, and reincorporation. A representative example is afforded by the traditional rites surrounding childbirth as these were commonly observed in Japan until the mid-20th century. Observances began when a woman learned she was pregnant. Partly for stated reasons of promoting health and partly for supernaturalistic reasons, she thenceforth abstained from certain foods and ate others. During the fifth month of pregnancy she donned a special girdle, ordinarily procured from a Buddhist temple and supernaturally blessed. Relatives offered prayers for the well-being of the woman and her child.

When birth seemed imminent, she was isolated from all other persons except the women who attended her. She then remained in isolation for a fixed number of days after parturition. This period was most commonly 33 days, divided into stages proceeding from severe restriction of her acts to final complete resumption of all normal activities. At first she had to follow a number of special rules of diet and could not perform normal household tasks. During the period of isolation, the mother was regarded as polluted from the flow of blood during childbirth and therefore dangerous to other people and dangerous or offensive to supernatural beings of the Shintō religious pantheon. She could not make the usual offerings or say prayers before the household shrines to Shintō gods or have any other kind of contact with them. To avoid offending the sun goddess, her clothing and that of her child when laundered could never be hung in direct sunlight to dry but instead were placed in the shadows of the eaves of the house. For the same reason, she covered her head with a cloth when she stepped outside the house near the end of the period of isolation. Water and cloths used in washing the mother after parturition were considered polluted and were buried in the ground beneath the floor of the room of confinement.

After a fixed number of days passed, the mother was permitted to resume bathing and again perform some, but not all, of her ordinary work in the house. Other restrictions on behaviour were removed at fixed times. When the full period had passed, the mother and her female aides performed a ceremony of purification by sprinkling salt on the mother and on the floors of the dwelling. The beginning of a new, normal period free from pollution was also symbolized by kindling a new fire in the household cooking stove. Now ready to return to normal life, the mother ate a ceremonial meal with other members of the family and resumed ordinary relationships with supernatural beings and other members of the community.

Primary rites of passage
In simple societies dependent for subsistence upon hunting and gathering, in which social groups are small and specialization in labour is limited to distinctions by sex and age, no social statuses may exist except those of child, adult, male, female, and disembodied spirit. Among simple societies that are somewhat more advanced technologically and culturally, however, specialized groups based upon common interests appear, and these customarily require rites of induction or initiation. In culturally sophisticated societies with elaborate divisions of labour, social statuses of leadership and specialized occupation are multiple. If all societies of the world, preliterate and literate, are considered, the most commonly recurrent rites of passage are those connected with the normal but critical events in the human life span—birth, attainment of physical maturity, mating and reproduction, and death.

Primary rites of passage » Birth rites
Rites surrounding the birth of a child are often a complex of distinct rituals that prescribe different behaviours on the part of the mother, the father, other relatives, and nonfamilial members of society with respect to the newborn. Observances may begin when pregnancy is first noted and may continue until the time of delivery, when the full rite of passage is observed, and for a variable period of time afterward. In many simple societies, as in European societies of the past, the expectant mother is isolated from other members of society at this time for the stated reason that the blood that flows during childbirth has inherently harmful qualities. Where this belief is strong, the classic couvade may be practiced. Regions of the world in which the couvade was formerly common include the Amazon basin (aboriginal South America), Corsica, the Basque areas of France and Spain, and among various societies of Asia. Old ethnological writings created the impression that ritual attention is limited entirely to the father, but later investigations made it appear doubtful that the mother in any society is free from ritual requirements. In many societies, rites that have been called the couvade are observed by both parents. The anthropologist Alfred L. Kroeber (1876–1960) reported that among most of the many tribes of aboriginal California, rites at childbirth were much alike for both mother and father. To prevent harm to their child and to other people during the ritual period, the parents observed food taboos and performed as little work as possible. They ate in seclusion and avoided contact with other people. They also refrained from various other acts of ordinary behaviour, including cooking, touching tools, and eating salt, meat, and fish. Women often were under injunctions to scratch themselves only with a stick or a bone for fear that their nails at this time would leave permanent scars on their bodies.

Practices of sympathetic and contagious magic relating to birth and the later well-being of both child and mother are abundant and diverse. Among the First Nations people of British Columbia, the mother inserted a smooth beachstone, an eel, or other slippery object under her garment at the neckline, permitting it to slide to the ground to symbolize and ensure a quick and successful childbirth. In societies of Southeast Asia and Indonesia, religious specialists dressed as women simulated successful delivery. Rites directed toward the newborn similarly symbolize or ensure health and well-being; after some days, weeks, or months have passed, these rites often include baptism or other ritual acts that introduce the child to supernatural beings. Both child and mother are often regarded as being defenseless at this time, and many ritual acts have the purpose of protecting them from harmful supernatural beings and forces. In Southeast Asia and Indonesia, a practice called mother roasting, which requires that the mother be placed for some days over or near a fire, appears once to have had the goal of protecting the mother from such evil influences. This practice survives today in an altered form in the rural Philippines, where it is regarded as having therapeutic value.

