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1945 to the present


After World War II, a new world order came into being in which two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, played the leading roles. Their ideological differences led to the arms race of the Cold War and fears of a global nuclear conflict. The rest of the world was also drawn into the bipolar bloc system, and very few nations were able to remain truly non-aligned. The East-West conflict came to an end in 1990 with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the consequent downfall of the Eastern Bloc. Since that time, the world has been driven by the globalization of worldwide economic and political systems. The world has, however, remained divided: The rich nations of Europe, North America, and East Asia stand in contrast to the developing nations of the Third World.

The first moon landing made science-fiction dreams reality in the year 1969.
Space technology has made considerable progress as the search for new
possibilities of using space continues.



Spain: From Military Dictatorship to Constitutional Monarchy

SINCE 1945


see also: United Nations member states -


General Francisco Franco was Europe's last fascist dictator. After the end of World War II, the country was politically and economically isolated, and the situation improved only with the opening up of Spain to the world economy in the mid-1950s. Spain became industrialized and developed a tourism industry that attracted visitors from across Western Europe, but still remained a dictatorship until Franco's death in 1975. His successor, King Juan Carlos I, oversaw a smooth transition to democracy. This opened the way to membership in the European Economic Community and a rapid rise in living standards.


Franco's Dictatorship 1945-1975

Fascist Spain was gradually able to free itself from its isolation after the war, but only limited political reforms were achieved.


1, 2 Francisco Franco, the dictator who had emerged victorious out of the Spanish Civil War, restored the Spanish monarchy in 1947 and named himself president (Presidente delgobierno).

1, 2 General Francisco Franco ó Bahamonde

Don Juan Carlos de Borbon refused to accept the crown from him, however, leaving Spain a kingdom without a king. A monarchical opposition sprang up, which Franco suppressed as brutally as he had the liberals. There existed strict censorship of the press, and the Catholic Church dominated the educational svstem.

Politics of the Cold War facilitated the ending of Spain's international isolation in 1953 through an agreement granting the United States use of military bases. In the same year, a concordat was signed with the Vatican, and in 1955 Spain became a member of the United Nations. During the 1960s, alongside economic reforms and cosmetic changes to the constitution, limited political reforms were made. Workers, supported by elements of the Church, were granted the option to form independent unions and to strike.

Opposition movements in the Basque region and Catalonia vehemently demanded independence.

4 The six suspects put on trial for membership
in an legal Basque nationalist group

The aging dictator's regime lost its stability. He named Prince Juan Carlos heir apparent to the throne in 1969 and two years later made him his deputy.

Franco also made 3 Luis Carrero Blanco prime minister, though he himself remained head of state.

3 Prime Minister Luis Carrero Blanco

In December 1973, Carrero Blanco was murdered by the Basque separatist movement ETA, and political repression was once again increased.

Franquists and reformers were irreconcilable under Prime Minister Carlos Arias Navarro after 1974, but the old dictator Franco 5 died on November 20,1975.

5 Tomb of Franco in the "Valley of the Fallen Soldiers"
(Valle de los Caidos), a memorial to those who died during the civil war



Franco's Regime

General Franco supported his regime with a state party—the fascist nationalistic Movimien-to Nacional—but also relied on the military and the Church.

Their support increased the dictator's credibility significantly. But the Falange—the nucleus of the Movimiento Nacional—lost political power as soon as Spain held free elections in 1977.

Insignia of the fascist Falange group

Personal Coat of Arms of Franco (Gules Variant)




Francisco Franco

Francisco Franco

ruler of Spain
in full Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde, byname El Caudillo (“The Leader”)

born December 4, 1892, El Ferrol, Spain
died November 20, 1975, Madrid

general and leader of the Nationalist forces that overthrew the Spanish democratic republic in the Spanish Civil War (1936–39); thereafter he was the head of the government of Spain until 1973 and head of state until his death in 1975.

