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History of Religions




History of religions

Human beings’ relation to that which they regard as holy, sacred, spiritual, or divine. Religion is commonly regarded as consisting of a person’s relation to God or to gods or spirits. Worship is probably the most basic element of religion, but moral conduct, right belief, and participation in religious institutions are generally also constituent elements of the religious life as practiced by believers and worshipers and as commanded by religious sages and scriptures.

For treatment of particular religious systems, as well as founders, reformers, and other religious personages, see

biblical literature; Buddhism; Calvinism; Christianity; Confucianism; Daoism;
Eastern Orthodoxy; Greek religion; Hinduism; Islam; Jainism; Jesus Christ; Judaism; Lutheranism; Middle Eastern religion; Moses; mystery religion; Protestantism; Roman Catholicism; Shinto; Sikhism; Zoroastrianism.

For cross-cultural discussion of religious beliefs and practices, see

ceremonial object; creed; death rite; dietary law; doctrine and dogma; feast; myth; nature worship; prayer; purification rite; religious dress; religious experience; religious symbolism and iconography; rite of passage; ritual; sacrament; sacrifice; sacred; theology; worship.

For philosophical and ethical aspects, see
ethics; metaphysics; philosophy of science.

For a review of the efforts to systematically study the nature and classify the forms of religious experience, see
philosophy of religion;
study of religion.

see also:
DAVID HUME "The Natural History of Religion"
A Brief History of Western Philosophy

Egyptian religion
Key Ideas: Judaism; The history of Judaism
Hinduism, Buddhism, Daoism, Confucianism, Shinto; Hundred Schools of Thought
Greek Mythology
Manichaeism; Zoroaster
Key Ideas: Christianity; The history of Christianity
Key Ideas: Islam
In Focus: The Reformation; Reformation; Lutheranism; Protestantism; Calvinism



Doctrine and dogma

the explication and officially acceptable version of a religious teaching. The development of doctrines and dogmas has significantly affected the traditions, institutions, and practices of the religions of the world. Doctrines and dogmas also have influenced and been influenced by the ongoing development of secular history, science, and philosophy.

Distinctions between doctrine and dogma
Doctrine in theology (Latin doctrina; Greek didaskalia, didachē) is a generic term for the theoretical component of religious experience. It signifies the process of conceptualizing the primal—often experiential or intuitive—insights of the faith of a religious community in support of rationally understood belief. Doctrines seek to provide religion with intellectual systems for guidance in the processes of instruction, discipline, propaganda, and controversy. Dogma (Latin decretum, Greek dogma) has come to have a more specific reference to the distillate of doctrines: those first (basic or axiomatic) principles at the heart of doctrinal reflection, professed as essential by all the faithful.

This distinction appears in Christianity in the New Testament, in which didaskalia means “basic teachings” (as in I and II Tim.) whereas dogma is used only in the sense of an official judgment or decree (as in Acts 16:4). Later, however, many theologians of the early church (including, for example, Origen, St. Cyril of Jerusalem, and St. Jerome) use the term dogma in the sense of doctrine. In Eastern Christianity, the theologian St. John of Damascus popularized the term “orthodoxy” (literally “correct views”) to connote the sum of Christian truth. In Western Christianity, the great medieval theologian St. Thomas Aquinas chose the phrase “articles of faith” to denote those doctrines that are solemnly defined by the church and are considered to be obligatory for faith. As late as the Roman Catholic reformatory Council of Trent (1545–63), “doctrine” and “dogma” were still roughly synonymous.

Most modern historians, however, have stressed their difference. According to J.K.L. Gieseler, a 19th-century German church historian, in Dogmengeschichte,

Dogma is not doctrinal opinion, not the pronouncement of any given teacher, but doctrinal statute (decretum). The dogmas of a church are those doctrines which it declares to be the most essential contents of Christianity.

A modern church historian, Adolf von Harnack, sought to explain the rise of dogma in Christianity as the specific consequence of an alien blend of Greek metaphysics and Christian thought that had been rendered obsolete by Protestantism’s appeal to Scripture and history. The German Roman Catholic dogmatician Karl Rahner’s contrasting definition, in Sacramentum Mundi, points to a perennial process:

Dogma is a form of the abiding vitality of the deposit of faith in the church which itself remains always the same.