Native explanations of the ritual procedures at childbirth reflect beliefs of a mystic affinity between parent and child, and many of the prescriptions have the manifest goals of preventing harm to the infant until it is able to fend for itself. Among South American Indians practicing the classic couvade, this belief of affinity between father and child relates to the soul, which is not fully transmitted to the child until the end of the ritual period.

In addition to the social (communal) and psychological significances of birth rites already noted, scholars have offered interpretations of these ceremonies as reinforcing familial ties. The classic couvade was seen by anthropologist Bronisław Malinowski as a sympathetic symbolic stressing of the relationship between the husband and the wife and her kin, which is instituted when the child is born. In addition to serving as a means of allaying husbandly anxiety over the welfare of the wife, the practices of the couvade establish social paternity, which in turn promotes familial and societal solidarity.

Primary rites of passage » Initiation rites
The most prevalent of rites of initiation among societies of the world are those observed at puberty. These have frequently been called puberty rites, but, as van Gennep argued long ago, this name is inappropriate. Puberty among females is often defined as the time of the onset of menses (the menstrual flow), but no such clearly identifiable point exists in the sexual maturation of males. Moreover, the age at which rites of attaining maturity are observed vary greatly from society to society, going far beyond the normal range of years at which sexual maturity is attained. The definition of maturation is thus seen to be largely social or cultural rather than solely biological.

The full range of stages of passage rites is often followed in rituals at coming-of-age. Ordeals or other tests of manhood and womanhood are also common. Some of these practices in preliterate societies seem incomprehensible or absurd until their nature as evidence of qualification for the new social statuses is understood. Among the Bemba tribe of Africa, for example, girls were required to catch water insects with their mouths and to kill a tethered chicken by sitting on its head. Circumcision or other genital operations are also a fairly common feature of rites celebrating or marking the attainment of maturity. Although most commonly applying to males, genital operations are performed on females in a few societies. Female genital cutting—which has received international attention and has been condemned by human rights advocates since the 1980s—may have psychological significance following Freudian lines of interpretation, but it seems clear that it is also significant as an insignia of social status. Where circumcision is the practice for male initiates, the uncircumcised male is not a full-fledged adult. It may be remembered that at this time other parts of the body are also modified: by incision, piercing, filing, tattooing, or other practices that are not painful. Circumcision may in fact have no direct relation to the attainment of sexual maturity. In aboriginal Samoa, boys were circumcised at any age from 3 to 20.

An outstanding feature of rites at coming-of-age that generally is less prominent or absent from other rites of passage is their emphasis upon instruction in behaviour appropriate to the status of adults. Instruction in dress, speech, deportment, and morality may be given over a period of months. Very commonly, instruction is first given at this time in matters of religion that have heretofore been kept secret, and initiates may at this time be expected or required to commune with the supernatural, sometimes by means of revelatory trances induced by fasting, violent physical exertion, or the consumption of plant substances that produce hallucinations or otherwise alter the sensibilities.

Separation of male initiates from their mothers and all other females is also common, and ritual events may dramatize the transition from a world of women and children to one that is ideally male. Symbolism of these rites dramatizes the separation in ways such as requiring the young men to temporarily wear the clothing of women and rigid exclusion of all females from participation in the rites.

Among the technologically and scientifically advanced societies of the world, initiation rites have become increasingly secular. The great religions of the world all included rites at coming-of-age, but for much of the modern population of these nations the rites either are not observed or are simply vestiges of the old religious ceremonies. The most common rites of initiation are predominantly or wholly secular ceremonies conducted to celebrate such events as entry into a common-interest association or graduation from school. Rites of initiation such as into age-graded groups or common-interest societies follow essentially the same pattern as those at coming-of-age, and their simplicity or elaboration may be correlated with the importance of the new statuses.

