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History of Religions

 

 

 

History of religions

Human beings’ relation to that which they regard as holy, sacred, spiritual, or divine. Religion is commonly regarded as consisting of a person’s relation to God or to gods or spirits. Worship is probably the most basic element of religion, but moral conduct, right belief, and participation in religious institutions are generally also constituent elements of the religious life as practiced by believers and worshipers and as commanded by religious sages and scriptures.

For treatment of particular religious systems, as well as founders, reformers, and other religious personages, see

biblical literature; Buddhism; Calvinism; Christianity; Confucianism; Daoism;
Eastern Orthodoxy; Greek religion; Hinduism; Islam; Jainism; Jesus Christ; Judaism; Lutheranism; Middle Eastern religion; Moses; mystery religion; Protestantism; Roman Catholicism; Shinto; Sikhism; Zoroastrianism.

For cross-cultural discussion of religious beliefs and practices, see

ceremonial object; creed; death rite; dietary law; doctrine and dogma; feast; myth; nature worship; prayer; purification rite; religious dress; religious experience; religious symbolism and iconography; rite of passage; ritual; sacrament; sacrifice; sacred; theology; worship.

For philosophical and ethical aspects, see
ethics; metaphysics; philosophy of science.

For a review of the efforts to systematically study the nature and classify the forms of religious experience, see
philosophy of religion;
study of religion.
 

see also:
DAVID HUME "The Natural History of Religion"
A Brief History of Western Philosophy

Egyptian religion
Key Ideas: Judaism; The history of Judaism
Hinduism, Buddhism, Daoism, Confucianism, Shinto; Hundred Schools of Thought
Greek Mythology
Manichaeism; Zoroaster
Key Ideas: Christianity; The history of Christianity
Key Ideas: Islam
In Focus: The Reformation; Reformation; Lutheranism; Protestantism; Calvinism

 

 


Timeline of Religion

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The religious timeline presents a comparative chronology of the major events in human religious history. The timeline is split into two eras. The period of prehistory and the period of recorded history. The prehistoric era covers the bulk of human history, yet no written records exist. As a consequence, much of the information from prehistory is gleaned from indirect sources. The period of recorded history begins with the invention of writing some 5000 years ago.


Prehistoric Religion

Paleolithic religion and Evolutionary origin of religions
300th to 51st millennium BCE
300,000
The earliest known superstantial evidence of possible religious practices. At Atapuerca in Spain, the bones of 28 individuals are found in a single pit. The concentration of human remains is thought to represent intentional or ritual burial.
130,000
Earliest undisputed evidence for intentional burial. Neanderthals are burying their dead at sites such as Krapina in Croatia.[1]
90,000
Human skeletal remains, buried at Qafzeh, Israel, are stained with red ochre and accompanied with a variety of grave goods.
80,000-60,000
Possible intentional burials with grave goods begin to appear in Iraq at Shanidar and in Israel.[1] Cut marks on buried Neanderthal bones from various (e.g. Combe-Grenal and Abri Moula, France) may imply ritual defleshing.
70,000
A giant stone in the African Kalahari desert resembling a python, accompanied by a hidden chamber and surrounded by broken spear heads, is possibly the site of ritual offerings and snake worship.
50th to 11th millennium BCE
42,000
The body of the a man known as Mungo Man at Lake Mungo in Australia is sprinkled with red ochre, possibly rituals transmited from Africa.
40,000
Elaborate burials, sculptures, and cave art.
30,000
Earliest known burial of a shaman.[2]
11,500
Göbekli Tepe (in modern Turkey) earliest known ritual complex, predates agriculture
11,000
The Neolithic Revolution following the adoption of agriculture results in population explosions around the world. The first cities, states and kingdoms begin to emerge. The first organized religions emerge as a response to the social, economic and political changes brought about by agriculture. The early states that emerged are theocracies in which the political power is justified by religion.
100th to 34th century BCE
8000
Four to five pine posts are erected near the eventual site of Stonehenge.
7500-5700
The settlements of Catalhoyuk develop as a likely spiritual center of Anatolia. Possibly practicing worship in communal shines, its inhabitants leave behind numerous clay figurines and impressions of phallic, feminine, and hunting scenes.
3300-2900
Newgrange, the 250,000 ton (226,796.2 tonne) passage tomb aligned to the winter solstice in Ireland, is built.