Franco was born at the coastal city and naval centre of El Ferrol in Galicia (northwestern Spain). His family life was not entirely happy, for Franco’s father, an officer in the Spanish Naval Administrative Corps, was eccentric, wasteful, and somewhat dissolute. More disciplined and serious than other boys his age, Franco was close to his mother, a pious and conservative upper middle-class Roman Catholic. Like four generations and his elder brother before him, Franco was originally destined for a career as a naval officer, but reduction of admissions to the Naval Academy forced him to choose the army. In 1907, only 14 years old, he entered the Infantry Academy at Toledo, graduating three years later.

Franco volunteered for active duty in the colonial campaigns in Spanish Morocco that had begun in 1909 and was transferred there in 1912 at age 19. The following year he was promoted to first lieutenant in an elite regiment of native Moroccan cavalry. At a time in which many Spanish officers were characterized by sloppiness and lack of professionalism, young Franco quickly showed his ability to command troops effectively and soon won a reputation for complete professional dedication. He devoted great care to the preparation of his unit’s actions and paid more attention than was common to the troops’ well-being. Reputed to be scrupulously honest, introverted, and a man of comparatively few intimate friends, he was known to shun all frivolous amusements. In 1915 he became the youngest captain in the Spanish army. The following year he was seriously wounded by a bullet in the abdomen and returned to Spain to recover. In 1920 he was chosen to be second in command of the newly organized Spanish Foreign Legion, succeeding to full command in 1923. That year he also married Carmen Polo, with whom he had a daughter. During crucial campaigns against the Moroccan rebels, the legion played a decisive role in bringing the revolt to an end. Franco became a national hero, and in 1926, at age 33, he was promoted to brigadier general. At the beginning of 1928, he was named director of the newly organized General Military Academy in Saragossa.

After the fall of the monarchy in 1931, the leaders of the new Spanish Republic undertook a major and much-needed military reform, and Franco’s career was temporarily halted. The General Military Academy was dissolved, and Franco was placed on the inactive list. Though he was an avowed monarchist and held the honour of being a gentleman of the king’s chamber, Franco accepted both the new regime and his temporary demotion with perfect discipline. When conservative forces gained control of the republic in 1933, Franco was restored to active command; in 1934 he was promoted to major general. In October 1934, during a bloody uprising of Asturian miners who opposed the admission of three conservative members to the government, Franco was called in to quell the revolt. His success in this operation brought him new prominence. In May 1935 he was appointed chief of the Spanish army’s general staff, and he began tightening discipline and strengthening military institutions, although he left many of the earlier reforms in place.

Following a number of scandals that weakened the Radicals, one of the parties of the governing coalition, parliament was dissolved, and new elections were announced for February 1936. By this time the Spanish political parties had split into two factions: the rightist National Bloc and the leftist Popular Front. The left proved victorious in the elections, but the new government was unable to prevent the accelerating dissolution of Spain’s social and economic structure. Although Franco had never been a member of a political party, the growing anarchy impelled him to appeal to the government to declare a state of emergency. His appeal was refused, and he was removed from the general staff and sent to an obscure command in the Canary Islands. For some time he refused to commit himself to a military conspiracy against the government, but, as the political system disintegrated, he finally decided to join the rebels.

Franco’s military rebellion
At dawn on July 18, 1936, Franco’s manifesto acclaiming the military rebellion was broadcast from the Canary Islands, and the same morning the rising began on the mainland. The following day he flew to Morocco and within 24 hours was firmly in control of the protectorate and the Spanish army garrisoning it. After landing in Spain, Franco and his army marched toward Madrid, which was held by the government. When the Nationalist advance came to a halt on the outskirts of the city, the military leaders, in preparation of what they believed was the final assault that would deliver Madrid and the country into their hands, decided to choose a commander in chief, or generalissimo, who would also head the rebel Nationalist government in opposition to the republic. Because of his military ability and prestige, a political record unmarred by sectarian politics and conspiracies, and his proven ability to gain military assistance from Adolf Hitler’s Germany and Benito Mussolini’s Italy, Franco was the obvious choice. In part because he was not a typical Spanish “political general,” Franco became head of state of the new Nationalist regime on October 1, 1936. The rebel government did not, however, gain complete control of the country for more than three years.