The significance of initiation rites of all kinds as seen by social scientists is the same as that of other rites of passage. Some emphasis is given to their didactic value and to their significance in sex-role identification. One question that has not been answered is why rites at coming-of-age are so poorly developed today among the technologically advanced societies of the world. Many factors, including changed views of the nature of the universe and changed social conditions, appear to have contributed to the decline of rites of passage. The supernaturalism traditionally present in the rites is no longer acceptable to many people, and in the United States and parts of Europe the association of adult status with sexual maturity as expressed in the term “puberty rites” has been unwelcome, a matter to be excluded from notice rather than celebrated. Probably far more important in discouraging the rites has been the extreme variation in the age of social maturity—for example, in the United States the age at which one may legally drive a car, enter into marriage, own and control property, buy alcoholic drinks and tobacco, enter military service, and vote. This age may differ for some of those activities from state to state and even within a state. The demands of modern civilization have, moreover, lengthened the age of social maturity, the time at which one is an economically productive member of society, and, dependent upon the number of years of formal education, have produced greater variation in the age of full social maturity. The social and psychological value of rites of coming-of-age in making the transition to adulthood appears to be substantial, but modern cultural circumstances seem incompatible with the conduct of such rites.

Primary rites of passage » Marriage rites
It is assumed by anthropologists that marriage is one of the earliest social institutions invented, and, as already noted, rites of marriage are observed in every historically known society. These rites vary from extremes of elaboration to utmost simplicity, and they may be secular events or religious ceremonies. Subclasses of rites of marriage, named and unnamed, exist in many societies, beginning with ceremonies of betrothal that require complex formalities of transfer and exchange of goods, which are often regarded as compensation to the bride’s kin group for their loss of the bride. Ceremonies of dramatic sham “capture” of the bride by the groom and his relatives and friends have been common in both preliterate and literate societies. Marriage in these societies is seen by social scientists as a cooperative liaison between two different groups of kin, between which some feelings of hostility exist. Ceremonies of token capture are conducted even when betrothal and all other arrangements for marriage have long been completed to the expressed satisfaction of both sides, and the sham captures are interpreted as socially sanctioned channels for the expression and relief of feelings of hostility between the two kin groups. In some historically known societies of Africa, such sham battles between kin of brides and grooms may occur, with full societal approval, for years after a marriage during any kind of religious rite.

Like rites at coming-of-age, ceremonies at marriage have often included clearly visible insignia of the new social status, in such forms as wedding rings, distinctive hair dress and garments, and tattoos, ornaments, or other embellishments that are regarded also as being decorative. Traditionally, preliminary rites have often provided instruction in the wifely role. Such instruction might be informal or conducted as a part of ritual. Rites of marriage proper also often give instruction through mimicry, dancing, and other symbolic acts that dramatically depict the woman’s role in society, expressing her economic and social obligations and privileges with reference to her children, husband, other relatives, and still other members of society. Tests of maturity and rites with the purpose of promoting fertility have also commonly been included.

In addition to sharing the functional significances of other passage rites, marriage ceremonies may be seen especially to stress social bonds between husband and wife and their kin groups. In most societies and during most of human history, romantic love has not been the means by which spouses are selected. Convention, often strongly sanctioned, has limited marriage to only certain classes of people. Mutual attraction between the spouses has historically been a matter of little or no importance. The importance of marriage with respect to spouses, children, other kin, and the orderly maintenance of society is readily inferable. Rites of marriage place a sanction on unions of marriage that may be very powerful and thus serve as both a means of conducting an orderly and satisfying life and also as sanctions for the orderly maintenance of society. A general correlation may be seen between the degree of elaboration of marriage rites and the social importance of enduring marriages in the society in question. Where, as in some of the large industrial and postindustrial countries of the world, marriage rites are simple and sometimes secular, a host of other sanctions operate similarly to foster lasting unions.

Sanction by society of a stable relationship and protection under society’s laws are among the social benefits pursued—and in many cases achieved—by homosexuals in modern postindustrial countries. In the late 20th century and at the beginning of the 21st century, some European countries and Canada legalized marriage for homosexual couples. In the United States, a few individual states—beginning with Massachusetts in 2004—legalized same-sex marriage. Others instituted civil unions, an alternative to marriage that extends some but not all of the legal benefits of marriage to homosexual partners. Many organized religions refused to perform marriage rites or civil union rites for people of the same sex. Nevertheless, rites of religious union short of marriage were frequently performed within some Christian denominations and Jewish congregations in Western societies, sometimes with the support of authority figures; certain other religious communities—for example, some Unitarian Universalist congregations—did perform marriage rites for gay and lesbian couples.

Primary rites of passage » Death rites
All human societies have beliefs in souls or spirits and an afterlife, and all conduct rituals when people die. (For a detailed discussion of rituals associated with death, see death rite.)