Functions of doctrines and dogmas
The functions of doctrines and dogmas vary in the several religious traditions according to the stress each puts on the importance of the rational conceptualization of religious truth first glimpsed in images, symbols, and parables. In what are viewed by some scholars as the more mystical religions of the East, doctrines are usually designed to serve as catalytic clues to religious insight (e.g., the notions of Nirvāṇa, or the goal of the religious life, in Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism). In what are regarded as the more personalistic religions of the West, doctrines and dogmas tend to function as aids to theological reflection (e.g., the concept of God’s unity in Judaism, Christianity, and Islām). In all the higher religions, doctrines and dogmas emerge and develop in the service of instruction for the faithful: interpreting their sacred Scriptures, understanding their obligations and duties, and safeguarding the lines between allowable diversity and actual error—all of which help to chart the religious pathway to wisdom, rectitude, and fulfillment. Theology (which utilizes doctrines and dogmas) is, according to the medieval Christian theologian and churchman St. Anselm of Canterbury, “faith seeking rational self-understanding.”

The normative function of doctrinal formulation is a typically vain effort to fix and conserve an interpretation of the original dogmas of a given tradition. The themes of saṃsāra (the process of reincarnation) and karman (the law of cause and effect) are shared by Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism, though with quite different doctrinal explicitations and consequences. Analogous developments are evident in other traditions.

A third function of doctrine is polemical: the defense of the faith against misinterpretation and error, within or without a religious tradition. Given the invariably pluralistic character of theological reflection, there is a constant tension between the concern for identity and continuity of the tradition, on the one hand, and for deeper and richer comprehension of truth itself, on the other. Over against this there is in most cultures a concurrent rivalry with other religions, with their contrary doctrinal claims, and beyond that, the challenges of secular wisdom and unbelief. This calls forth a special sort of doctrinal formulation: apologetics, the vindication of the true faith against its detractors or disbelievers.

At the heart of all efforts to support religious faith lies the problem of primal authority. It is required of a doctrinal statement that it be clear and cogent, but doctrines always point past their logical surface to some primitive revelation or deposit of faith. The appeal may be to any one of a number of primary authoritative positions: to the memory of a founder (as in Zoroastrianism), or a prophet (Moses in Judaism), or to ancient Scriptures (e.g., the Veda and Upaniṣads in Hinduism), or an exemplary event (as in Gautama, the Buddha’s “enlightenment”), or to God’s self-disclosure (as in the Torah, or Law, for Judaism, or in Jesus Christ in Christianity, or Muḥammad’s revelations to Islām). Here again, the diversity between doctrines (“allowable interpretations”) and the stability of dogmas (“essential teaching”) points to the vexed problem of doctrinal development in history that is apparent in all the traditions.

Every religion has a history of doctrine that is more than a replication of the deposit of faith. Doctrine, as a mode of pedagogy, is conservative of its tradition; as a mode of inquiry, it may be innovative, generating new insights that alter the rhetoric of conventional teaching and, sometimes, its substance as well. There are, of course, wide variations. The persistent continuities between ancient Zoroastrianism and its modern form, Parsiism, or in Jainism, are clearer than those between primitive Hinduism and modern Vedānta (a Hindu philosophical system). All forms and sects of Buddhism appeal jointly to the Three Jewels (the Buddha; the dharma, or law; and the saṅgha, or monastic order) but are irreconcilable in their differences of interpretation and practice. In each case, the question as to what constitutes legitimate development (e.g., the rival claims of Theravāda, or “Way of the Elders,” and Mahāyāna, or “Greater Vehicle,” in Buddhism) is left undetermined.