History of Religion

33rd to 12th century BCE
3100
The initial form of Stonehenge is completed. The circular bank and ditch enclosure, about 110 metres (360 ft) across, may be complete with a timber circle.
3000
Sumerian Cuneiform emerges from the proto-literate Uruk period, allowing the codification of beliefs and creation of detailed historical religious records.
3000 : The second phase of Stonehenge is completed and appears to function as the first enclosed cremation cemetery in the British Isles.
2600
Stonehenge begins to take on the form of its final phase. The wooden posts are replaced with that of bluestone. It begins taking on an increasingly complex setup --including altar, portal, station stones, etc-- and shows consideration of solar alignments.
2494-2345
The first of the oldest surviving religious texts, the Pyramid Texts, are composed in Ancient Egypt.
2200
Minoan Civilization in Crete develops. Citizens worship a variety of Goddesses.
2100-2000
Earliest Vedas are composed.
1850
Abraham is thought to have lived. Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh is also thought to have been written.
1700
Zoroaster (a.k.a. Zarathushtra), founder of Zoroastrianism, the first monotheistic religion, is thought to have been born
1600
The ancient development of Stonehenge comes to an end.
13th to 9th century BCE
1367
Reign of Akhenaton in Ancient Egypt. He is credited with introducing Monotheism to religion
1250
The time of the Hebrew exodus from Egypt. The first books of the Torah are composed.
1200
The Greek Dark Age begins.
1200
Olmecs build earliest pyramids and temples in Central America.[3]
950
The first five books of the Bible, known as the Pentateuch are written.
877
Parsva, the penultimate (23rd) Tirthankara of Jainism is born.
8th to 3rd century BCE
800
Early Brahmanas are composed.
800
The Greek Dark Age ends.
600-500
Earliest Confucian writing, Shu Ching incorporates ideas of harmony and heaven.
599
Mahavira, the final (24th) Tirthankara of Jainism is born.
563
Gautama Buddha, founder of Buddhism is born.
551
Confucius, founder of Confucianism, is born.[3]
440
Zoroastrianism enters recorded history.
300
Theravada Buddhism is introduced to Sri Lanka by the Venerable Mahinda.
250
The Third Buddhist council was convened.
2nd to 1st century BCE
63
Pompey captures Jerusalem and establishes Roman annexes Judea as a Roman client kingdom.
7-1
The early time-frame for the birth of Jesus of Nazareth, the central figure of Christianity.
1st to 4th century CE
1-2
The later time-frame for the birth of Jesus of Nazareth, the central figure of Christianity.
26-36
Time of the Crucifixion of Jesus.
50-62
Council of Jerusalem is held.
70
Siege of Jerusalem and the Destruction of the Temple.
220
Manichaean Gnosticism is formed by profit Mani
250
Some of the oldest parts of the Ginza Rba, a core text of Mandaean Gnosticism, are written.
250-900
Classic Mayan civilization, Stepped pyramids are constructed.
300
The oldest known version of the Tao Te Ching is written on bamboo tablets.
325
The first Ecumenical Council, the Council of Nicaea, is convened to attain a consensus on doctrine through an assembly representing all of Christendom. It establishes the original Nicene Creed, fixes Easter date, recognizes primacy of the sees of Rome, Alexandria, and Antioch and grants the See of Jerusalem a position of honor.
380
Theodosius the 1st declares Nicene Christianity the state religion of the Roman Empire.
381
The second Ecumenical Council, the Council of Constantinople, reaffirms/revises the Nicene Creed repudiating Arianism and Macedonianism.
381-391
Theodosius proscripted paganism within the Roman Empire.
393
The Synod of Hippo, the first time a council of bishops of early Christianity listed and approved a Biblical canon.
5th to 9th century CE
405
St. Jerome completes the Vulgate, the first latin translation of the bible.
410
The Western Roman Empire begins to decline, signaling the onset of the middle ages.
424
The Assyrian Church of the East formally separates from the See of Antioch and the western Syrian Church
431
The third Ecumenical Council, the Council of Ephesus, is held as a result of the controversial teachings of Nestorius, of Constantinople. It repudiates Nestorianism, proclaims the Virgin Mary as the Theotokos ("Birth-giver to God", "God-bearer", "Mother of God"), repudiates Pelagianism, and again reaffirmes the Nicene Creed.