Franco presided over a government that was basically a military dictatorship, but he realized that it needed a regular civil structure to broaden its support; this was to be derived mainly from the antileftist middle classes. On April 19, 1937, he fused the Falange (the Spanish fascist party) with the Carlists and created the rebel regime’s official political movement. While expanding the Falange into a more pluralistic group, Franco made it clear that it was the government that used the party and not the other way around. Thus, his regime became an institutionalized authoritarian system, differing in this respect from the fascist party-states of the German and Italian models.

As commander in chief during the Civil War, Franco was a careful and systematic leader. He made no rash moves and suffered only a few temporary defeats as his forces advanced slowly but steadily; the only major criticism directed at him during the campaign was that his strategy was frequently unimaginative. Nevertheless, because of the relatively superior military quality of his army and the continuation of heavy German and Italian assistance, Franco won a complete and unconditional victory on April 1, 1939.

The Civil War had been largely a sanguinary struggle of attrition, marked by atrocities on both sides. The tens of thousands of executions carried out by the Nationalist regime, which continued during the first years after the war ended, earned Franco more reproach than any other single aspect of his rule.

Franco’s dictatorship
Although Franco had visions of restoring Spanish grandeur after the Civil War, in reality he was the leader of an exhausted country still divided internally and impoverished by a long and costly war. The stability of his government was made more precarious by the outbreak of World War II only five months later. Despite his sympathy for the Axis powers’ “New Order,” Franco at first declared Spanish neutrality in the conflict. His policy changed after the fall of France in June 1940, when he approached the German leader Hitler; Franco indicated his willingness to bring Spain into the war on Germany’s side in exchange for extensive German military and economic assistance and the cession to Spain of most of France’s territorial holdings in northwest Africa. Hitler was unable or unwilling to meet this price, and, after meeting with Franco at Hendaye, France, in October 1940, Hitler remarked that he would “as soon have three or four teeth pulled out” as go through another bargaining session like that again. Franco’s government thenceforth remained relatively sympathetic to the Axis powers while carefully avoiding any direct diplomatic and military commitment to them. Spain’s return to a state of complete neutrality in 1943 came too late to gain favourable treatment from the ascendant Allies. Nevertheless, Franco’s wartime diplomacy, marked as it was by cold realism and careful timing, had kept his regime from being destroyed along with the Axis powers.

The most difficult period of Franco’s regime began in the aftermath of World War II, when his government was ostracized by the newly formed United Nations. He was labeled by hostile foreign opinion the “last surviving fascist dictator” and for a time appeared to be the most hated of Western heads of state; within his country, however, as many people supported him as opposed him. The period of ostracism finally came to an end with the worsening of relations between the Soviet world and the West at the height of the Cold War. Franco could now be viewed as one of the world’s leading anticommunist statesmen, and relations with other countries began to be regularized in 1948. His international rehabilitation was advanced further in 1953, when Spain signed a 10-year military assistance pact with the United States, which was later renewed in more limited form.

Franco’s domestic policies became somewhat more liberal during the 1950s and ’60s, and the continuity of his regime, together with its capacity for creative evolution, won him at least a limited degree of respect from some of his critics. Franco said that he did not find the burden of government particularly heavy, and, in fact, his rule was marked by absolute self-confidence and relative indifference to criticism. He demonstrated marked political ability in gauging the psychology of the diverse elements, ranging from moderate liberals to extreme reactionaries, whose support was necessary for his regime’s survival. He maintained a careful balance among them and largely left the execution of policy to his appointees, thereby placing himself as arbiter above the storm of ordinary political conflict. To a considerable degree, the opprobrium for unsuccessful or unpopular aspects of policy tended to fall on individual ministers rather than on Franco. The Falange state party, downgraded in the early 1940s, in later years became known merely as the “Movement” and lost much of its original quasi-fascist identity.

Unlike most rulers of rightist authoritarian regimes, Franco provided for the continuity of his government after his death through an official referendum in 1947 that made the Spanish state a monarchy and ratified Franco’s powers as a sort of regent for life. In 1967 he opened direct elections for a small minority of deputies to the parliament and in 1969 officially designated the then 32-year-old prince Juan Carlos, the eldest son of the nominal pretender to the Spanish throne, as his official successor upon his death. Franco resigned his position of premier in 1973 but retained his functions as head of state, commander in chief of the armed forces, and head of the “Movement.”