All Jews profess devotion to Torah, even in their disagreements over its authentic observance. Christians profess a common loyalty to the Bible and a common acceptance of the twin dogmas of the Trinity (that the one God is three Persons—Father, Son, and Holy Spirit) and the God-Manhood of Jesus (that Christ is both divine and human) but then divide in their doctrinal systems as they have developed historically. Later dogmas (e.g., transubstantiation, the teaching that the substance of the bread and wine in the Lord’s Supper is changed into the substance of the body and blood of Christ, with the properties of the bread and wine remaining unchanged) were defined by the Latin Church without concurrence from Eastern Orthodoxy; the modern dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church (i.e., the immaculate conception of the Virgin Mary, the bodily assumption into heaven of the Virgin Mary, and papal infallibility) were defined in separation from both the Eastern and Protestant consensus. Protestantism has continued an emphasis on its distinctive dogmas of “grace alone” (sola gratia), “faith alone” (sola fide), and “Scripture alone” (sola Scriptura) but has nevertheless undergone immense change and proliferation.

Islām lays great stress on doctrinal stability that is focussed in the Qurʾān, the sunnah (custom or tradition), and the consensus (ijmāʿ) of its jurists (ʿulamāʾ). Even so, it has produced doctrinal variants—especially in the medieval period—that are as disparate as the mysticism of the Iranian-born philosopher al-Ghazālī and the rationalism of the Spanish philosopher Averroës and the Persian philosopher Avicenna.

The process of doctrinal development has been explained variously as a process of logical unfolding or of organic growth, or else as a process of purgations of error and restorations of the original deposit. The notion of a logical unfolding assumes that all that has developed in a religious tradition over the course of its history was already implicit in its original foundation and subsequently had only to become more fully understood. In the case of the doctrine of the Trinity in Christianity, for example, it is argued that the abundant references in the New Testament and the earliest liturgies to God as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit required the development of a dogma that would make explicit the essential Christian trinitarian conviction. Similarly, the dogma on the nature of Christ is understood as the logical outcome of sustained reflection on the testimony about Jesus as the Christ in the Bible and in the apostolic tradition. In the notion of logical unfolding, even in its continual development, truth remains forever unchanged.

Theories of organic development stress the fact that the history of doctrine includes more than explicit formulation of implicit revelation. Such theories take into account the ways in which religious thought is affected by “contemporary” science, philosophy, and historical crises (e.g., the “Copernican revolution” in astronomy, the Renaissance, and other such events). The holders of this view are convinced, however, that all such historical supplementations have been integrated into the original deposit and thus exhibit the power of the religious organization (e.g., the church) to grow and change without substantial alteration of its identity. Thus the 19th-century Roman Catholic cardinal J.H. Newman, in his Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine (1845), argued that

. . . the highest and most wonderful truths, though communicated to the world once for all by inspired teachers could not be comprehended all at once by the recipients, but, . . . have required only the longer time and deeper thought for their full elucidation (Introduction, pp. 29–30).

Newman also believed that this process was safeguarded by the authority of the teaching that would even allow for revisions and occasional corrections of antecedent.

Protestants, by and large, have been more impressed by the lapses and deviations they see in church history and doctrine and thus have tended to construe authentic “development” in terms of a perennial recourse to Scripture and apostolic tradition. Such a view takes historical flux for granted and is less sensitive to the problem of historical continuity.

In all traditions, the course of doctrinal development is crucially affected by the occasional emergence of profound and powerful thinkers who have gathered up scattered elements in their various traditions in freshly relevant syntheses, altering thereby the subsequent history of that tradition. This can be seen, for example, in the North African theologian Augustine’s contributions to the making of Latin Christianity and in the matching services of St. John of Damascus in Eastern Orthodoxy. Such also was the role and contribution of Moses Maimonides in medieval Judaism (e.g., the Thirteen Articles of Faith in his commentary on the Mishna) and of St. Thomas Aquinas in medieval Christianity (e.g., Summa theologiae). The 16th-century Reformers Martin Luther and John Calvin gave Protestantism its classical form, to be followed by yet other and different system builders (e.g., Friedrich Schleiermacher in the 19th century and Karl Barth in the 20th century).

Each theory of development has had its own distinctive prescription for doctrinal stability and doctrinal change. In Christianity, Eastern Orthodoxy locates its authority in “Holy Tradition,” which is fixed and guided by the dogmas proclaimed by the ecumenical councils. Roman Catholicism relies on the magisterium (teaching authority) of the church, which is directed by the bishops as a “college” (collegium episcoporum) and supremely by the bishop of Rome as their collegial head. Protestantism has sought to bind both tradition and the church to the authority of Holy Scripture, with the resulting problem of specifying what is to be regarded as truly authoritative interpretations of Scripture.