449
The Second Council of Ephesus declares support of Eutyches and attacked his opponents. Originally convened as an Ecumenical council, it's ecumenicality is rejected and is denounced as a latrocinium by the Chalcedonian.
451
The fourth Ecumenical Council, the Council of Chalcedon rejects the Eutychian doctrine of monophysitism, adopts the Chalcedonian Creed, reinstated those deposed in 449 and deposed Dioscorus of Alexandria, and elevates of the bishoprics of Constantinople and Jerusalem to the status of patriarchates.
451
The Oriental Orthodox Church rejects the christological view put forth by the Council of Chalcedon and is excommunicated.
553
The fifth Ecumenical Council, Second Council of Constantinople, repudiates the Three Chapters as Nestorian and condemns Origen of Alexandria.
570-632
Life of the Prophet Muhammad, the founder of Islam.
650
Qur'an is completed.
680-681
The sixth Ecumenical Council, the Third Council of Constantinople, rejects Monothelitism and Monoenergism.
692
The Quinisext Council (aka "Council in Trullo"), an amendment to the 5th and 6th Ecumenical Councils, establishes the Pentarchy.
712
Kojiki the oldest surviving book and Shinto texts are written[3]
754
The latrocinium Council of Hieria supports iconoclasm.
787
The seventh Ecumenical Council, Second Council of Nicaea, restores the veneration of icons and denounces iconoclasm.
10th to 13th century CE
1054
The Great Schism between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches formally takes place.
1095-1099
The first Crusade takes place.
1107-1110
Sigurd I of Norway wages the Norwegian Crusade on Muslims in Spain, the Baleares, and in Palestine.
1147–1149
The Second Crusade is waged in response to the fall of the County of Edessa.
1189–1192
The Third Crusade, European leaders attempt to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin.
1199–1204
The Fourth Crusade takes place.
1204
Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade sack the Christian Eastern Orthodox city of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire.
1209-1229
The Albigensian Crusade takes place in Occitania, Europe.
1217-1221
The Church attempts the Fifth Crusade.
1228-1229
The Sixth Crusade occurs.
1244
Jerusalem is sacked again, instigating the Seventh Crusade.
1270
The Eighth Crusade is organized.
1271–1272
The Ninth Crusade fails.
14th to 18th century CE
1378-1417
The Roman Catholic Church is split during the Western Schism.
1500
African religious systems are introduced to the Americas, with the commencement of the trans-Atlantic forced migration.
1517
Martin Luther, of the Protestant Reformation, posts the 95 theses.
1469-1539
The life of Guru Nanak, founder of Sikhism
19th to current century CE
1817-1892
The life of Bahá'u'lláh, founder of the Bahá'í Faith
1899
Aradia (aka the Gospel of the Witches) is published by Charles Godfrey Leland.
1905
Becoming a place of pilgrimage for neo-druids and other pagans, the Ancient Order of Druids organized the first recorded reconstructionist ceremony in Stonehenge.
1930s
Rastafarianism, the Nation of Islam is founded.
1952
Scientology is created.
1954
Wicca, invented by Gerald Gardner.
1960s
Various Neopagan movements gain momentum.
1962
The Church of All Worlds, the first American neo-pagan church, is formed by a group including Oberon Zell-Ravenheart, Morning Glory Zell-Ravenheart, and Richard Lance Christie.
1972-1984
The Stonehenge free festivals are held.
1972-2004
Germanic Neopaganism (aka Heathenism, Heathenry, Ásatrú, Odinism, Forn Siðr, Vor Siðr, and Theodism) begins to experience a second wave of revival.
1979
The Iranian Revolution results in the establishment of an Islamic Republic in Iran.
1981
The Stregherian revial, the Arician Tradition is founded and "The Book of the Holy Strega" and "The Book of Ways" Volume I & II are published.
1985
The Battle of the Beanfield forces an end to the Stonehenge free festivals.
1990s
European pagan reconstructive movements (Celtic, Hellenic, Roman, Slavic, Baltic, Finnish, etc) organize.
2000's
Pope John Paul II the most ecumenical Pope in history passes away.

 

 

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