Franco was never a popular ruler and rarely tried to mobilize mass support. But after 1947 there was little direct or organized opposition to his rule. With the liberalization of his government and relaxation of some police powers, together with the country’s marked economic development during the 1960s, Franco’s image changed from that of the rigorous generalissimo to a more benign civilian elder statesman. Franco’s health declined markedly in the late 1960s, yet he professed to believe that he had left Spain’s affairs “tied and well-tied” and that after his death Prince Juan Carlos would maintain at least the basic structure of his regime. But after Franco’s death in 1975 following a long illness, Juan Carlos moved to dismantle the authoritarian institutions of Franco’s system and encouraged the revival of political parties. Spain had made great economic progress during the last two decades of Franco’s rule, and within three years of his death the country had become a democratic constitutional monarchy, with a prosperous economy and democratic institutions similar to those of the rest of western Europe.

Stanley G. Payne

Encyclopaedia Britannica



Economic Development until 1975

Spain's transition from a backward agrarian economy country to an industrialized nation and tourist destination began slowly in the 1960s. The distribution of wealth remained unequal.


As Spain was excluded from the distribution of the Marshall Plan monies, the autarkic economic program of the state party, the Falange, continued in force after 1945. The focus of reconstruction after 1939 and the civil war was heavy industry, though not until 1950 did industry reach the production level of 1929. Spain was still an agrarian land— although it was unable to feed its population sufficiently in the 1940s and 1950s.

Four-fifths of the population belonged to the impoverished 6 lower class.

6 Slums in a suburb of Madrid, ca. 1950

The crisis-ridden situation improved, after the 1953 military base agreement with the United States brought with it US economic aid. Radical economic reform was introduced with the announcement of a stabilization plan, which was a prerequisite for Spain's acceptance into the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 195S. The economic opening of the country stimulated industry; by the end of the 1960s, 33 percent of the workforce was employed in that sector.

Under the influence of the new power elite—members of the right-wing conservative Opus Dei, among others—trade tariffs were liberalized and money was borrowed from foreign creditors. The decade of the 1960s was a time of privatization and acceptance of foreign investment. Economic plans and guidelines were introduced. The first four-year plan of 1964 focused on transport and energy; the second, through 1971, promoted public education and agriculture.

In 1970, Spain signed a free trade agreement with the European Economic Community and became one of the largest 7 industrial nations in Europe.

7 Factory in Sant Adria del Besos

Growth rates exceeded five percent by 1974.

Tourism played a significant role, and Spain became Europe's number-one 10 vacation destination.

A generation of working-class Britons enjoyed their first foreign holidays on package tours to the south coast of Spain. Money sent home by Spanish "guest workers" from wealthier countries such as Germany and France also served to boost the country's living standards and provided the regime with vital foreign currency.

However, the benefits of this economic growth were not evenly distributed. Tourism was largely limited to the Mediterranean coast, and revenues went to a wealthy few or corrupt officials.

Much of the country's interior was also bypassed by industry as new ventures were concentrated around Madrid, 9 Barcelona, and the northern Basque region, resulting in large-scale 8 migration from rural areas to the cities.

10 An abandoned farm in Extremadura

9 Tourists sitting in a street cafe in Barcelona, 2002

8 Cala Bassa beach in the Spanish Mediterranean
island Ibiza, 2000



Opus Dei

Opus Dei ("Work of God") is an influential right-wing conservative lay movement within the Catholic Church. It was founded by a Spanish priest, Josemaria Escriva de Balaguer ó Albas, in 1928 with the goal of establishing Catholic principles in private and professional life.

Opus Dei has come under heavy criticism for its cooperation with Franco and its sect-like recruiting methods, as well as its heavy-handed treatment of opponents within the Church.

Josemaria Escriva de Balaguer ó Albas,
canonized in 2002


see also: United Nations member states -



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