The relation of faith, reason, and religious insight to doctrine and dogma
Insofar as doctrines and dogmas represent conceptualizations of the human encounter with the divine mystery, they are bound to reflect the interplay of faith and reason in religious experience and to imply some notion of levels and stages in the progress of believers as they move from the threshold of faith toward its fulfillment. Doctrine is concerned with communication and consensus, with the exposure of the religious vision to rational probes and queries. There is, therefore, a tension in all religions between mystical intuition and logical articulation, between insight and dialogue. Most traditions agree that perfect understanding is a goal that lies beyond a “simple faith” and the routine observance of rites and duties. Most of them also agree that the utmost pinnacle of religious insight is ineffable. One mode of differentiation between doctrinal traditions, therefore, is their relative openness or resistance to the auxiliary services of philosophy and science of faith’s fulfillment.

In the majority of the religions of the East, very broadly, reason’s chief role is the purgation of illusion and self-deception so that souls may follow the ways of wisdom and right conduct to their true fulfillment in Nirvāṇa. The Hindu passes from the initiatory level of “the student” (who is dependent on a teacher, guru) to the ambivalent freedom of “the householder,” to the great freedom of “the forest dweller,” to the fullest freedom of the sannyāsin (an enlightened ascetic). Reason, which is chiefly reflective, assists at every stage in perfecting faith’s self-understanding. In Buddhism, one follows the dharma from saddha (which is practical knowledge of one’s religious obligations), to jñāna (rational insight), to vijñāna (mystical illumination).

In most of the religions of the West, again very broadly, the primary function of reason is seen to be that of rendering the mysteries of faith as intelligible as possible, in support of the intellectual love of God. In Judaism, progress in the knowledge of Torah is focussed in the Bible and the Talmud (commentaries on the Law), guided by the twin hermeneutical (critical interpretive) principles of Halakha (the oral precepts and decisions of the rabbis) and of Haggada (instructive stories, parables, and other similar devices).

Variations in Islām range from the rigid orthodoxy of the Ḥanbalites (a conservative school of law following the teachings of Ibn Ḥanbal), to the rational liberalism of the Muʿtazilites (a school of law utilizing Greek philosophical methods), to the dialectical doctrines (kalām) of the Arabian theologian al-Ashʿarī and the Turkish philosopher al-Fārābī. All of these, however, are anchored in the twin dogmas of the unity of God and the prophetic office of Muḥammad. Spiritual progress is measured by the believer’s faithfulness in obedience to the “Five Pillars,” or religious duties, including prayer, fasting, and the pilgrimage to Mecca.

In Christianity, the dialectic between faith and reason has ranged from the fideism (emphasis on faith) of the 2nd-century North African theologian Tertullian to the intellectualism of Thomas Aquinas. An ancient distinction between faith as bare assent to orthodox doctrine (fides informis) and faith as existential trust in God’s grace (fides formata) gave rise to the further distinction between faith as a set of doctrines to be believed (fides quae creditur) and faith as personal involvement (fides qua creditur). Philipp Melanchthon, a 16th-century Lutheran Reformer, stressed the point that even the devils are “orthodox” (having “dead faith”) but to no avail, since only those who have embraced God’s reconciling love (fiducia) receive the benefits of salvation (“living faith”). In general, this distinction has become standard in Protestantism.

Changing conceptions
In all the great religious traditions, and between them, the clash of doctrines and dogmas has, more often than not, been polemical. The odium theologorum (“bitterness of the theologians”) of which Melanchthon once complained so plaintively has been notorious. Within the several traditions, doctrinal disputes have sometimes led to division or else have accompanied divisions caused otherwise. In relationships between the great world religions, dogmas and doctrines have usually been regarded as mutually exclusive. There are, however, significant signs of change in this attitude. The rise and spread of the ecumenical movement in the 20th century and notable advances in the comparative study of world religions reflect an enlarged commitment to the widest possible community of mutual religious interests. The “Decree on Ecumenism” and its “Declaration on the Relationship of the Church to Non-Christian Religions” of the Roman Catholic second Vatican Council (1962–65) are signal instances of this new disposition.

Albert Cook Outler



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