Theoretical perspectives
From its beginning, the study of rites of passage has attempted to account for similarities and differences between the rites of different societies. The similarities are striking and doubtless reflect the close similarity in ways of human thought. Modern attempts to account for similarities and differences have generally given little attention to and reached no consensus concerning the nature of the innate psychological factors involved in the genesis of the rites. Attempts to understand rites of passage have instead generally been sociocultural interpretations that view rites as part of an integrated sociocultural system, the human-made part of human life. Religion and rites of passage are thus seen as elements in a system that affect and are affected by other elements, such as the means of gaining a livelihood and the manner in which society is aligned in groups.

Most modern analysts have accordingly interpreted both differences and similarities in rites of passage in terms of their sociocultural context. The inventive and symbolic capabilities of humankind are treated as a constant factor, and analytic attention is given to differences and similarities in the sociocultural contexts in which rites are found. In attempting to understand why marriage is an extremely elaborate rite in one society and a very simple one in another, for example, scholars have looked to the social order and to the manner of gaining a livelihood to judge the relative importance of the enduring unions of spouses.

Theoretical perspectives » Structural functionalism
Following the view that culture, including the social order, composes a coherent, inclusive system, much modern scholarship has interpreted rites of passage in terms of their functional significance in the social system. According to the school of social science known as structural functionalism, each of the institutions, relationships, roles, and norms that together constitute a society serves a purpose, and each is indispensable for the continued existence of the others and of society as a whole. Scholars of religion who adopt a structural functionalist perspective generally accept van Gennep’s views about the social and psychological significance of rites of passage, which they see as helping to maintain societies in a “steady state” or to preserve the status quo. Such rites relieve the stress that individuals feel when great changes or rearrangements in their lives occur, and they provide instruction in and approval of the new roles that may arise through such occasions. The rites are also seen to support social stability in various ways: by providing clear instruction to all members of society to continue life in normal fashion when confronted by new social alignments; by affirming the social and moral values expressed and thus sanctioned as part of the ceremonies; and by fostering social unity through joint acts and joint expression of values.

Edward Norbeck

In his classic study The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life (1912), the French sociologist Émile Durkheim located the source of the moral authority of rites of passage in the social force or pressure exerted through the assembled members of a society. This pressure, the consciousness of a shared identity that is enhanced through common rituals, compels individual persons to conform themselves to their society’s norms. Religious rites in particular exert such moral pressure owing to their ostensibly divine sanction. The structural functionalists in anthropology—most notably Bronisław Malinowski and A.R. Radcliffe-Brown—built upon Durkheim’s vision of rites and further developed the notion that a society utilizes public rites to order its members and thus to function in an orderly way.

The American anthropologist Clifford Geertz offered an explanation of how rites encourage conformity to a society’s structural status quo. Rites of passage dramatize a society’s worldview in ways that evoke certain emotions, which in turn provide experiential evidence for claims about the composition of the world and about the ways one should live within it. Thus, rites of passage support the reasonableness of a particular worldview and lifestyle by seeming to attune human experience to the cosmic order.

Theoretical perspectives » Victor Turner and anti-structure
From the 1960s through the early 1980s, the classic structural functionalist view of rites of passage was challenged and revised. The charge was led by the British anthropologist Victor Turner, who acknowledged the contribution of structural functionalism to the study of rites of passage and of the broader category of ritual while pointing out its limitations. In his study of African rites of passage, The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure (1969), Turner revealed the drama and flux of everyday social life and highlighted the agency of rites in effecting social change, which he considered to be their fundamental role. Building upon van Gennep’s observation that rites of passage and other rituals are liminal in that they temporarily extricate participants from their social statuses, Turner argued that rites of passage are antithetical to existing social structure and “subjunctive” because they invite new possibilities. Rites enable participants to experiment with alternative social relations or to invent new ones.

Participants in rites of passage may also engage in role reversal. Among the Ndembu people of Zimbabwe, for example, the crown-elect takes on the role of a commoner. In many cases participants also experience one another in spontaneous and direct ways as equals, a phenomenon that Turner labeled “communitas.” He observed that adolescent Ndembu males undergoing ritual initiation into manhood experience a communitarian bond while they are separated from their tribe. Liminality and communitas, which together constitute “ritual anti-structure,” call attention to the arbitrariness and artificiality of social structure and social norms.

A second role of rites of passage, according to Turner, is that they direct the attention of a society’s members to their community. Turner understood ritual and social structure to stand in a dialectical relationship. Ritual, including rites of passage, emerges in response to structure and its limitations. Structure has the positive quality of organizing a society so it can meet its material needs, yet it also draws distinctions between human beings. Although structure is a basic human need, according to Turner, so are directness and equality. Ritual’s fundamental purpose, then, is to infuse everyday social statuses and roles with communitas, thus putting them in the service of human community and the common good.

Turner supported this thesis with another example from his study of the rite of passage for newly elected Ndembu kings. The rite in which the crown-elect, en route to his elevation as king, assumes the role of a commoner includes ritual humiliation. He is stripped of his royal stature and given lowly status before he is exalted. Humiliation serves to remind the future king that his office is designed to serve the people and their common needs rather than his own self-interest. In Turner’s view, rituals that support the structural status quo were at one time “corralled” by those with a vested interest in maintaining existing social relations. The social and ritual authorities who are concerned with maintaining the status quo often attempt to control rites of passage, which proscribe social statuses and identities in the face of changes and crises that may alter or challenge the standing social order. In such cases, ritual’s liminal, subversive, and innovative capacity is “circumscribed.”

Theoretical perspectives » Later theories
Many scholars who emphasized the functional significance of rites of passage tended to reduce them—and religion in general—to their social utility; others gave primacy to it. These reductionist approaches, according to some critics, often minimized or ignored the significance of the symbolic content of religious rites of passage and of religion itself. The development of religious studies as an academic discipline in the early 20th century helped to draw attention to the existential and philosophical significance of religious beliefs and symbols for adherents of religions. Scholars of religious studies have emphasized the symbolic content of religious rites while examining belief systems and other symbolic dimensions in historical and social contexts. In a similar vein, the 20th-century American anthropologist Barbara Myerhoff and others have called attention to the personal dimension of rites of passage and to the individual’s own experience of the human life cycle. These scholars of religion approach religious belief and experience as phenomena that have significance and are worthy of study in their own right. In their attempt to understand religion from the point of view of practitioners, some scholars have undergone ritual initiation into the religious community or group that is the subject of their study. The contemporary American anthropologist Karen McCarthy Brown, for example, was initiated into the ranks of Haitian Vodou priestesses.

Some contemporary scholars of religion have attempted to reinvent rites of passage for the many individuals who feel that the established religions of their societies do not address their needs. The American ritual theorist Ronald Grimes, who founded the interdisciplinary field of ritual studies, has attempted to transcend detached scientific analysis by encouraging individuals to cultivate rites of passage and other rituals that would address existential crises in their own lives and enable them to discover personal meaning. Grimes created new rites for his own life and encouraged his university students to do the same; most reported that the new rites were more effective than traditional rites in helping them come to terms with life-changing events.

Bobby C. Alexander

Additional Reading » Theoretical works
Émile Durkheim, The Elementary Forms of Religious Life, trans. by Karen E. Fields (1995; originally published in French, 1912), is a foundational text in the social-scientific study of religious phenomena. Arnold van Gennep, The Rites of Passage (1960, reissued 2004; originally published in French, 1901), is a pioneering study and a standard work on passage rites. James George Frazer, The Golden Bough, 3rd ed. rev. and enlarged, 12 vol. (1906–15, reissued 2002), a classic work, discusses rites of passage and many other features of religion. A.M. Hocart, Social Origins (1954), is an interesting though somewhat dated interpretive work. Victor W. Turner, Dramas, Fields, and Metaphors: Symbolic Action in Human Society (1974), develops his theory of ritual. Mary Douglas, Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo (1966, reissued 2005), is a classic study of the sex and role reversal that is common to initiation rites. Ronald L. Grimes, Marrying & Burying: Rites of Passage in a Man’s Life (1995), is an autobiographical account of inventing rites of passage for birth, marriage, and death.

Additional Reading » Case studies
Frank W. Young, Initiation Ceremonies (1965), concerns rites of coming-of-age, interpreting their significance in relation to the social roles of males and females and the organization of social groups. David Schneider and Kathleen Gough (eds.), Matrilineal Kinship (1961, reprinted 1974), is also a discussion of patrilineal kinship. Bruno Bettelheim, Symbolic Wounds, new rev. ed. (1962), is a Freudian-inspired work interpreting ritual acts of circumcision and other genital operations. Eliot Dismore Chapple and Carleton S. Coon, Principles of Anthropology (1942, reprinted 1978), has useful information on social interaction, social equilibrium and disruption, and the role of rites of passage in restoring equilibrium. Mircea Eliade, Birth and Rebirth: The Religious Meanings of Initiation in Human Culture (1958; also published as Rites and Symbols of Initiation: The Mysteries of Birth and Rebirth, 1965, reissued 1995), studies rites of initiation in Classical civilizations and less scientifically and technologically developed societies.

Bobby C. Alexander



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